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2.
BMJ ; 377: o898, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784792
3.
Arch Dis Child ; 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774936

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to derive a research definition for 'Long COVID (post-COVID-19 condition)' in children and young people (CYP) to allow comparisons between research studies. DESIGN: A three-phase online Delphi process was used, followed by a consensus meeting. Participants were presented with 49 statements in each phase and scored them from 1 to 9 based on how important they were for inclusion in the research definition of Long COVID in CYP. The consensus meeting was held to achieve representation across the stakeholder groups. Statements agreed at the consensus meeting were reviewed by participants in the Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) Research Advisory Group. SETTING: The study was conducted remotely using online surveys and a virtual consensus meeting. PARTICIPANTS: 120 people with relevant expertise were divided into three panels according to their area of expertise: Service Delivery, Research (or combination of research and service delivery) and Lived Experience. The PPI Research Advisory group consisted of CYP aged 11-17 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Consensus was defined using existing guidelines. If consensus was achieved in two or more panels or was on the border between one and two panels, those statements were discussed and voted on at the consensus meeting. RESULTS: Ten statements were taken forward for discussion in the consensus meeting and five statements met threshold to be included in the research definition of Long COVID among CYP. The research definition, aligned to the clinical case definition of the WHO, is proposed as follows: Post-COVID-19 condition occurs in young people with a history of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, with at least one persisting physical symptom for a minimum duration of 12 weeks after initial testing that cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis. The symptoms have an impact on everyday functioning, may continue or develop after COVID infection, and may fluctuate or relapse over time. The positive COVID-19 test referred to in this definition can be a lateral flow antigen test, a PCR test or an antibody test. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first research definition of Long COVID (post-COVID-19 condition) in CYP and complements the clinical case definition in adults proposed by the WHO.

4.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e061093, 2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765129

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe maternal morbidity (SMM)-an unexpected pregnancy-associated maternal outcome resulting in severe illness, prolonged hospitalisation or long-term disability-is recognised by many, as the preferred indicator of the quality of maternity care, especially in high-income countries. Obtaining comprehensive details on events and circumstances leading to SMM, obtained through maternity units, could complement data from large epidemiological studies and enable targeted interventions to improve maternal health. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of gathering such data from maternity units across Canadian provinces and territories, with the goal of establishing a national obstetric survey system for SMM in Canada. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We propose a sequential explanatory mixed-methods study. We will first distribute a cross-sectional survey to leads of all maternity units across Canada to gather information on (1) Whether the unit has a system for reviewing SMM and the nature and format of this system, (2) Willingness to share anonymised data on SMM by direct entry using a web-based platform and (3) Respondents' perception on the definition and leading causes of SMM at a local level. This will be followed by semistructured interviews with respondent groups defined a priori, to identify barriers and facilitators for data sharing. We will perform an integrated analysis to determine feasibility outcomes, a narrative description of barriers and facilitators for data-sharing and resource implications for data acquisition on an annual basis, and variations in top-5 causes of SMM. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the Mount Sinai and Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Boards. The study findings will be presented at annual scientific meetings of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, North American Society of Obstetric Medicine, and International Network of Obstetric Survey Systems and published in an open-access peer-reviewed Obstetrics and Gynaecology or General Internal Medicine journal.


Subject(s)
Maternal Health Services , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Severity of Illness Index
6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329063

