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1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3443-3452, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526424

ABSTRACT

The recently emerged novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is phylogenetically related to bat coronaviruses (CoVs), specifically SARS-related CoVs from the Eurasian bat family Rhinolophidae. As this human pandemic virus has spread across the world, the potential impacts of SARS-CoV-2 on native North American bat populations are unknown, as is the ability of North American bats to serve as reservoirs or intermediate hosts able to transmit the virus to humans or to other animal species. To help determine the impacts of the pandemic virus on North American bat populations, we experimentally challenged big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) with SARS-CoV-2 under BSL-3 conditions. We inoculated the bats both oropharyngeally and nasally, and over the ensuing three weeks, we measured infectivity, pathology, virus concentrations in tissues, oral and rectal virus excretion, virus transmission, and clinical signs of disease. We found no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in any examined bat, including no viral excretion, no transmission, no detectable virus in tissues, and no signs of disease or pathology. Based on our findings, it appears that big brown bats are resistant to infection with the SARS-CoV-2. The potential susceptibility of other North American bat species to SARS-CoV-2 remains to be investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Coronaviridae , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Humans , North America/epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0253090, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Background Population-based data on SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy and assessment of passive immunity to the neonate, is lacking. We profiled the maternal and fetal response using a combination of viral RNA from naso-pharyngeal swabs and serological assessment of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This multicentre prospective observational study was conducted between March 24th and August 31st 2020. Two independent cohorts were established, a symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 cohort and a cohort of asymptomatic pregnant women attending two of the largest maternity hospitals in Europe. Symptomatic women were invited to provide a serum sample to assess antibody responses. Asymptomatic pregnant women provided a nasopharyngeal swab and serum sample. RT-PCR for viral RNA was performed using the Cobas SARS-CoV-2 6800 platform (Roche). Umbilical cord bloods were obtained at delivery. Maternal and fetal serological response was measured using both the Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay (Roche), Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG Assay and the IgM Architect assay. Informed written consent was obtained from all participants. RESULTS: Ten of twenty three symptomatic women had SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected on nasopharyngeal swabs. Five (5/23, 21.7%) demonstrated serological evidence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies and seven (30.4%, 7/23) were positive for IgM antibodies. In the asymptomatic cohort, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in RNA was 0.16% (1/608). IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in 1·67% (10/598, 95% CI 0·8%-3·1%) and IgM in 3·51% (21/598, 95% CI 2·3-5·5%). Nine women had repeat testing post the baseline test. Four (4/9, 44%) remained IgM positive and one remained IgG positive. 3 IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detectable in cord bloods from babies born to five seropositive women who delivered during the study. The mean gestation at serological test was 34 weeks. The mean time between maternal serologic positivity and detection in umbilical cord samples was 28 days. CONCLUSION: Using two independent serological assays, we present a comprehensive illustration of the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy, and show a low prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV2. Transplacental migration of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was identified in cord blood of women who demonstrated antenatal anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, raising the possibility of passive immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Delivery, Obstetric , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fetal Blood/metabolism , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13898, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298848

