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Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(2): 143-150, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307571


ABSTRACT: Age-related sporadic cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) has gained increasing attention over the past decades because of its increasing prevalence associated with an aging population. The widespread application of and advances in brain magnetic resonance imaging in recent decades have significantly increased researchers' understanding in the in vivo evolution of CSVD, its impact upon the brain, its risk factors, and the mechanisms that explain the various clinical manifestation associated with sporadic CSVD. In this review, we aimed to provide an update on the pathophysiology, risk factors, biomarkers, and the determinants and spectrum of the clinical manifestation of sporadic CSVD.

Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases , Pandemics , Aged , Aging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
ACS Cent Sci ; 7(5): 792-802, 2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225483


The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global threat to human health. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we identified and validated the hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitor simeprevir as an especially promising repurposable drug for treating COVID-19. Simeprevir potently reduces SARS-CoV-2 viral load by multiple orders of magnitude and synergizes with remdesivir in vitro. Mechanistically, we showed that simeprevir not only inhibits the main protease (Mpro) and unexpectedly the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) but also modulates host immune responses. Our results thus reveal the possible anti-SARS-CoV-2 mechanism of simeprevir and highlight the translational potential of optimizing simeprevir as a therapeutic agent for managing COVID-19 and future outbreaks of CoV.

Alzheimers Dement ; 16(11): 1571-1581, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713873


We have provided an overview on the profound impact of COVID-19 upon older people with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias and the challenges encountered in our management of dementia in different health-care settings, including hospital, out-patient, care homes, and the community during the COVID-19 pandemic. We have also proposed a conceptual framework and practical suggestions for health-care providers in tackling these challenges, which can also apply to the care of older people in general, with or without other neurological diseases, such as stroke or parkinsonism. We believe this review will provide strategic directions and set standards for health-care leaders in dementia, including governmental bodies around the world in coordinating emergency response plans for protecting and caring for older people with dementia amid the COIVD-19 outbreak, which is likely to continue at varying severity in different regions around the world in the medium term.

Alzheimer Disease/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dementia/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2