ABSTRACT

Background: We evaluated the use of baricitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK) 1/2 inhibitor, for the treatment of patients admitted to hospital because of COVID-19. Methods: This randomised, controlled, open-label platform trial (Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy [RECOVERY]), is assessing multiple possible treatments in patients hospitalised for COVID-19. Eligible and consenting patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to either usual standard of care alone (usual care group) or usual care plus baricitinib 4 mg once daily by mouth for 10 days or until discharge if sooner (baricitinib group). The primary outcome was 28-day mortality assessed in the intention-to-treat population. A meta-analysis was conducted that included the results from the RECOVERY trial and all previous randomised controlled trials of baricitinib or other JAK inhibitor in patients hospitalised with COVID-19. Findings: Between 2 February 2021 and 29 December 2021, 8156 patients were randomly allocated to receive usual care plus baricitinib versus usual care alone. At randomisation, 95% of patients were receiving corticosteroids and 23% receiving tocilizumab (with planned use within the next 24 hours recorded for a further 9%). Overall, 513 (12%) of 4148 patients allocated to baricitinib versus 546 (14%) of 4008 patients allocated to usual care died within 28 days (age-adjusted rate ratio 0.87;95% CI 0.77-0.98;p=0.026). This 13% proportional reduction in mortality was somewhat smaller than that seen in a meta-analysis of 8 previous trials of a JAK inhibitor (involving 3732 patients and 425 deaths) in which allocation to a JAK inhibitor was associated with a 43% proportional reduction in mortality (rate ratio 0.57;95% CI 0.45-0.72). Including the results from RECOVERY into an updated meta-analysis of all 9 completed trials (involving 11,888 randomised patients and 1484 deaths) allocation to baricitinib or other JAK inhibitor was associated with a 20% proportional reduction in mortality (rate ratio 0.80;95% CI 0.71-0.89;p<0.001). In RECOVERY, there was no significant excess in death or infection due to non-COVID-19 causes and no excess of thrombosis, or other safety outcomes. Interpretation: In patients hospitalised for COVID-19, baricitinib significantly reduced the risk of death but the size of benefit was somewhat smaller than that suggested by previous trials. The total randomised evidence to date suggests that JAK inhibitors (chiefly baricitinib) reduce mortality in patients hospitalised for COVID-19 by about one-fifth.

7.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 101(4): 461-470, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714124

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is a lack of population level data on risk factors and impact of severe COVID-19 in pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the characteristics, and maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with severe COVID-19 in pregnancy compared with those with mild and moderate COVID-19 and to explore the impact of timing of birth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a national, prospective cohort study. All pregnant women admitted to hospital in the UK with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 from March 1, 2020 to October 31, 2021 were included. The severity of maternal infection (need for high flow or invasive ventilation, intensive care admission or died), pregnancy and perinatal outcomes, and the impact of timing of birth were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 4436 pregnant women, 13.9% (n = 616) had severe infection. Women with severe infection were more likely to be aged ≥30 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] aged 30-39 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-1.83), be overweight or obese (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.34-2.25 and aOR 2.52 95% CI 1.97-3.23, respectively), be of mixed ethnicity (aOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.17-3.21) or have gestational diabetes (aOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.09-1.87) compared with those with mild or moderate infection. Women with severe infection were more likely to have a pre-labor cesarean birth (aOR 8.84, 95% CI 6.61-11.83), a very or extreme preterm birth (28-31+ weeks' gestation, aOR 18.97, 95% CI 7.78-14.85; <28 weeks' gestation, aOR 12.35, 95% CI 6.34-24.05) and their babies were more likely to be stillborn (aOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.35-4.66) or admitted to a neonatal unit (aOR 11.61, 95% CI 9.28-14.52). Of 112 women with severe infection who were discharged and gave birth at a later admission, the majority gave birth ≥36 weeks (85.7%), noting that three women in this group (2.7%) had a stillbirth. CONCLUSIONS: Severe COVID-19 in pregnancy increases the risk of adverse outcomes. Information to promote uptake of vaccination should specifically target those at greatest risk of severe outcomes. Decisions about timing of birth should be informed by multidisciplinary team discussion; however, our data suggest that women with severe infection who do not require early delivery have mostly good outcomes but that those with severe infection at term may warrant rapid delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
8.
Obstetric Medicine ; : 1753495X221076713, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1673622

ABSTRACT

BackgroundCOVID-19 vaccines are protective against disease. Pregnant women benefit from vaccination as they are at higher risk of poor maternal and neonatal outcomes following infection.MethodsFollowing regulatory approval of two COVID-19 vaccines in the United Kingdom, a rapid national study of vaccination in pregnancy was instituted using three existing safety surveillance platforms: UKOSS, UKTIS and VIP. This preliminary report describes the data collected up to the 15th June 2021.ResultsThere were 971 reports of COVID-19 vaccination in the UKOSS/UKTIS (n?=?493) and VIP (n?=?478) monitoring systems describing 908 individual pregnancies. Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccination was most common (n?=?501, 55.2%), most women were vaccinated in their second or third trimester (n?=?566, 62.3%), and were mainly vaccinated due to occupational infection risk (n?=?577, 63.5%).ConclusionObstetric outcome data will be obtained by December 2021. However, women should not delay vaccination whilst awaiting further safety data to emerge.

