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2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 384-391, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615765

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the key outcomes of the above WHO informal consultation with global stakeholders including regulatory authorities, vaccine developers and manufacturers, academia and other international health organizations and institutions involved in the development, evaluation and use of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines. The aim of the consultation was to further clarify the main principles to be presented in an upcoming WHO guidance document on the regulatory considerations in evaluating the quality, safety and efficacy of mRNA prophylactic vaccines for infectious diseases. This WHO guidance document is intended to facilitate global mRNA vaccine development and regulatory convergence in the assessment of such vaccines. The urgent need to develop such a document as a new WHO written standard is outlined in this report along with the key scientific and regulatory challenges. A number of key conclusions are provided at the end of this report along with an update on the steps taken following this meeting.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , /therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Vaccine Potency , World Health Organization
4.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(3): e235-e240, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483037

ABSTRACT

The first WHO International Standard and International Reference Panel for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin were established by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in December, 2020. The WHO International Antibody Standards are intended to serve as global reference reagents, against which national reference preparations or secondary standards can be calibrated. Calibration will facilitate comparison of results of assays (eg, of the neutralising antibody response to candidate COVID-19 vaccines) conducted in different countries. Use of these standards is expected to contribute to better understanding of the immune response, and particularly of the correlates of protection. This Personal View provides some technical details of the WHO Antibody Standards for SARS-CoV-2, focusing specifically on the use of these standards for the evaluation of the immune response to COVID-19 vaccines, rather than other applications (eg, diagnostic or therapeutic). The explanation with regard to why rapid adoption of the standards is crucial is also included, as well as how funders, journals, regulators, and ethics committees could drive adoption in the interest of public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
5.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 83, 2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387359

ABSTRACT

An array of SARS-CoV-2 virus variants have been isolated, propagated and used in in vitro assays, in vivo animal studies and human clinical trials. Observations of working stocks of SARS-CoV-2 suggest that sequential propagation in Vero cells leads to critical changes in the region of the furin cleavage site, which significantly reduce the value of the working stock for critical research studies. Serially propagating SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 cells leads to rapid increases in genetic variants while propagation in other cell lines (e.g. Vero/hSLAM) appears to mitigate this risk thereby improving the overall genetic stability of working stocks. From these observations, investigators are urged to monitor genetic variants carefully when propagating SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells.

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050649

ABSTRACT

The global research and development of mRNA vaccines have been prodigious over the past decade, and the work in this field has been stimulated by the urgent need for rapid development of vaccines in response to an emergent disease such as the current COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, there remain gaps in our understanding of the mechanism of action of mRNA vaccines, as well as their long-term performance in areas such as safety and efficacy. This paper reviews the technologies and processes used for developing mRNA prophylactic vaccines, the current status of vaccine development, and discusses the immune responses induced by mRNA vaccines. It also discusses important issues with regard to the evaluation of mRNA vaccines from regulatory perspectives. Setting global norms and standards for biologicals including vaccines to assure their quality, safety and efficacy has been a WHO mandate and a core function for more than 70 years. New initiatives are ongoing at WHO to arrive at a broad consensus to formulate international guidance on the manufacture and quality control, as well as nonclinical and clinical evaluation of mRNA vaccines, which is deemed necessary to facilitate international convergence of manufacturing and regulatory practices and provide support to National Regulatory Authorities in WHO member states.

7.
Nature ; 586(7830): 509-515, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792975

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the aetiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an emerging respiratory infection caused by the introduction of a novel coronavirus into humans late in 2019 (first detected in Hubei province, China). As of 18 September 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 215 countries, has infected more than 30 million people and has caused more than 950,000 deaths. As humans do not have pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2, there is an urgent need to develop therapeutic agents and vaccines to mitigate the current pandemic and to prevent the re-emergence of COVID-19. In February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) assembled an international panel to develop animal models for COVID-19 to accelerate the testing of vaccines and therapeutic agents. Here we summarize the findings to date and provides relevant information for preclinical testing of vaccine candidates and therapeutic agents for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Mesocricetus/virology , Mice , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Primates/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/immunology
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