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2.
Epidemiology ; 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778957

ABSTRACT

Post-authorization observational studies play a key role in understanding COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness following the demonstration of efficacy in clinical trials. While bias due to confounding, selection bias, and misclassification can be mitigated through careful study design, unmeasured confounding is likely to remain in these observational studies. Phase III trials of COVID-19 vaccines have shown that protection from vaccination does not occur immediately, meaning that COVID-19 risk should be similar in recently vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, in the absence of confounding or other bias. Several studies have used the estimated effectiveness among recently vaccinated individuals as a negative control exposure to detect bias in vaccine effectiveness estimates. In this paper we introduce a theoretical framework to describe the interpretation of such a bias-indicator in test-negative studies, and outline strong assumptions that would allow vaccine effectiveness among recently vaccinated individuals to serve as a negative control exposure.

3.
Kidney360 ; 2(6): 924-936, 2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776841

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection has, as of April 2021, affected >133 million people worldwide, causing >2.5 million deaths. Because the large majority of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 are asymptomatic, major concerns have been raised about possible long-term consequences of the infection. Methods: Wedeveloped an antigen capture assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in urine samples from patients with COVID-19whose diagnosis was confirmed by positive PCR results from nasopharyngeal swabs (NP-PCR+) forSARS-CoV-2. We used a collection of 233 urine samples from 132 participants from Yale New Haven Hospital and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia that were obtained during the pandemic (106 NP-PCR+ and 26 NP-PCR-), and a collection of 20 urine samples from 20 individuals collected before the pandemic. Results: Our analysis identified 23 out of 91 (25%) NP-PCR+ adult participants with SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein in urine (Ur-S+). Interestingly, although all NP-PCR+ children were Ur-S-, one child who was NP-PCR- was found to be positive for spike protein in their urine. Of the 23 adults who were Ur-S+, only one individual showed detectable viral RNA in urine. Our analysis further showed that 24% and 21% of adults who were NP-PCR+ had high levels of albumin and cystatin C, respectively, in their urine. Among individuals with albuminuria (>0.3 mg/mg of creatinine), statistical correlation could be found between albumin and spike protein in urine. Conclusions: Together, our data showed that one of four individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop renal abnormalities, such as albuminuria. Awareness about the long-term effect of these findings is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768665

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccines have proven highly effective among individuals without a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, but their effectiveness in preventing symptomatic infection and severe outcomes among individuals with previous infection is less clear. We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of four COVID-19 vaccines against symptomatic infection, hospitalisation, and death for individuals with laboratory-confirmed previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Using national COVID-19 notification, hospitalisation, and vaccination datasets from Brazil, we did a test-negative, case-control study to assess the effectiveness of four vaccines (CoronaVac [Sinovac], ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 [AstraZeneca], Ad26.COV2.S [Janssen], and BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNtech]) for individuals with laboratory-confirmed previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. We matched cases with RT-PCR positive, symptomatic COVID-19 with up to ten controls with negative RT-PCR tests who presented with symptomatic illnesses, restricting both groups to tests done at least 90 days after an initial infection. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression to compare the odds of test positivity and the odds of hospitalisation or death due to COVID-19, according to vaccination status and time since first or second dose of vaccines. FINDINGS: Between Feb 24, 2020, and Nov 11, 2021, we identified 213 457 individuals who had a subsequent, symptomatic illness with RT-PCR testing done at least 90 days after their initial SARS-CoV-2 infection and after the vaccination programme started. Among these, 30 910 (14·5%) had a positive RT-PCR test consistent with reinfection, and we matched 22 566 of these cases with 145 055 negative RT-PCR tests from 68 426 individuals as controls. Among individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infection 14 or more days from vaccine series completion was 39·4% (95% CI 36·1-42·6) for CoronaVac, 56·0% (51·4-60·2) for ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, 44·0% (31·5-54·2) for Ad26.COV2.S, and 64·8% (54·9-72·4) for BNT162b2. For the two-dose vaccine series (CoronaVac, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, and BNT162b2), effectiveness against symptomatic infection was significantly greater after the second dose than after the first dose. Effectiveness against hospitalisation or death 14 or more days from vaccine series completion was 81·3% (75·3-85·8) for CoronaVac, 89·9% (83·5-93·8) for ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, 57·7% (-2·6 to 82·5) for Ad26.COV2.S, and 89·7% (54·3-97·7) for BNT162b2. INTERPRETATION: All four vaccines conferred additional protection against symptomatic infections and severe outcomes among individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. The provision of a full vaccine series to individuals after recovery from COVID-19 might reduce morbidity and mortality. FUNDING: Brazilian National Research Council, Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, JBS, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, and Generalitat de Catalunya.