11.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251123, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of population level data on risk factors, incidence and impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women and their babies. The primary aim of this study was to describe the incidence, characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized pregnant women with symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 in the UK compared to pregnant women without SARS-CoV-2. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a national, prospective cohort study of all hospitalized pregnant women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 from 01/03/2020 to 31/08/2020 using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System. Incidence rates were estimated using national maternity data. Overall, 1148 hospitalized women had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy, 63% of which were symptomatic. The estimated incidence of hospitalization with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 was 2.0 per 1000 maternities (95% CI 1.9-2.2) and for asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 was 1.2 per 1000 maternities (95% CI 1.1-1.4). Compared to pregnant women without SARS-CoV-2, women hospitalized with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 were more likely to be overweight or obese (adjusted OR 1.86, (95% CI 1.39-2.48) and aOR 2.07 (1.53-2.29)), to be of Black, Asian or Other minority ethnic group (aOR 6.24, (3.93-9.90), aOR 4.36, (3.19-5.95) and aOR 12.95, (4.93-34.01)), and to have a relevant medical comorbidity (aOR 1.83 (1.32-2.54)). Hospitalized pregnant women with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 were more likely to be admitted to intensive care (aOR 57.67, (7.80-426.70)) but the absolute risk of poor outcomes was low. Cesarean births and neonatal unit admission were increased regardless of symptom status (symptomatic aOR 2.60, (1.97-3.42) and aOR 3.08, (1.99-4.77); asymptomatic aOR 2.02, (1.52-2.70) and aOR 1.84, (1.12-3.03)). The risks of stillbirth or neonatal death were not significantly increased, regardless of symptom status. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified factors that increase the risk of symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy. Clinicians can be reassured that the majority of women do not experience severe complications of SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Carrier State/diagnosis , Carrier State/virology , Cesarean Section , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Obesity/complications , Odds Ratio , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(2): 113-121, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Babies differ from older children with regard to their exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, data describing the effect of SARS-CoV-2 in this group are scarce, and guidance is variable. We aimed to describe the incidence, characteristics, transmission, and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates who received inpatient hospital care in the UK. METHODS: We carried out a prospective UK population-based cohort study of babies with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 28 days of life who received inpatient care between March 1 and April 30, 2020. Infected babies were identified through active national surveillance via the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit, with linkage to national testing, paediatric intensive care audit, and obstetric surveillance data. Outcomes included incidence (per 10 000 livebirths) of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe disease, proportions of babies with suspected vertically and nosocomially acquired infection, and clinical outcomes. FINDINGS: We identified 66 babies with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (incidence 5·6 [95% CI 4·3-7·1] per 10 000 livebirths), of whom 28 (42%) had severe neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection (incidence 2·4 [1·6-3·4] per 10 000 livebirths). 16 (24%) of these babies were born preterm. 36 (55%) babies were from white ethnic groups (SARS-CoV-2 infection incidence 4·6 [3·2-6·4] per 10 000 livebirths), 14 (21%) were from Asian ethnic groups (15·2 [8·3-25·5] per 10 000 livebirths), eight (12%) were from Black ethnic groups (18·0 [7·8-35·5] per 10 000 livebirths), and seven (11%) were from mixed or other ethnic groups (5·6 [2·2-11·5] per 10 000 livebirths). 17 (26%) babies with confirmed infection were born to mothers with known perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection, two (3%) were considered to have possible vertically acquired infection (SARS-CoV-2-positive sample within 12 h of birth where the mother was also positive). Eight (12%) babies had suspected nosocomially acquired infection. As of July 28, 2020, 58 (88%) babies had been discharged home, seven (11%) were still admitted, and one (2%) had died of a cause unrelated to SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERPRETATION: Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection is uncommon in babies admitted to hospital. Infection with neonatal admission following birth to a mother with perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection was unlikely, and possible vertical transmission rare, supporting international guidance to avoid separation of mother and baby. The high proportion of babies from Black, Asian, or minority ethnic groups requires investigation. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Policy Research Programme.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Cross Infection/virology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Male , Obstetrics/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom/epidemiology
14.
Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol ; 76: 41-52, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-846543

