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1.
Viruses ; 14(4):811, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1792420

ABSTRACT

Critically ill COVID-19 patients are at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE), namely deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism (PE), and death. The optimal anticoagulation strategy in critically ill patients with COVID-19 remains unknown. This study investigated the ante mortem incidence as well as postmortem prevalence of VTE, the factors predictive of VTE, and the impact of changed anticoagulation practice on patient survival. We conducted a consecutive retrospective analysis of postmortem COVID-19 (n = 64) and non-COVID-19 (n = 67) patients, as well as ante mortem COVID-19 (n = 170) patients admitted to the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Hamburg, Germany). Baseline patient characteristics, parameters related to the intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and the clinical and autoptic presence of VTE were evaluated and statistically compared between groups. The occurrence of VTE in critically ill COVID-19 patients is confirmed in both ante mortem (17%) and postmortem (38%) cohorts. Accordingly, comparing the postmortem prevalence of VTE between age- and sex-matched COVID-19 (43%) and non-COVID-19 (0%) cohorts, we found the statistically significant increased prevalence of VTE in critically ill COVID-19 cohorts (p = 0.001). A change in anticoagulation practice was associated with the statistically significant prolongation of survival time (HR: 2.55, [95% CI 1.41–4.61], p = 0.01) and a reduction in VTE occurrence (54% vs. 25%;p = 0.02). In summary, in the autopsy as well as clinical cohort of critically ill patients with COVID-19, we found that VTE was a frequent finding. A change in anticoagulation practice was associated with a statistically significantly prolonged survival time.

3.
Nat Metab ; 4(3): 310-319, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764213

ABSTRACT

Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 have gained attention due to their links to clinical outcomes and their potential long-term sequelae1. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) displays tropism towards several organs, including the heart and kidney. Whether it also directly affects the liver has been debated2,3. Here we provide clinical, histopathological, molecular and bioinformatic evidence for the hepatic tropism of SARS-CoV-2. We find that liver injury, indicated by a high frequency of abnormal liver function tests, is a common clinical feature of COVID-19 in two independent cohorts of patients with COVID-19 requiring hospitalization. Using autopsy samples obtained from a third patient cohort, we provide multiple levels of evidence for SARS-CoV-2 liver tropism, including viral RNA detection in 69% of autopsy liver specimens, and successful isolation of infectious SARS-CoV-2 from liver tissue postmortem. Furthermore, we identify transcription-, proteomic- and transcription factor-based activity profiles in hepatic autopsy samples, revealing similarities to the signatures associated with multiple other viral infections of the human liver. Together, we provide a comprehensive multimodal analysis of SARS-CoV-2 liver tropism, which increases our understanding of the molecular consequences of severe COVID-19 and could be useful for the identification of organ-specific pharmacological targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Liver , Proteomics , Tropism
4.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 147(6): 319-325, 2022 03.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740507

ABSTRACT

MONITORING OF ANALGESIA, SEDATION AND DELIRIUM: The prerequisite for monitoring goal-oriented analgesia and screening for the presence of delirium is the use of validated measuring instruments such as the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale as well as an adequate medical and intensive care staffing ratio. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANALGESIA AND SEDATION: The goal, if possible, is an awake, oriented, cooperative patient who is free of pain. In this regard, multimodal analgesic treatment is of great importance. The lowest possible sedation should also be aimed for in COVID-19 patients, although deep sedation is recommended for invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients in the prone position.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , COVID-19 , Delirium , COVID-19/therapy , Delirium/therapy , Humans , Pain , Pain Management
5.
J Clin Med ; 11(4)2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701768