5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1547, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751715

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 remdesivir resistance mutations have been generated in vitro but have not been reported in patients receiving treatment with the antiviral agent. We present a case of an immunocompromised patient with acquired B-cell deficiency who developed an indolent, protracted course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Remdesivir therapy alleviated symptoms and produced a transient virologic response, but her course was complicated by recrudescence of high-grade viral shedding. Whole genome sequencing identified a mutation, E802D, in the nsp12 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which was not present in pre-treatment specimens. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the mutation conferred a ~6-fold increase in remdesivir IC50 but resulted in a fitness cost in the absence of remdesivir. Sustained clinical and virologic response was achieved after treatment with casirivimab-imdevimab. Although the fitness cost observed in vitro may limit the risk posed by E802D, this case illustrates the importance of monitoring for remdesivir resistance and the potential benefit of combinatorial therapies in immunocompromised patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
NPJ Digit Med ; 5(1): 27, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735293

ABSTRACT

Diagnosis codes are used to study SARS-CoV2 infections and COVID-19 hospitalizations in administrative and electronic health record (EHR) data. Using EHR data (April 2020-March 2021) at the Yale-New Haven Health System and the three hospital systems of the Mayo Clinic, computable phenotype definitions based on ICD-10 diagnosis of COVID-19 (U07.1) were evaluated against positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR or antigen tests. We included 69,423 patients at Yale and 75,748 at Mayo Clinic with either a diagnosis code or a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. The precision and recall of a COVID-19 diagnosis for a positive test were 68.8% and 83.3%, respectively, at Yale, with higher precision (95%) and lower recall (63.5%) at Mayo Clinic, varying between 59.2% in Rochester to 97.3% in Arizona. For hospitalizations with a principal COVID-19 diagnosis, 94.8% at Yale and 80.5% at Mayo Clinic had an associated positive laboratory test, with secondary diagnosis of COVID-19 identifying additional patients. These patients had a twofold higher inhospital mortality than based on principal diagnosis. Standardization of coding practices is needed before the use of diagnosis codes in clinical research and epidemiological surveillance of COVID-19.

7.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264178, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731596

ABSTRACT

Renalase is a secreted flavoprotein with anti-inflammatory and pro-cell survival properties. COVID-19 is associated with disordered inflammation and apoptosis. We hypothesized that blood renalase levels would correspond to severe COVID-19 and survival. In this retrospective cohort study, clinicopathologic data and blood samples were collected from hospitalized COVID-19 subjects (March-June 2020) at a single institution tertiary hospital. Plasma renalase and cytokine levels were measured and clinical data abstracted from health records. Of 3,450 COVID-19 patients, 458 patients were enrolled. Patients were excluded if <18 years, or opted out of research. The primary composite outcome was intubation or death within 180 days. Secondary outcomes included mortality alone, intensive care unit admission, use of vasopressors, and CPR. Enrolled patients had mean age 64 years (SD±17), were 53% males, and 48% non-whites. Mean renalase levels was 14,108·4 ng/ml (SD±8,137 ng/ml). Compared to patients with high renalase, those with low renalase (< 8,922 ng/ml) were more likely to present with hypoxia, increased ICU admission (54% vs. 33%, p < 0.001), and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (10% vs. 4%, p = 0·023). In Cox proportional hazard model, every 1000 ng/ml increase in renalase decreased the risk of death or intubation by 5% (HR 0·95; 95% CI 0·91-0·98) and increased survival alone by 6% (HR 0·95; CI 0·90-0·98), after adjusting for socio-demographics, initial disease severity, comorbidities and inflammation. Patients with high renalase-low IL-6 levels had the best survival compared to other groups (p = 0·04). Renalase was independently associated with reduced intubation and mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Future studies should assess the pathophysiological relevance of renalase in COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Monoamine Oxidase/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Endothelium/metabolism , Endothelium/pathology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(9)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713295

