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2.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(6)2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New tools for the assessment and prediction of the severity of hospitalized COVID-19 patients can help direct limited resources to patients with the greatest need. Circulating levels of calprotectin (S100A8/S100A9) reflect inflammatory activity in multiple conditions, and have been described as being elevated in COVID-19 patients, but their measurement is not routinely utilized. The aim of our study was to assess the practical and predictive value of measuring circulating calprotectin levels in patients at admission and during their hospitalization. METHODS: Circulating calprotectin levels were measured in 157 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 using an automated quantitative chemiluminescent assay. RESULTS: Circulating calprotectin levels were strongly correlated with changing respiratory supplementation needs of patients. The overall trajectory of circulating calprotectin levels generally correlated with patient improvement or deterioration. CONCLUSIONS: Routine measurement of circulating calprotectin levels may offer a valuable tool to assess and monitor hospitalized patients with COVID-19, as well as other acute inflammatory conditions.

3.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797978
4.
Pathy's Principles and Practice of Geriatric Medicine ; n/a(n/a):530-541, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1709041

ABSTRACT

Summary The incidence, severity, and mortality of COVID-19 infection appear to impact the elderly more negatively, especially in those who are frail and have multiple comorbidities. This chapter reviews the epidemiology of the COVID-19 pandemic with a focus on the older age group. The transmission of the virus to humans likely occurs through the consumption of an infected animal as a source of food, followed by human-to-human transmission through close contact. The epidemiology of COVID-19 incidence, severity of illness, and mortality appear to have unfavourable outcomes for older people. Managing older people with COVID-19 infection includes symptomatic therapy that focuses on the direct relief of the typical symptoms of COVID-19, drug therapy that focuses on agents directly treating the viral infection load, and general supportive care, which focuses on the relief of atypical symptoms in the acute setting. Ethical issue is the participation of older people in clinical trials.;Objective While endothelial dysfunction has been implicated in the widespread thrombo-inflammatory complications of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), the upstream mediators of endotheliopathy remain for the most part cryptic. Our aim was to identify circulating factors contributing to endothelial cell activation and dysfunction in COVID-19. Methods Human endothelial cells were cultured in the presence of serum or plasma from 244 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and plasma from 100 patients with non-COVID sepsis. Cell adhesion molecules (E-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1) were quantified by in-cell ELISA. Results Serum and plasma from patients with COVID-19 increased surface expression of cell adhesion molecules. Furthermore, levels of soluble ICAM-1 and E-selectin were elevated in patient serum and tracked with disease severity. The presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies was a strong marker of the ability of COVID-19 serum to activate endothelium. Depletion of total IgG from antiphospholipid antibody-positive serum markedly restrained upregulation of cell adhesion molecules. Conversely, supplementation of control serum with patient IgG was sufficient to trigger endothelial activation. Conclusion These data are the first to suggest that some patients with COVID-19 have potentially diverse antibodies that drive endotheliopathy, adding important context regarding thrombo-inflammatory effects of autoantibodies in severe COVID-19.

5.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 74(7): 1132-1138, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694821

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: While endothelial dysfunction has been implicated in the widespread thromboinflammatory complications of COVID-19, the upstream mediators of endotheliopathy remain, for the most part, unknown. This study was undertaken to identify circulating factors contributing to endothelial cell activation and dysfunction in COVID-19. METHODS: Human endothelial cells were cultured in the presence of serum or plasma from 244 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and plasma from 100 patients with non-COVID-19-related sepsis. Cell adhesion molecules (E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM-1]) were quantified using in-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Serum and plasma from COVID-19 patients increased surface expression of cell adhesion molecules. Furthermore, levels of soluble ICAM-1 and E-selectin were elevated in patient serum and correlated with disease severity. The presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies was a strong marker of the ability of COVID-19 serum to activate endothelium. Depletion of total IgG from antiphospholipid antibody-positive serum markedly reduced the up-regulation of cell adhesion molecules. Conversely, supplementation of control serum with patient IgG was sufficient to trigger endothelial activation. CONCLUSION: These data are the first to indicate that some COVID-19 patients have potentially diverse antibodies that drive endotheliopathy, providing important context regarding thromboinflammatory effects of autoantibodies in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , COVID-19 , Endothelial Cells , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , E-Selectin , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism
6.
Semin Immunopathol ; 44(3): 347-362, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669775