ABSTRACT

The spread of SARS-CoV-2 caused a worldwide healthcare threat. High critical care admission rates related to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory failure were observed. Medical advances helped increase the number of patients surviving the acute critical illness. However, some patients require prolonged critical care. Data on the outcome of patients with a chronic critical illness (CCI) are scarce. Single-center retrospective study including all adult critically ill patients with confirmed COVID-19 treated at the Department of Intensive Care Medicine at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, between 1 March 2020 and 8 August 2021. We identified 304 critically ill patients with COVID-19 during the study period. Of those, 55% (n = 167) had an ICU stay ≥21 days and were defined as chronic critical illness, and 45% (n = 137) had an ICU stay <21 days. Age, sex and BMI were distributed equally between both groups. Patients with CCI had a higher median SAPS II (CCI: 39.5 vs. no-CCI: 38 points, p = 0.140) and SOFA score (10 vs. 6, p < 0.001) on admission. Seventy-three per cent (n = 223) of patients required invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) (86% vs. 58%; p < 0.001). The median duration of MV was 30 (17-49) days and 7 (4-12) days in patients with and without CCI, respectively (p < 0.001). The regression analysis identified ARDS (OR 3.238, 95% CI 1.827-5.740, p < 0.001) and referral from another ICU (OR 2.097, 95% CI 1.203-3.654, p = 0.009) as factors significantly associated with new-onset of CCI. Overall, we observed an ICU mortality of 38% (n = 115) in the study cohort. In patients with CCI we observed an ICU mortality of 28% (n = 46) compared to 50% (n = 69) in patients without CCI (p < 0.001). The 90-day mortality was 28% (n = 46) compared to 50% (n = 70), respectively (p < 0.001). More than half of critically ill patients with COVID-19 suffer from CCI. Short and long-term survival rates in patients with CCI were high compared to patients without CCI, and prolonged therapy should not be withheld when resources permit prolonged therapy.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313239

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Immunomodulatory therapies have shown beneficial effects in patients with severe COVID-19. Patients with hypercytokinemia might benefit from removal of inflammatory mediators via hemadsorption. Methods: : Single-center prospective randomized trial at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Patients with confirmed COVID-19, refractory shock (norepinephrine ≥0.2 μg/kg/min to maintain a mean arterial pressure ≥ 65 mmHg), IL-6≥500 ng/l and an indication for renal replacement therapy (RRT) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) were included. Patients received either hemadsorption therapy (HT) or standard medical therapy (SMT). For HT, a CytoSorb® adsorber was used for up to 5 days and was replaced every 18–24 hours. The primary endpoint was sustained hemodynamic improvement (norepinephrine ≤0.05 µg/kg/min≥24h). Secondary endpoints included 28-day mortality, SOFA, and reduction of IL-6, PCT, and MR-proADM. Results: : Of 242 screened patients, 24 were randomized and assigned to either HT (N=12) or SMT (N=12). Both groups had similar severity as assessed by SAPS II (median 75 points HT group vs. 79 SMT group, p=0.590) and SOFA (17 vs. 16, p=0.551). At randomization, 22 (92%) patients were on RRT and 11 (46%) had vv-ECMO. Median IL-6 levels were 2269 (IQR 948–3679) and 3747 (1301–5415) ng/l in the HT and SMT group at baseline, respectively (p=0.378). Serum IL-6 reduction in the first 24h of treatment compared between both groups was 83% vs. 46% (p=0.235). Shock resolution (primary endpoint) was reached in 33% (4/12) vs. 17% (2/12) in the HT and SMT group, respectively (p=0.640). 28-day mortality was 58% (7/12) in the HT compared to 67% (8/12) in the SMT group (p=1.0). Conclusion: HT was associated with a non-significant trend towards clinical improvement within the intervention period including reduction of IL-6 levels and shock resolution. In selected patients, HT might therefore be an option for stabilization and bridge to transfer and decision. ( Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04344080, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04344080, trial registration date 04/14/2020)]