ABSTRACT

An increased incidence of chilblains has been observed during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and attributed to viral infection. Direct evidence of this relationship has been limited, however, as most cases do not have molecular evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection with PCR or antibodies. We enrolled a cohort of 23 patients who were diagnosed and managed as having SARS-CoV-2-associated skin eruptions (including 21 pandemic chilblains [PC]) during the first wave of the pandemic in Connecticut. Antibody responses were determined through endpoint titration enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serum epitope repertoire analysis. T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 were assessed by T cell receptor sequencing and in vitro SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific peptide stimulation assays. Immunohistochemical and PCR studies of PC biopsies and tissue microarrays for evidence of SARS-CoV-2 were performed. Among patients diagnosed and managed as "covid toes" during the pandemic, we find a percentage of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (9.5%) that approximates background seroprevalence (8.5%) at the time. Immunohistochemistry studies suggest that SARS-CoV-2 staining in PC biopsies may not be from SARS-CoV-2. Our results do not support SARS-CoV-2 as the causative agent of pandemic chilblains; however, our study does not exclude the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 seronegative abortive infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Chilblains/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chilblains/epidemiology , Chilblains/virology , Connecticut/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
9.
Nat Biotechnol ; 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713197

ABSTRACT

As the biomedical community produces datasets that are increasingly complex and high dimensional, there is a need for more sophisticated computational tools to extract biological insights. We present Multiscale PHATE, a method that sweeps through all levels of data granularity to learn abstracted biological features directly predictive of disease outcome. Built on a coarse-graining process called diffusion condensation, Multiscale PHATE learns a data topology that can be analyzed at coarse resolutions for high-level summarizations of data and at fine resolutions for detailed representations of subsets. We apply Multiscale PHATE to a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) dataset with 54 million cells from 168 hospitalized patients and find that patients who die show CD16hiCD66blo neutrophil and IFN-γ+ granzyme B+ Th17 cell responses. We also show that population groupings from Multiscale PHATE directly fed into a classifier predict disease outcome more accurately than naive featurizations of the data. Multiscale PHATE is broadly generalizable to different data types, including flow cytometry, single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), single-cell sequencing assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (scATAC-seq), and clinical variables.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 225(3): 374-384, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The underlying immunologic deficiencies enabling severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reinfection are currently unknown. We describe deep longitudinal immune profiling of a transplant recipient hospitalized twice for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A 66-year-old male renal transplant recipient was hospitalized with COVID-19 March 2020 then readmitted to the hospital with COVID-19 233 days after initial diagnosis. Virologic and immunologic investigations were performed on samples from the primary and secondary infections. RESULTS: Whole viral genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that viruses causing both infections were caused by distinct genetic lineages without evidence of immune escape mutations. Longitudinal comparison of cellular and humoral responses during primary SARS-CoV-2 infection revealed that this patient responded to the primary infection with low neutralization titer anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies that were likely present at the time of reinfection. CONCLUSIONS: The development of neutralizing antibodies and humoral memory responses in this patient failed to confer protection against reinfection, suggesting that they were below a neutralizing titer threshold or that additional factors may be required for efficient prevention of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection. Development of poorly neutralizing antibodies may have been due to profound and relatively specific reduction in naive CD4 T-cell pools. Seropositivity alone may not be a perfect correlate of protection in immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reinfection , Transplant Recipients , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Male , Organ Transplantation , Phylogeny , Reinfection/immunology , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
11.
FEMS Microbes ; 2: xtab022, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672192