ABSTRACT

Influenza in pregnancy is a common condition that is associated with an increased risk of hospital admission. Women with comorbidities are at a greater risk of severe outcomes. There are substantial gaps in our knowledge of the impact of severe influenza on perinatal outcomes, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, but preterm birth, fetal death, infant respiratory infection and hospital admission may be increased. Thus, influenza is a major burden on health services. Immunisation is cost-effective, safe and effective in preventing influenza in pregnant women and their infants but policies and uptake vary worldwide. Operational challenges and concern over the safety, efficacy and necessity of immunisation are common, and there is a lack of evidence on how to overcome these barriers. This review identifies learning points that are relevant to the current coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic through describing the epidemiology and impact of seasonal and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza in pregnancy, alongside the effectiveness and use of immunisation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(2): 133-141, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779849

ABSTRACT

Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS) is a novel condition that was first reported in April, 2020. We aimed to develop a national consensus management pathway for the UK to provide guidance for clinicians caring for children with PIMS-TS. A three-phase online Delphi process and virtual consensus meeting sought consensus over the investigation, management, and research priorities from multidisciplinary clinicians caring for children with PIMS-TS. We used 140 consensus statements to derive a consensus management pathway that describes the initial investigation of children with suspected PIMS-TS, including blood markers to help determine the severity of disease, an echocardiogram, and a viral and septic screen to exclude other infectious causes of illness. The importance of a multidisciplinary team in decision making for children with PIMS-TS is highlighted throughout the guidance, along with the recommended treatment options, including supportive care, intravenous immunoglobulin, methylprednisolone, and biological therapies. These include IL-1 antagonists (eg, anakinra), IL-6 receptor blockers (eg, tocilizumab), and anti-TNF agents (eg, infliximab) for children with Kawasaki disease-like phenotype and non-specific presentations. Use of a rapid online Delphi process has made it possible to generate a national consensus pathway in a timely and cost-efficient manner in the middle of a global pandemic. The consensus statements represent the views of UK clinicians and are applicable to children in the UK suspected of having PIMS-TS. Future evidence will inform updates to this guidance, which in the interim provides a solid framework to support clinicians caring for children with PIMS-TS. This process has directly informed new PIMS-TS specific treatment groups as part of the adaptive UK RECOVERY trial protocol, which is the first formal randomised controlled trial of therapies for PIMS-TS globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Pathways/standards , Disease Management , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Consensus , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , United Kingdom
18.
BMJ ; 369: m2107, 2020 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574593

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe a national cohort of pregnant women admitted to hospital with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the UK, identify factors associated with infection, and describe outcomes, including transmission of infection, for mothers and infants. DESIGN: Prospective national population based cohort study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS). SETTING: All 194 obstetric units in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 427 pregnant women admitted to hospital with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between 1 March 2020 and 14 April 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of maternal hospital admission and infant infection. Rates of maternal death, level 3 critical care unit admission, fetal loss, caesarean birth, preterm birth, stillbirth, early neonatal death, and neonatal unit admission. RESULTS: The estimated incidence of admission to hospital with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy was 4.9 (95% confidence interval 4.5 to 5.4) per 1000 maternities. 233 (56%) pregnant women admitted to hospital with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy were from black or other ethnic minority groups, 281 (69%) were overweight or obese, 175 (41%) were aged 35 or over, and 145 (34%) had pre-existing comorbidities. 266 (62%) women gave birth or had a pregnancy loss; 196 (73%) gave birth at term. Forty one (10%) women admitted to hospital needed respiratory support, and five (1%) women died. Twelve (5%) of 265 infants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, six of them within the first 12 hours after birth. CONCLUSIONS: Most pregnant women admitted to hospital with SARS-CoV-2 infection were in the late second or third trimester, supporting guidance for continued social distancing measures in later pregnancy. Most had good outcomes, and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to infants was uncommon. The high proportion of women from black or minority ethnic groups admitted with infection needs urgent investigation and explanation. STUDY REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 40092247.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , COVID-19 , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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