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311563

ABSTRACT

Background: Identifying preventive strategies in Covid-19 patients will help to improve resource-allocation and reduce mortality. In this Journal, we recently demonstrated in a post-mortem cohort that SARS-CoV-2 renal tropism was associated with kidney injury, disease severity and mortality. We also proposed an algorithm to predict the risk of adverse outcomes in Covid-19 patients harnessing urinalysis and protein/coagulation parameters on admission for signs of kidney injury. Here, we aimed to validate this hypothesis in a multicenter cohort.Methods: Patients hospitalized for Covid-19 at four tertiary centers were screened for an available urinalysis, serum albumin (SA) and antithrombin-III activity (AT-III) obtained prospectively within 48h upon admission. The respective presumed risk for an unfavorable course was categorized as “low”, “intermediate” or “high”, depending on a normal urinalysis, an abnormal urinalysis with SA ≥2 g/dl and AT-III ≥70%, or an abnormal urinalysis with at least one SA or AT-III abnormality. Time to ICU or death within ten days served as primary, in-hospital mortality and required organ support served as secondary endpoints.Findings: Among a total of N=223 screened patients, N=145 were eligible for enrollment, falling into the low (N=43), intermediate (N=84), and high risk (N=18) categories. The risk for ICU transfer or death was 100% in the high risk group and significantly elevated in the composite of high and intermediate risk as compared to the low risk group (63·7% vs. 27·9%;HR 2·6;95%-CI 1·4 to 4·9;P=0·0020). Having an abnormal urinalysis was associated with mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or renal replacement therapy (RRT).Interpretation: Our data confirm that Covid-19-associated urine abnormalities on admission predict disease aggravation. This supports the conceptual relevance of Covid-19-associated kidney injury. By engaging a simple urine dipstick our algorithm allows for early preventive measures and appropriate patient stratification. Trial Registration: (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT04347824)Funding Statement: This work was supported by the DFG (GR 1852/6-1 to OG;CRC1192 to JET, EH and TBH), (HU 1016/8-2, HU 1016/11-1, HU 1016/ 12-1 to TBH) and (GR 1852/6-1 to OG);by the BMBF (STOP-FSGS-01GM1518C and NephrESA-031L0191E to TBH), by the Else-Kröner Fresenius Foundation (Else Kröner-Promotionskolleg –iPRIME to TBH), and by the H2020-IMI2 consortium BEAt-DKD (115974 to TBH). In addition, the UMG Göttingen applied for Government funding (Covid-19 program) by The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the application currently is under consideration.Declaration of Interests: All authors report no conflict of interest in relation to this observational cohort-study. Ethics Approval Statement: According to the German Medicines Act, the study was approved by the leading institutional review board (IRB) of the UMG Göttingen (41/4/20), and all others.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311562

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Identifying preventive strategies in Covid-19 patients helps to improve ICU-resource-allocation and reduce mortality. We recently demonstrated in a post-mortem cohort that SARS-CoV-2 renal tropism was associated with kidney injury, disease severity and mortality. We also proposed an algorithm to predict the need for ICU-resources and the risk of adverse outcomes in Covid-19 patients harnessing urinalysis and protein/coagulation parameters on admission for signs of kidney injury. Here, we aimed to validate this hypothesis in a multicenter cohort. Methods: : Patients hospitalized for Covid-19 at four tertiary centers were screened for an available urinalysis, serum albumin (SA) and antithrombin-III activity (AT-III) obtained prospectively within 48h upon admission. The respective presumed risk for an unfavorable course was categorized as “low”, “intermediate” or “high”, depending on a normal urinalysis, an abnormal urinalysis with SA ≥2 g/dl and AT-III ≥70%, or an abnormal urinalysis with at least one SA or AT-III abnormality. Time to ICU or death within ten days served as primary, in-hospital mortality and required organ support served as secondary endpoints. Results: : Among a total of N=223 screened patients, N=145 were eligible for enrollment, falling into the low (N=43), intermediate (N=84), and high risk (N=18) categories. The risk for ICU transfer or death was 100% in the high risk group and significantly elevated in the composite of high and intermediate risk as compared to the low risk group (63.7% vs. 27.9%;HR 2.6;95%-CI 1.4 to 4.9;P=0.0020). Having an abnormal urinalysis was associated with mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or renal replacement therapy (RRT). Conclusion: Our data confirm that Covid-19-associated urine abnormalities on admission predict disease aggravation and need for ICU. By engaging a simple urine dipstick on hospital admission our algorithm allows for early preventive measures and appropriate patient stratification. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT04347824)