ABSTRACT

We assessed the relationship between municipality COVID-19 case rates and SARS-CoV-2 concentrations in the primary sludge of corresponding wastewater treatment facilities. Over 1700 daily primary sludge samples were collected from six wastewater treatment facilities with catchments serving 18 cities and towns in the State of Connecticut, USA. Samples were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations during a 10 month time period that overlapped with October 2020 and winter/spring 2021 COVID-19 outbreaks in each municipality. We fit lagged regression models to estimate reported case rates in the six municipalities from SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations collected daily from corresponding wastewater treatment facilities. Results demonstrate the ability of SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations in primary sludge to estimate COVID-19 reported case rates across treatment facilities and wastewater catchments, with coverage probabilities ranging from 0.94 to 0.96. Lags of 0 to 1 days resulted in the greatest predictive power for the model. Leave-one-out cross validation suggests that the model can be broadly applied to wastewater catchments that range in more than one order of magnitude in population served. The close relationship between case rates and SARS-CoV-2 concentrations demonstrates the utility of using primary sludge samples for monitoring COVID-19 outbreak dynamics. Estimating case rates from wastewater data can be useful in locations with limited testing availability, testing disparities, or delays in individual COVID-19 testing programs.

12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 440, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641960

ABSTRACT

Dysregulated immune responses against the SARS-CoV-2 virus are instrumental in severe COVID-19. However, the immune signatures associated with immunopathology are poorly understood. Here we use multi-omics single-cell analysis to probe the dynamic immune responses in hospitalized patients with stable or progressive course of COVID-19, explore V(D)J repertoires, and assess the cellular effects of tocilizumab. Coordinated profiling of gene expression and cell lineage protein markers shows that S100Ahi/HLA-DRlo classical monocytes and activated LAG-3hi T cells are hallmarks of progressive disease and highlights the abnormal MHC-II/LAG-3 interaction on myeloid and T cells, respectively. We also find skewed T cell receptor repertories in expanded effector CD8+ clones, unmutated IGHG+ B cell clones, and mutated B cell clones with stable somatic hypermutation frequency over time. In conclusion, our in-depth immune profiling reveals dyssynchrony of the innate and adaptive immune interaction in progressive COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Immunity, Innate/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Male , RNA-Seq/methods , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
13.
Nat Med ; 28(3): 481-485, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636460

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant is raising concerns because of its increased transmissibility and its numerous spike mutations, which have the potential to evade neutralizing antibodies elicited by COVID-19 vaccines. Here we evaluated the effects of a heterologous BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine booster on the humoral immunity of participants who had received a two-dose regimen of CoronaVac, an inactivated vaccine used globally. We found that a heterologous CoronaVac prime vaccination of two doses followed by a BNT162b2 booster induces elevated virus-specific antibody levels and potent neutralization activity against the ancestral virus and the Delta variant, resembling the titers obtained after two doses of mRNA vaccines. Although neutralization of Omicron was undetectable in participants who had received a two-dose regimen of CoronaVac, the BNT162b2 booster resulted in a 1.4-fold increase in neutralization activity against Omicron compared with the two-dose mRNA vaccine. Despite this increase, neutralizing antibody titers were reduced by 7.1-fold and 3.6-fold for Omicron compared with the ancestral strain and the Delta variant, respectively. These findings have immediate implications for multiple countries that previously used a CoronaVac regimen and reinforce the idea that the Omicron variant is associated with immune escape from vaccines or infection-induced immunity, highlighting the global need for vaccine boosters to combat the impact of emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
15.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S257-S257, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564986