ABSTRACT

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune thrombophilia propelled by circulating antiphospholipid antibodies that herald vascular thrombosis and obstetrical complications. Antiphospholipid antibodies recognize phospholipids and phospholipid-binding proteins and are not only markers of disease but also key drivers of APS pathophysiology. Thrombotic events in APS can be attributed to various conspirators including activated endothelial cells, platelets, and myeloid-lineage cells, as well as derangements in coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. Furthermore, recent work has especially highlighted the role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and the complement system in APS thrombosis. Beyond acute thrombosis, patients with APS can also develop an occlusive vasculopathy, a long-term consequence of APS characterized by cell proliferation and infiltration that progressively expands the intima and leads to organ damage. This review will highlight known pathogenic factors in APS and will also briefly discuss similarities between APS and the thrombophilic coagulopathy of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiphospholipid Syndrome , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Vascular Diseases , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Thromboinflammation , Thrombosis/complications
7.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502528

ABSTRACT

Men are disproportionately affected by the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), and face higher odds of severe illness and death compared to women. The vascular effects of androgen signaling and inflammatory cytokines in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-mediated endothelial injury are not defined. We determined the effects of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated endothelial injury under conditions of exposure to androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) and tested potentially therapeutic effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism by spironolactone. Circulating endothelial injury markers VCAM-1 and E-selectin were measured in men and women diagnosed with COVID-19. Exposure of endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro to DHT exacerbated spike protein S1-mediated endothelial injury transcripts for the cell adhesion molecules E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 and anti-fibrinolytic PAI-1 (p < 0.05), and increased THP-1 monocyte adhesion to ECs (p = 0.032). Spironolactone dramatically reduced DHT+S1-induced endothelial activation. TNF-α exacerbated S1-induced EC activation, which was abrogated by pretreatment with spironolactone. Analysis from patients hospitalized with COVID-19 showed concordant higher circulating VCAM-1 and E-Selectin levels in men, compared to women. A beneficial effect of the FDA-approved drug spironolactone was observed on endothelial cells in vitro, supporting a rationale for further evaluation of mineralocorticoid antagonism as an adjunct treatment in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Dihydrotestosterone/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Spironolactone/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/blood , Cells, Cultured , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Sex Characteristics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/physiology , Valsartan/pharmacology
8.
J Clin Invest ; 131(24)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495792

ABSTRACT

Acute COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is characterized by diverse clinical presentations, ranging from asymptomatic infection to fatal respiratory failure, and often associated with varied longer-term sequelae. Over the past 18 months, it has become apparent that inappropriate immune responses contribute to the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19. Researchers working at the intersection of COVID-19 and autoimmunity recently gathered at an American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association Noel R. Rose Colloquium to address the current state of knowledge regarding two important questions: Does established autoimmunity predispose to severe COVID-19? And, at the same time, can SARS-CoV-2 infection trigger de novo autoimmunity? Indeed, work to date has demonstrated that 10% to 15% of patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia exhibit autoantibodies against type I interferons, suggesting that preexisting autoimmunity underlies severe disease in some patients. Other studies have identified functional autoantibodies following infection with SARS-CoV-2, such as those that promote thrombosis or antagonize cytokine signaling. These autoantibodies may arise from a predominantly extrafollicular B cell response that is more prone to generating autoantibody-secreting B cells. This Review highlights the current understanding, evolving concepts, and unanswered questions provided by this unique opportunity to determine mechanisms by which a viral infection can be exacerbated by, and even trigger, autoimmunity. The potential role of autoimmunity in post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/chemistry , Autoimmunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Signal Transduction , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Progression , Female , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-1/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Macrophage Activation , Male , Mice , Phospholipids/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
9.
JCI Insight ; 6(17)2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413722