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322033

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with increased morbidities in men compared to women. Androgens are believed to play an important role in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in men due to the postulated androgen-dependency of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. However, it is yet unclear whether the sex bias is mediated by SARS-CoV-2 infection itself or by other confounding factors. Here, using the golden hamster model, we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection attacks reproductive organs, causes massive dysregulation of sex hormones and induces elevated transcription of the androgen-to-estrogen converting enzyme aromatase CYP19A1 in the lung. In male hamsters, SARS-CoV-2 infection causes severely depleted testosterone and highly elevated estradiol levels. In female hamsters, SARS-CoV-2 infection causes reduced estradiol levels. Hormonal dysregulation in infected animals is followed by severe weight loss compared to control groups treated with poly(I:C) or PBS. Lungs of SARS-CoV-2 infected animals present abundant CYP19A1 expression in the endothelium and in macrophages, particularly in males. Prominent CYP19A1 expression in endothelial cells and macrophages was verified in lung sections of deceased Covid-19 males compared to females. Our results demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to massive dysregulation of sex hormones, which may increase the risk for sex-specific disease outcome particularly in combination with comorbidities. These findings provide insights into the complex metabolic cross talk between SARS-CoV-2 infection and sex hormones.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Male sex was repeatedly identified as a risk factor for death and intensive care admission. However, it is yet unclear whether sex hormones are associated with disease severity in COVID-19 patients. We sought to characterize sex differences in hormone levels and cytokine responses in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS We performed a retrospective cohort study of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Males and females were compared. Multivariate regression was performed to assess the association between sex hormones, cytokine responses and the requirement for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) treatment. RESULTS We analyzed sex hormone levels (estradiol and testosterone) of n =181 male and female individuals. These consisted of n =50 critically ill COVID-19 patients ( n =39 males, n =11 females), n =42 critically ill non-COVID-19 patients ( n =27 males, n =15 females), n =39 non-COVID-19 patients with coronary heart diseases (CHD) ( n =25 males, n =14 females) and n =50 healthy individuals ( n =30 males, n =20 females). We detected highest estradiol levels in critically ill male COVID-19 patients compared to non-COVID-19 patients ( p =0.0123), patients with CHD ( p =0.0002) or healthy individuals ( p =0.0007). Lowest testosterone levels were detected in critically ill male COVID-19 patients compared to non-COVID-19 patients ( p =0.0094), patients with CHD ( p =0.0068) or healthy individuals ( p <0.0001). No statistically significant differences in sex hormone levels were detected in critically ill female COVID-19 patients, albeit similar trends in estradiol levels were observed. In critically ill male COVID-19 patients, cytokine and chemokine responses (IFN-γ, p =0.0301;IL-1RA, p =0.0160;IL-6, p =0.0145;MCP-1, p =0.0052;MIP-1α, p =0.0134) were significantly elevated in those with higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores (8-11). Linear regression analysis revealed that herein IFN-γ levels correlate with estradiol levels in male and female COVID-19 patients (R 2 =0.216, =0.0009). Male COVID-19 patients with elevated estradiol levels were more likely to receive ECMO treatment in the course of their ICU stay ( p =0.0009). CONCLUSIONS We identified high estradiol and low testosterone levels as a hallmark of critically ill male COVID-19 patients. Elevated estradiol levels in critically ill male COVID-19 patients were positively associated with IFN-γ levels and increased risk for ECMO requirement.