ABSTRACT

Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a common colonizer of the upper respiratory tract and can progress to cause invasive and mucosal disease. Additionally, infection with pneumococcus can complicate respiratory viral infections (influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, etc.) by exacerbating the initial disease. Limited data exist describing the potential relationship of SARS-CoV-2 infection with pneumococcus and the role of co-infection in influencing COVID-19 severity. Methods Inpatients and healthcare workers testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 during March-August 2020 were tested for pneumococcus through culture-enrichment of saliva followed by RT-qPCR (to identify carriage) and for inpatients only, serotype-specific urine antigen detection (UAD) assays (to identify pneumococcal pneumonia). A multinomial multivariate regression model was used to examine the relationship between pneumococcal detection and COVID-19 severity. Results Among the 126 subjects who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, the median age was 62 years;54.9% of subjects were male;88.89% were inpatients;23.5% had an ICU stay;and 13.5% died. Pneumococcus was detected in 17 subjects (13.5%) by any method, including 5 subjects (4.0%) by RT-qPCR and 12 subjects (13.6%) by UAD. Little to no bacterial growth was observed on 21/235 culture plates. Detection by UAD was associated with both moderate and severe COVID-19 disease while RT-qPCR detection in saliva was not associated with severity. None of the 12 individuals who were UAD-positive died. Conclusion Pneumococcal pneumonia (as determined by UAD) continues to occur during the ongoing pandemic and may be associated with more serious COVID-19 outcomes. Detection of pneumococcal carriage may be masked by high levels of antibiotic use. Future studies should better characterize the relationship between pneumococcus and SARS-CoV-2 across all disease severity levels. Disclosures Akiko Iwasaki, PhD, 4Bio (Consultant, Advisor or Review Panel member)Adaptive Biotechnologies (Consultant, Advisor or Review Panel member)Blavatnik (Grant/Research Support)HHMI (Grant/Research Support)Mathers (Grant/Research Support)NIH (Grant/Research Support)Spring Discovery (Grant/Research Support)Spring Discovery (Consultant, Advisor or Review Panel member)Vedanta InProTher (Consultant, Advisor or Review Panel member)Yale School of Medicine (Grant/Research Support) Nathan D. Grubaugh, PhD, Tempus Labs (Consultant) Ronika Alexander-Parrish, RN, MAEd, Pfizer (Employee, Shareholder) Adriano Arguedas, MD, Pfizer (Employee) Bradford D. Gessner, MD, MPH, Pfizer Inc. (Employee) Daniel Weinberger, PhD, Affinivax (Consultant)Merck (Consultant, Grant/Research Support)Pfizer (Consultant, Grant/Research Support) Anne Wyllie, PhD, Global Diagnostic Systems (Consultant)Pfizer (Advisor or Review Panel member, Research Grant or Support)PPS Health (Consultant)Tempus Labs, Inc (Research Grant or Support)

16.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Preprint in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: ppcovidwho-292787

ABSTRACT

Most currently approved strategies for the collection of saliva for COVID-19 diagnostics require specialized tubes containing buffers promoted for the stabilization of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and virus inactivation. Yet many of these are expensive, in limited supply, and not necessarily validated specifically for viral RNA. While saliva is a promising sample type as it can be reliably self-collected for the sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2, the expense and availability of these collection tubes are prohibitive to mass testing efforts. Therefore, we investigated the stability of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and infectious virus detection from saliva without supplementation. We tested RNA stability over extended periods of time (2-25 days) and at temperatures representing at-home storage and elevated temperatures which might be experienced when cold chain transport may be unavailable. We found SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva from infected individuals is stable at 4°C, room temperature (~19°C), and 30°C for prolonged periods and found limited evidence for viral replication in saliva. This work demonstrates that expensive saliva collection options involving RNA stabilization and virus inactivation buffers are not always needed, permitting the use of cheaper collection options. Affordable testing methods are urgently needed to meet current testing demands and for continued surveillance in reopening strategies.

17.
Non-conventional in English | MEDLINE, Grey literature | ID: grc-750483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Highly sensitive, non-invasive, and easily accessible diagnostics for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are essential for the control of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. There is a clear need to establish a gold standard diagnostic for SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans using respiratory tract specimens. METHODS: Searches will be conducted in the bibliographic databases Medline, Embase, bioRxiv, medRxiv, F1000, ChemRxiv, PeerJ Preprints, Preprints.org, Beilstein Archive, and Research Square. Relevant government documents and grey literature will be sought on the FDA's Emergency Use Authorizations website, the ECDC's website, and the website of the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics. Finally, papers categorized as diagnosis papers by the EPPI Centre's COVID-19 living systematic map will be added to our screening process;those papers are tagged with the diagnosis topic based on human review, rather than database searches, and thus this set of papers might include ones that have not been captured by our search strategy.