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil-mediated activation and injury of the endothelium play roles in the pathogenesis of diverse disease states ranging from autoimmunity to cancer to COVID-19. Neutralization of cationic proteins (such as neutrophil extracellular trap-derived [NET-derived] histones) with polyanionic compounds has been suggested as a potential strategy for protecting the endothelium from such insults. Here, we report that the US Food and Drug Administration-approved polyanionic agent defibrotide (a pleiotropic mixture of oligonucleotides) directly engages histones and thereby blocks their pathological effects on endothelium. In vitro, defibrotide counteracted endothelial cell activation and pyroptosis-mediated cell death, whether triggered by purified NETs or recombinant histone H4. In vivo, defibrotide stabilized the endothelium and protected against histone-accelerated inferior vena cava thrombosis in mice. Mechanistically, defibrotide demonstrated direct and tight binding to histone H4 as detected by both electrophoretic mobility shift assay and surface plasmon resonance. Taken together, these data provide insights into the potential role of polyanionic compounds in protecting the endothelium from thromboinflammation with potential implications for myriad NET- and histone-accelerated disease states.


Subject(s)
Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Polydeoxyribonucleotides/pharmacology , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Animals , Extracellular Traps/drug effects , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Histones/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Polydeoxyribonucleotides/therapeutic use , Pyroptosis
10.
JCI Insight ; 6(15)2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282186

ABSTRACT

The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) by hyperactive neutrophils is recognized to play an important role in the thromboinflammatory milieu inherent to severe presentations of COVID-19. At the same time, a variety of functional autoantibodies have been observed in individuals with severe COVID-19, where they likely contribute to immunopathology. Here, we aimed to determine the extent to which autoantibodies might target NETs in COVID-19 and, if detected, to elucidate their potential functions and clinical associations. We measured anti-NET antibodies in 328 individuals hospitalized with COVID-19 alongside 48 healthy controls. We found high anti-NET activity in the IgG and IgM fractions of 27% and 60% of patients, respectively. There was a strong correlation between anti-NET IgG and anti-NET IgM. Both anti-NET IgG and anti-NET IgM tracked with high levels of circulating NETs, impaired oxygenation efficiency, and high circulating D-dimer. Furthermore, patients who required mechanical ventilation had a greater burden of anti-NET antibodies than did those not requiring oxygen supplementation. Levels of anti-NET IgG (and, to a lesser extent, anti-NET IgM) demonstrated an inverse correlation with the efficiency of NET degradation by COVID-19 sera. Furthermore, purified IgG from COVID-19 sera with high levels of anti-NET antibodies impaired the ability of healthy control serum to degrade NETs. In summary, many individuals hospitalized with COVID-19 have anti-NET antibodies, which likely impair NET clearance and may potentiate SARS-CoV-2-mediated thromboinflammation.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Young Adult
11.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(11): 3125-3139, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241944

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a major threat to the lungs and multiple other organs, occasionally causing death. Until effective vaccines are developed to curb the pandemic, it is paramount to define the mechanisms and develop protective therapies to prevent organ dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. Individuals that develop severe manifestations have signs of dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. Emerging evidence implicates neutrophils and the disbalance between neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and degradation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of inflammation, coagulopathy, organ damage, and immunothrombosis that characterize severe cases of COVID-19. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting a role for NETs in COVID-19 manifestations and present putative mechanisms, by which NETs promote tissue injury and immunothrombosis. We present therapeutic strategies, which have been successful in the treatment of immunο-inflammatory disorders and which target dysregulated NET formation or degradation, as potential approaches that may benefit patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Citrullination , Complement Activation , Humans , Neutrophils/metabolism , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/etiology
12.
J Leukoc Biol ; 109(1): 67-72, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188010

ABSTRACT

Severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are regularly complicated by respiratory failure. Although it has been suggested that elevated levels of blood neutrophils associate with worsening oxygenation in COVID-19, it is unknown whether neutrophils are drivers of the thrombo-inflammatory storm or simple bystanders. To better understand the potential role of neutrophils in COVID-19, we measured levels of the neutrophil activation marker S100A8/A9 (calprotectin) in hospitalized patients and determined its relationship to severity of illness and respiratory status. Patients with COVID-19 (n = 172) had markedly elevated levels of calprotectin in their blood. Calprotectin tracked with other acute phase reactants including C-reactive protein, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and absolute neutrophil count, but was superior in identifying patients requiring mechanical ventilation. In longitudinal samples, calprotectin rose as oxygenation worsened. When tested on day 1 or 2 of hospitalization (n = 94 patients), calprotectin levels were significantly higher in patients who progressed to severe COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation (8039 ± 7031 ng/ml, n = 32) as compared to those who remained free of intubation (3365 ± 3146, P < 0.0001). In summary, serum calprotectin levels track closely with current and future COVID-19 severity, implicating neutrophils as potential perpetuators of inflammation and respiratory compromise in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Calgranulin A , Calgranulin B , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Calgranulin A/blood , Calgranulin A/immunology , Calgranulin B/blood , Calgranulin B/immunology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Neutrophils/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1580, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065929