12.
Infection ; 50(1): 93-106, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661756

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This executive summary of a national living guideline aims to provide rapid evidence based recommendations on the role of drug interventions in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The guideline makes use of a systematic assessment and decision process using an evidence to decision framework (GRADE) as recommended standard WHO (2021). Recommendations are consented by an interdisciplinary panel. Evidence analysis and interpretation is supported by the CEOsys project providing extensive literature searches and living (meta-) analyses. For this executive summary, selected key recommendations on drug therapy are presented including the quality of the evidence and rationale for the level of recommendation. RESULTS: The guideline contains 11 key recommendations for COVID-19 drug therapy, eight of which are based on systematic review and/or meta-analysis, while three recommendations represent consensus expert opinion. Based on current evidence, the panel makes strong recommendations for corticosteroids (WHO scale 5-9) and prophylactic anticoagulation (all hospitalized patients with COVID-19) as standard of care. Intensified anticoagulation may be considered for patients with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolisms (VTE) and a low bleeding risk. The IL-6 antagonist tocilizumab may be added in case of high supplemental oxygen requirement and progressive disease (WHO scale 5-6). Treatment with nMABs may be considered for selected inpatients with an early SARS-CoV-2 infection that are not hospitalized for COVID-19. Convalescent plasma, azithromycin, ivermectin or vitamin D3 should not be used in COVID-19 routine care. CONCLUSION: For COVID-19 drug therapy, there are several options that are sufficiently supported by evidence. The living guidance will be updated as new evidence emerges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
13.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262315, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in severe COVID-19 remains a matter of debate. Therefore, the utilization and outcome of NIV in COVID-19 in an unbiased cohort was determined. AIM: The aim was to provide a detailed account of hospitalized COVID-19 patients requiring non-invasive ventilation during their hospital stay. Furthermore, differences of patients treated with NIV between the first and second wave are explored. METHODS: Confirmed COVID-19 cases of claims data of the Local Health Care Funds with non-invasive and/or invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) in the spring and autumn pandemic period in 2020 were comparable analysed. RESULTS: Nationwide cohort of 17.023 cases (median/IQR age 71/61-80 years, 64% male) 7235 (42.5%) patients primarily received IMV without NIV, 4469 (26.3%) patients received NIV without subsequent intubation, and 3472 (20.4%) patients had NIV failure (NIV-F), defined by subsequent endotracheal intubation. The proportion of patients who received invasive MV decreased from 75% to 37% during the second period. Accordingly, the proportion of patients with NIV exclusively increased from 9% to 30%, and those failing NIV increased from 9% to 23%. Median length of hospital stay decreased from 26 to 21 days, and duration of MV decreased from 11.9 to 7.3 days. The NIV failure rate decreased from 49% to 43%. Overall mortality increased from 51% versus 54%. Mortality was 44% with NIV-only, 54% with IMV and 66% with NIV-F with mortality rates steadily increasing from 62% in early NIV-F (day 1) to 72% in late NIV-F (>4 days). CONCLUSIONS: Utilization of NIV rapidly increased during the autumn period, which was associated with a reduced duration of MV, but not with overall mortality. High NIV-F rates are associated with increased mortality, particularly in late NIV-F.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
14.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 118(50): 865-871, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mortality of COVID-19 patients who are admitted to a hospital because of the disease remains high. The implementation of evidence-based treatments can improve the quality of care. METHODS: The new clinical practice guideline is based on publications retrieved by a systematic search in the Medline databases via PubMed and in the Cochrane COVID-19 trial registry, followed by a structured consensus process leading to the adoption of graded recommendations. RESULTS: Therapeutic anticoagulation can be considered in patients who do not require intensive care and have an elevated risk of thromboembolism (for example, those with D-dimer levels ≥ 2 mg/L). For patients in intensive care, therapeutic anticoagulation has no benefit. For patients with hypoxemic respiratory insufficiency, prone positioning and an early therapy attempt with CPAP/noninvasive ventilation (CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure) or high-flow oxygen therapy is recommended. Patients with IgG-seronegativity and, at most, low-flow oxygen should be treated with SARS-CoV-2-specific monoclonal antibodies (at present, casirivimab and imdevimab). Patients needing no more than low-flow oxygen should additionally be treated with janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors. All patients who need oxygen (low-flow, high-flow, noninvasive ventilation/CPAP, invasive ventilation) should be given systemic corticosteroids. Tocilizumab should be given to patients with a high oxygen requirement and progressively severe COVID-19 disease, but not in combination with JAK inhibitors. CONCLUSION: Noninvasive ventilation, high-flow oxygen therapy, prone positioning, and invasive ventilation are important elements of the treatment of hypoxemic patients with COVID-19. A reduction of mortality has been demonstrated for the administration of monoclonal antibodies, JAK inhibitors, corticosteroids, tocilizumab, and therapeutic anticoagulation to specific groups of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Hospitals , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Clin Med ; 11(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580658