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women may be at higher risk of severe complications associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which may lead to obstetrical complications. We performed a case control study comparing pregnant women with severe coronavirus disease 19 (cases) to pregnant women with a milder form (controls) enrolled in the COVI-Preg international registry cohort between March 24 and July 26, 2020. Risk factors for severity, obstetrical and immediate neonatal outcomes were assessed. A total of 926 pregnant women with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 were included, among which 92 (9.9%) presented with severe COVID-19 disease. Risk factors for severe maternal outcomes were pulmonary comorbidities [aOR 4.3, 95% CI 1.9-9.5], hypertensive disorders [aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0-7.0] and diabetes [aOR2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.5]. Pregnant women with severe maternal outcomes were at higher risk of caesarean section [70.7% (n = 53/75)], preterm delivery [62.7% (n = 32/51)] and newborns requiring admission to the neonatal intensive care unit [41.3% (n = 31/75)]. In this study, several risk factors for developing severe complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pregnant women were identified including pulmonary comorbidities, hypertensive disorders and diabetes. Obstetrical and neonatal outcomes appear to be influenced by the severity of maternal disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/virology , Risk Factors
4.
Vouga, Manon, Favre, Guillaume, Martinez Perez, Oscar, Pomar, Leo, Forcen Acebal, Laura, Abascal, Alejandra, Vila Hernandez, Maria Rosa, Hcini, Najeh, Lambert, Véronique, Carles, Gabriel, Sichitiu, Joanna, Salomon, Laurent, Stiremann, Julien, Ville, Yves, Martinez de Tejada, Begoña, Goncé, Anna, Hawkins-Villareal, Ameth, Castillo, Karen, Gratacos Solsona, Eduard, Trigo, Lucas, Cleary, Brian, Geary, Michael, Bartels, Helena, Al-Kharouf, Feras, Malone, Fergal, Higgins, Mary, Keating, Niamh, Knowles, Susan, Poncelet, Christophe, Carvalho, Carolina, Ribeiro-do-Valle, Fernanda, Surita, Garanhani, Dantas-Silva, Amanda, Borrelli, Carolina, Gomes Luz, Adriana, Fuenzalida, Javiera, Carvajal, Jorge, Guerra Canales, Manuel, Hernandez, Olivia, Grechukhina, Olga, Ko, Albert I.; Reddy, Uma, Figueiredo, Rita, Moucho, Marina, Viana Pinto, Pedro, De Luca, Carmen, De Santis, Marco, Ayres de Campos, Diogo, Garabedian, Charles, Subtil, Damien, Bohrer, Betania, Da Rocha Oppermann, Maria Lucia, Celeste, Maria, Wender, Osorio, Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia, Vieira Sanseverino, Maria Teresa, Giugliani, Camila, Friedrich, Luciana, Horn Scherer, Mariana, Mottet, Nicolas, Ducarme, Guillaume, Pelerin, Helene, Moreau, Chloe, Breton, Bénédicte, Quibel, Thibaud, Rozenberg, Patrick, Mueller, Doris, Granado, Cristina, Hoesli, Irene, Monod, Cécile, Bassler, Dirk, Heldstab, Sandra, Ochsenbein Kölble, Nicole, Sentilhes, Loïc, Charvet, Melissa, Deprest, Jan, Richter, Jute, Van der Veeken, Lennart, Eggel-Hort, Béatrice, Plantefeve, Gaetan, Derouich, Mohamed, Nieto Calvache, Albaro José, Lopez-Giron, Maria Camila, Burgos-Luna, Juan Manuel, Escobar-Vidarte, Maria Fernanda, Hecher, Kurt, Tallarek, Ann-Christin, Hadar, Eran, Krajden Haratz, Karina, Malinger, Gustavo, Maymon, Ron, Yogev, Yariv, Schäffer, Leonhard, Toussaint, Arnaud, Rossier, Marie-Claude, Moreira de sa, Renato Augusto, Grawe, Claudia, Aebi-Popp, Karoline, Radan, Anda-Petronela, Raio, Luigi, Surbek, Daniel, Böckenhoff, Paul, Strizek, Brigitte, Kaufmann, Martin, Bloch, Andrea, Boulvain, Michel, Johann, Silke, Heldstab, Sandra Andrea, Todesco Bernasconi, Monya, Grant, Gaston, Feki, Anis, Muller Brochut, Anne-Claude, Giral, Marylene, Sedille, Lucie, Papadia, Andrea, Capoccia Brugger, Romina, Weber, Brigitte, Fischer, Tina, Kahlert, Christian, Nielsen Saines, Karin, Cambou, Mary, Kanellos, Panagiotis, Chen, Xiang, Yin, Mingzhu, Haessig, Annina, Baud, David, Panchaud, Alice.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-2803
5.
Vouga, Manon, Favre, Guillaume, Martinez Perez, Oscar, Pomar, Leo, Forcen Acebal, Laura, Abascal, Alejandra, Vila Hernandez, Maria Rosa, Hcini, Najeh, Lambert, Véronique, Carles, Gabriel, Sichitiu, Joanna, Salomon, Laurent, Stiremann, Julien, Ville, Yves, Martinez de Tejada, Begoña, Goncé, Anna, Hawkins-Villareal, Ameth, Castillo, Karen, Gratacos Solsona, Eduard, Trigo, Lucas, Cleary, Brian, Geary, Michael, Bartels, Helena, Al-Kharouf, Feras, Malone, Fergal, Higgins, Mary, Keating, Niamh, Knowles, Susan, Poncelet, Christophe, Carvalho, Carolina, Ribeiro-do-Valle, Fernanda, Surita, Garanhani, Dantas-Silva, Amanda, Borrelli, Carolina, Gomes Luz, Adriana, Fuenzalida, Javiera, Guerra Canales, Manuel, Hernandez, Olivia, Grechukhina, Olga, Ko, Albert, Reddy, Uma, Figueiredo, Rita, Moucho, Marina, Viana Pinto, Pedro, De Luca, Carmen, De Santis, Marco, Ayres de Campos, Diogo, Garabedian, Charles, Subtil, Damien, Bohrer, Betania, Da Rocha Oppermann, Maria Lucia, Celeste, Maria, Wender, Osorio, Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia, Vieira Sanseverino, Maria Teresa, Giugliani, Camila, Friedrich, Luciana, Horn Scherer, Mariana, Mottet, Nicolas, Ducarme, Guillaume, Pelerin, Helene, Moreau, Chloe, Breton, Bénédicte, Quibel, Thibaud, Rozenberg, Patrick, Mueller, Doris, Granado, Cristina, Hoesli, Irene, Monod, Cécile, Bassler, Dirk, Heldstab, Sandra, Ochsenbein Kölble, Nicole, Sentilhes, Loïc, Charvet, Melissa, Deprest, Jan, Richter, Jute, Van der Veeken, Lennart, Eggel-Hort, Béatrice, Plantefeve, Gaetan, Derouich, Mohamed, Nieto Calvache, Albaro José, Lopez-Giron, Maria Camila, Burgos-Luna, Juan Manuel, Escobar-Vidarte, Maria Fernanda, Hecher, Kurt, Tallarek, Ann-Christin, Hadar, Eran, Krajden Haratz, Karina, Malinger, Gustavo, Maymon, Ron, Yogev, Yariv, Schäffer, Leonhard, Toussaint, Arnaud, Rossier, Marie-Claude, Moreira de sa, Renato Augusto, Grawe, Claudia, Aebi-Popp, Karoline, Radan, Anda-Petronela, Raio, Luigi, Surbek, Daniel, Böckenhoff, Paul, Strizek, Brigitte, Kaufmann, Martin, Bloch, Andrea, Boulvain, Michel, Johann, Silke, Todesco Bernasconi, Monya, Grant, Gaston, Feki, Anis, Muller Brochut, Anne-Claude, Giral, Marylene, Sedille, Lucie, Papadia, Andrea, Capoccia Brugger, Romina, Weber, Brigitte, Fischer, Tina, Kahlert, Christian, Nielsen Saines, Karin, Cambou, Mary, Kanellos, Panagiotis, Chen, Xiang, Yin, Mingzhu, Haessig, Annina, Baud, David, Panchaud, Alice.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-2498
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