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) are at high risk for thrombotic arterial and venous occlusions. However, bleeding complications have also been observed in some patients. Understanding the balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis will help inform optimal approaches to thrombosis prophylaxis and potential utility of fibrinolytic-targeted therapies. 118 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. We measured plasma antigen levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and performed spontaneous clot-lysis assays. We found markedly elevated tPA and PAI-1 levels in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Both factors demonstrated strong correlations with neutrophil counts and markers of neutrophil activation. High levels of tPA and PAI-1 were associated with worse respiratory status. High levels of tPA, in particular, were strongly correlated with mortality and a significant enhancement in spontaneous ex vivo clot-lysis. While both tPA and PAI-1 are elevated among COVID-19 patients, extremely high levels of tPA enhance spontaneous fibrinolysis and are significantly associated with mortality in some patients. These data indicate that fibrinolytic homeostasis in COVID-19 is complex with a subset of patients expressing a balance of factors that may favor fibrinolysis. Further study of tPA as a biomarker is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/blood , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinolysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol ; 35(1): 101661, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059489

ABSTRACT

As of the end of 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global healthcare challenge with alarming death tolls. In the absence of targeted therapies, supportive care continues to be the mainstay of treatment. The hallmark of severe COVID-19 is a thromboinflammatory storm driven by innate immune responses. This manifests clinically as acute respiratory distress syndrome, and in some patients, widespread thrombotic microangiopathy. Neutrophils and complement are key players in the innate immune system, and their role in perpetuating fatal severe COVID-19 continues to receive increasing attention. Here, we review the interplay between neutrophils, neutrophil extracellular traps, and complement in COVID-19 immunopathology, and highlight potential therapeutic strategies to combat these pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Neutrophils , SARS-CoV-2
15.
medRxiv ; 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1020339

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) are at high risk for thrombotic arterial and venous occlusions. At the same time, lung histopathology often reveals fibrin-based occlusion in the small vessels of patients who succumb to the disease. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired and potentially life-threatening thrombophilia in which patients develop pathogenic autoantibodies (aPL) targeting phospholipids and phospholipid-binding proteins. Case series have recently detected aPL in patients with COVID-19. Here, we measured eight types of aPL [anticardiolipin IgG/IgM/IgA, anti-beta-2 glycoprotein I IgG/IgM/IgA, and anti- phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT) IgG/IgM] in the sera of 172 patients hospitalized with COVID-19. We detected aPS/PT IgG in 24%, anticardiolipin IgM in 23%, and aPS/PT IgM in 18%. Any aPL was present in 52% of patients using the manufacturer's threshold and in 30% using a more stringent cutoff (≥40 units). Higher levels of aPL were associated with neutrophil hyperactivity (including the release of neutrophil extracellular traps/NETs), higher platelet count, more severe respiratory disease, and lower glomerular filtration rate. Similar to patients with longstanding APS, IgG fractions isolated from patients with COVID-19 promoted NET release from control neutrophils. Furthermore, injection of these COVID-19 IgG fractions into mice accelerated venous thrombosis. Taken together, these studies suggest that a significant percentage of patients with COVID-19 become at least transiently positive for aPL and that these aPL are potentially pathogenic.