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is potentially lifesaving for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but may be accompanied by serious adverse events, including intracranial hemorrhage (ICRH). We hypothesized that ICRH occurs more frequently in patients with COVID-19 than in patients with ARDS of other etiologies. We performed a single-center retrospective analysis of adult patients treated with venovenous (vv-) ECMO for ARDS between January 2011 and April 2021. Patients were included if they had received a cranial computed tomography (cCT) scan during vv-ECMO support or within 72 h after ECMO removal. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with ICRH. During the study period, we identified 204 patients with vv-ECMO for ARDS, for whom a cCT scan was available. We observed ICRH in 35.4% (n = 17/48) of patients with COVID-19 and in 16.7% (n = 26/156) of patients with ARDS attributable to factors other than COVID-19. COVID-19 (HR: 2.945; 95%; CI: 1.079-8.038; p = 0.035) and carboxyhemoglobin (HR: 0.330; 95%; CI: 0.135-0.806; p = 0.015) were associated with ICRH during vv-ECMO. In patients receiving vv-ECMO, the incidence of ICRH is doubled in patients with COVID-19 compared to patients suffering from ARDS attributable to other causes. More studies on the association between COVID-19 and ICRH during vv-ECMO are urgently needed to identify risk patterns and targets for potential therapeutic interventions.

16.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 1920-1925, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589024

ABSTRACT

The role of respiratory superinfections in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia remains unclear. We investigated the prevalence of early- and late-onset superinfections in invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to our department of intensive care medicine between March 2020 and November 2020. Of the 102 cases, 74 (72.5%) received invasive ventilation and were tested for viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens on Days 0-7, 8-14, and 15-21 after the initiation of mechanical ventilation. Approximately 45% developed one or more respiratory superinfections. There was a clear correlation between the duration of invasive ventilation and the prevalence of coinfecting pathogens. Male patients with obesity and those suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and/or diabetes mellitus had a significantly higher probability to develop a respiratory superinfection. The prevalence of viral coinfections was high, with a predominance of the herpes simplex virus (HSV), followed by cytomegalovirus. No respiratory viruses or intracellular bacteria were detected in our cohort. We observed a high coincidence between Aspergillus fumigatus and HSV infection. Gram-negative bacteria were the most frequent pathogen group. Klebsiella aerogenes was detected early after intubation, while Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were related to a prolonged respiratory weaning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Superinfection , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Superinfection/epidemiology , Superinfection/microbiology
17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-297003

ABSTRACT

Male sex belongs to one of the major risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcome. However, underlying mechanisms that could affect sex dependent disease outcome are yet unknown. Here, we identified the CYP19A1 gene encoding for the testosterone-to-estradiol metabolizing enzyme CYP19A1 (alias aromatase) as a male abundant host factor that contributes to worsened disease outcome in SARS-CoV-2 infected male hamsters. Pulmonary CYP19A1 transcription is further elevated upon viral infection in males correlating with reduced testosterone and increased estradiol levels. Dysregulated circulating sex hormone levels in male golden hamsters are associated with reduced lung function compared to females. Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infected hamsters with letrozole, a clinically approved CYP19A1 inhibitor, supported recovery of dysregulated plasma sex hormone levels and was associated with improved lung function and health in male but not female animals compared to placebo controls. Whole human exome sequencing data analysis using a Machine Learning approach revealed a CYP19A1 activity increasing mutation being associated with the development of severe COVID-19 for men. In human autopsy-derived lungs CYP19A1 was expressed to higher levels in men who died of COVID-19, at a time point when most viral RNA was cleared. Our findings highlight the role of the lung as a yet unrecognized but critical organ regulating metabolic responses upon respiratory virus infection. Furthermore, inhibition of CYP19A1 by the clinically approved drug letrozole may pose a new therapeutic strategy to reduce poor long-term COVID-19 outcome.