18.
J Infect Dis ; 225(3): 374-384, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The underlying immunologic deficiencies enabling severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reinfection are currently unknown. We describe deep longitudinal immune profiling of a transplant recipient hospitalized twice for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A 66-year-old male renal transplant recipient was hospitalized with COVID-19 March 2020 then readmitted to the hospital with COVID-19 233 days after initial diagnosis. Virologic and immunologic investigations were performed on samples from the primary and secondary infections. RESULTS: Whole viral genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that viruses causing both infections were caused by distinct genetic lineages without evidence of immune escape mutations. Longitudinal comparison of cellular and humoral responses during primary SARS-CoV-2 infection revealed that this patient responded to the primary infection with low neutralization titer anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies that were likely present at the time of reinfection. CONCLUSIONS: The development of neutralizing antibodies and humoral memory responses in this patient failed to confer protection against reinfection, suggesting that they were below a neutralizing titer threshold or that additional factors may be required for efficient prevention of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection. Development of poorly neutralizing antibodies may have been due to profound and relatively specific reduction in naive CD4 T-cell pools. Seropositivity alone may not be a perfect correlate of protection in immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reinfection , Transplant Recipients , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Male , Organ Transplantation , Phylogeny , Reinfection/immunology , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6220, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493098

ABSTRACT

A two-dose regimen of the Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1) Covid-19 vaccine with an inter-dose interval of three months has been implemented in many countries with restricted vaccine supply. However, there is limited evidence for the effectiveness of ChAdOx1 by dose in elderly populations in countries with high prevalence of the Gamma variant of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we estimate ChAdOx1 effectiveness by dose against the primary endpoint of RT-PCR-confirmed Covid-19, and secondary endpoints of Covid-19 hospitalization and Covid-19-related death, in adults aged ≥60 years during an epidemic with high Gamma variant prevalence in São Paulo state, Brazil using a matched, test-negative case-control study. Starting 28 days after the first dose, effectiveness of a single dose of ChAdOx1 is 33.4% (95% CI, 26.4-39.7) against Covid-19, 55.1% (95% CI, 46.6-62.2) against hospitalization, and 61.8% (95% CI, 48.9-71.4) against death. Starting 14 days after the second dose, effectiveness of the two-dose schedule is 77.9% (95% CI, 69.2-84.2) against Covid-19, 87.6% (95% CI, 78.2-92.9) against hospitalization, and 93.6% (95% CI, 81.9-97.7) against death. Completion of the ChAdOx1 vaccine schedule affords significantly increased protection over a single dose against mild and severe Covid-19 outcomes in elderly individuals during widespread Gamma variant circulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Brazil , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
20.
Nature ; 600(7889): 523-529, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462014

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with mutations in major neutralizing antibody-binding sites can affect humoral immunity induced by infection or vaccination1-6. Here we analysed the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody and T cell responses in individuals who were previously infected (recovered) or uninfected (naive) and received mRNA vaccines to SARS-CoV-2. While individuals who were previously infected sustained higher antibody titres than individuals who were uninfected post-vaccination, the latter reached comparable levels of neutralization responses to the ancestral strain after the second vaccine dose. T cell activation markers measured upon spike or nucleocapsid peptide in vitro stimulation showed a progressive increase after vaccination. Comprehensive analysis of plasma neutralization using 16 authentic isolates of distinct locally circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants revealed a range of reduction in the neutralization capacity associated with specific mutations in the spike gene: lineages with E484K and N501Y/T (for example, B.1.351 and P.1) had the greatest reduction, followed by lineages with L452R (for example, B.1.617.2). While both groups retained neutralization capacity against all variants, plasma from individuals who were previously infected and vaccinated displayed overall better neutralization capacity than plasma from individuals who were uninfected and also received two vaccine doses, pointing to vaccine boosters as a relevant future strategy to alleviate the effect of emerging variants on antibody neutralizing activity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , /immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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