16.
JCI Insight ; 5(11)2020 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-980226

ABSTRACT

In severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), viral pneumonia progresses to respiratory failure. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular webs of chromatin, microbicidal proteins, and oxidant enzymes that are released by neutrophils to contain infections. However, when not properly regulated, NETs have the potential to propagate inflammation and microvascular thrombosis - including in the lungs of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We now report that sera from patients with COVID-19 have elevated levels of cell-free DNA, myeloperoxidase-DNA (MPO-DNA), and citrullinated histone H3 (Cit-H3); the latter 2 are specific markers of NETs. Highlighting the potential clinical relevance of these findings, cell-free DNA strongly correlated with acute-phase reactants, including C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as absolute neutrophil count. MPO-DNA associated with both cell-free DNA and absolute neutrophil count, while Cit-H3 correlated with platelet levels. Importantly, both cell-free DNA and MPO-DNA were higher in hospitalized patients receiving mechanical ventilation as compared with hospitalized patients breathing room air. Finally, sera from individuals with COVID-19 triggered NET release from control neutrophils in vitro. Future studies should investigate the predictive power of circulating NETs in longitudinal cohorts and determine the extent to which NETs may be novel therapeutic targets in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Peroxidase/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Citrullination , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Severity of Illness Index
17.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(2): 446-453, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927286

ABSTRACT

Studies of patients with COVID-19 have demonstrated markedly dysregulated coagulation and a high risk of morbid arterial and venous thrombotic events. Elevated levels of blood neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have recently been described in patients with COVID-19. However, their potential role in COVID-19-associated thrombosis remains incompletely understood. In order to elucidate the potential role of hyperactive neutrophils and NET release in COVID-19-associated thrombosis, we conducted a case-control study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who developed thrombosis, as compared with gender- and age-matched COVID-19 patients without clinical thrombosis. We found that remnants of NETs (cell-free DNA, myeloperoxidase-DNA complexes, and citrullinated histone H3) and neutrophil-derived S100A8/A9 (calprotectin) in patient sera were associated with higher risk of morbid thrombotic events in spite of prophylactic anticoagulation. These observations underscore the need for urgent investigation into the potential relationship between NETs and unrelenting thrombosis in COVID-19, as well as novel approaches for thrombosis prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thrombosis/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Female , Histones/blood , Humans , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Thrombosis/etiology
18.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(570)2020 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901250

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 are at high risk for thrombotic arterial and venous occlusions. Lung histopathology often reveals fibrin-based blockages in the small blood vessels of patients who succumb to the disease. Antiphospholipid syndrome is an acquired and potentially life-threatening thrombophilia in which patients develop pathogenic autoantibodies targeting phospholipids and phospholipid-binding proteins (aPL antibodies). Case series have recently detected aPL antibodies in patients with COVID-19. Here, we measured eight types of aPL antibodies in serum samples from 172 patients hospitalized with COVID-19. These aPL antibodies included anticardiolipin IgG, IgM, and IgA; anti-ß2 glycoprotein I IgG, IgM, and IgA; and anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT) IgG and IgM. We detected aPS/PT IgG in 24% of serum samples, anticardiolipin IgM in 23% of samples, and aPS/PT IgM in 18% of samples. Antiphospholipid autoantibodies were present in 52% of serum samples using the manufacturer's threshold and in 30% using a more stringent cutoff (≥40 ELISA-specific units). Higher titers of aPL antibodies were associated with neutrophil hyperactivity, including the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), higher platelet counts, more severe respiratory disease, and lower clinical estimated glomerular filtration rate. Similar to IgG from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, IgG fractions isolated from patients with COVID-19 promoted NET release from neutrophils isolated from healthy individuals. Furthermore, injection of IgG purified from COVID-19 patient serum into mice accelerated venous thrombosis in two mouse models. These findings suggest that half of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 become at least transiently positive for aPL antibodies and that these autoantibodies are potentially pathogenic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/administration & dosage , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/blood , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/etiology , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Models, Animal , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/immunology , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/immunology
20.
J Exp Med ; 217(6)2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72158

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel, viral-induced respiratory disease that in ∼10-15% of patients progresses to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) triggered by a cytokine storm. In this Perspective, autopsy results and literature are presented supporting the hypothesis that a little known yet powerful function of neutrophils-the ability to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)-may contribute to organ damage and mortality in COVID-19. We show lung infiltration of neutrophils in an autopsy specimen from a patient who succumbed to COVID-19. We discuss prior reports linking aberrant NET formation to pulmonary diseases, thrombosis, mucous secretions in the airways, and cytokine production. If our hypothesis is correct, targeting NETs directly and/or indirectly with existing drugs may reduce the clinical severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Extracellular Traps , Lung Diseases , Neutrophils/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Lung Diseases/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2
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