19.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296455

ABSTRACT

Obesity increases the risk for poor outcome in patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). However, the role of adipose tissue for viral propagation and potential metabolic implications are not understood. We detected SARS-CoV-2 in adipose tissue of overweight but not lean male COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2 replicates to high titres in cultured mature adipocytes, a process depending on lipid accumulation and mobilization. After intranasal inoculation, we observed high viral replication in fat depots of Golden Syrian hamsters, demonstrating dissemination from the respiratory tract and subsequent propagation in adipose tissue. Following induction of pro-inflammatory responses, expression of de novo lipogenesis enzymes was suppressed in adipose tissue. This specific down-regulation was reflected by lipidomic alterations in plasma of SARS-CoV-2 infected hamsters as well as in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Overall, our study highlights that adipose tissue is an important site of SARS-CoV-2 replication, contributing to dysregulation of systemic lipid metabolism.<br><br>Funding: This study was supported by a rapid response grant from the Federal Ministry of Health (BMG;ZMV I 1-2520COR501 to GG), by DFG grants SCHE522/4-1 (LS) and SFB1328, project- ID:335447727 (JH). As part of the National Network University Medicine (NUM) funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, Germany), this work was funded within the research consortium DEFEAT PANDEMIcs, grant number 01KX2021 (FH, PL, KP, BO).<br><br>Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.<br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: The Ethics Committee of the Hamburg Chamber of Physicians reviewed and approved the studies (PV7311, 2020-10353-BO-ff, WF-051/20, WF-053/20). For the preparation of primary human white adipocytes, biopsies of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were taken during bariatric surgery at the Department of General, Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf. All participants signed an informed consent and the study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Hamburg Chamber of Physicians (PV4889).

20.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295101

ABSTRACT

Rationale The role of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in severe COVID-19 remains a matter of debate. Objectives To determine the utilization and outcome of NIV in COVID-19 in an unbiased cohort. Methods Observational study of confirmed COVID-19 cases of claims data of the Local Health Care Funds comparing patients with non-invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) between spring versus autumn period 2020. Measurements and Main Results Nationwide cohort of 7490 cases (median/IQR age 70/60–79 years, 66% male) 3851 (51%) patients primarily received IMV without NIV, 1614 (22%) patients received NIV without subsequent intubation, and 1247 (17%) patients had NIV failure (NIV-F), defined by subsequent endotracheal intubation. The proportion of patients who received invasive MV decreased from 74% to 39% during the second period. Accordingly, the proportion of patients with NIV exclusively increased from 10% to 28%, and those failing NIV increased from 9% to 21%. Median length of hospital stay decreased from 26 to 22 days, and duration of MV decreased from 11.6 to 7.6 days. The NIV failure rate decreased from 49% to 42%. Overall mortality remained unchanged (51% versus 53%). Mortality was 39% with NIV-only, 52% with IMV and 66% with NIV-F with mortality rates steadily increasing from 58% in early NIV-F (day 1) to 75% in late NIV-F (>4 days). Conclusion Utilization of NIV rapidly increased during the autumn period, which was associated with a reduced duration of MV, but not with overall mortality. High NIV-F rates are associated with increased mortality, particularly in late NIV-F. Funding Institutional support and physical resources were provided by the University Witten/Herdecke and Kliniken der Stadt Köln and the Federal Association of the Local Health Care Funds. At a Glance Commentary Scientific Knowledge on the Subject Current management of ventilatory support in COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure is heterogeneous. Despite increasing use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV), defining intubation criteria still remains a matter of uncertainty and discussion, especially with regard to the balance between the NIV benefits and the risk of NIV failure. In addition, robust data concerning the influence of the duration and failure of NIV on intubation and mortality rates are still missing, although the time span between initiation of NIV and subsequent intubation in case of respiratory failure progression is suggested to influence patient outcome. What This Study Adds to the Field This is the first large observational study describing differences of ventilatory strategies between the spring and autumn period of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Germany and provides the in-hospital mortality rate of 7,490 patients who received mechanical ventilation. The increased utilization of NIV from 10% (first period) to 29% (second period) was associated with overall reduced durations of mechanical ventilation and length of hospital stay, but overall mortality remained comparably high and reached 51%, 53% respectively. Patients succeeding with NIV had lower mortality rates than those getting intubated without preceding NIV attempts, but those failing NIV had higher mortality rates, respectively, and this became even more predominant in late NIV failure. The present observational study shows the increasing role of NIV in the concert of ICU medicine related to COVID-19, but also clearly addresses its risks in addition to its benefits, both impacting on mortality.

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