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1.
Yonsei Med J ; 63(5): 430-439, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834348

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Real-world experience with tocilizumab in combination with dexamethasone in patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) needs to be investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the effect of severity-adjusted dosing of dexamethasone in combination with tocilizumab for severe COVID-19 from August 2020 to August 2021. The primary endpoint was 30-day clinical recovery, which was defined as no oxygen requirement or referral after recovery. RESULTS: A total of 66 patients were evaluated, including 33 patients in the dexamethasone (Dexa) group and 33 patients in the dexamethasone plus tocilizumab (DexaToci) group. The DexaToci group showed a statistically significant benefit in 30-day clinical recovery, compared to the Dexa group (p=0.024). In multivariable analyses, peak FiO2 within 3 days and tocilizumab combination were consistently significant for 30-day recovery (all p<0.05). The DexaToci group showed a significantly steeper decrease in FiO2 (-4.2±2.6) than the Dexa group (-2.7±2.6; p=0.021) by hospital day 15. The duration of oxygen requirement was significantly shorter in the DexaToci group than the Dexa group (median, 10.0 days vs. 17.0 days; p=0.006). Infectious complications and cellular and humoral immune responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the convalescence stage were not different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: A combination of severity-adjusted dexamethasone and tocilizumab for the treatment of severe COVID-19 improved clinical recovery without increasing infectious complications or hindering the immune response against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(18): e134, 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often accompanied by secondary infections, such as invasive aspergillosis. In this study, risk factors for developing COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and their clinical outcomes were evaluated. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study included critically ill COVID-19 patients from July 2020 through March 2021. Critically ill patients were defined as patients requiring high-flow respiratory support or mechanical ventilation. CAPA was defined based on the 2020 European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology consensus criteria. Factors associated with CAPA were analyzed, and their clinical outcomes were adjusted by a propensity score-matched model. RESULTS: Among 187 eligible patients, 17 (9.1%) developed CAPA, which is equal to 33.10 per 10,000 patient-days. Sixteen patients received voriconazole-based antifungal treatment. In addition, 82.4% and 53.5% of patients with CAPA and without CAPA, respectively, received early high-dose corticosteroids (P = 0.022). In multivariable analysis, initial 10-day cumulative steroid dose > 60 mg of dexamethasone or dexamethasone equivalent dose) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-13.79) and chronic pulmonary disease (adjusted OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.26-14.02) were independently associated with CAPA. Tendencies of higher 90-day overall mortality (54.3% vs. 35.2%, P = 0.346) and lower respiratory support-free rate were observed in patients with CAPA (76.3% vs. 54.9%, P = 0.089). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the dose of corticosteroid use might be a risk factor for CAPA development and the possibility of CAPA contributing to adverse outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 822599, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822354

ABSTRACT

For the clinical application of semi-quantitative anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests, the analytical performance and titer correlation of the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) need to be investigated. We evaluated the analytical performance and PRNT titer-correlation of one surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) kit and three chemiluminescent assays. We measured the total antibodies for the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein, total antibodies for the nucleocapsid protein (NP), and IgG antibodies for the RBD. All three chemiluminescent assays showed high analytical performance for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a sensitivity ≥ 98% and specificity ≥ 99%; those of the sVNT were slightly lower. The representativeness of the neutralizing activity of PRNT ND50 ≥ 20 was comparable among the four immunoassays (Cohen's kappa ≈ 0.80). Quantitative titer correlation for high PRNT titers of ND50 ≥ 50, 200, and 1,000 was investigated with new cut-off values; the anti-RBD IgG antibody kit showed the best performance. It also showed the best linear correlation with PRNT titer in both the acute and convalescent phases (Pearson's R 0.81 and 0.72, respectively). Due to the slowly waning titer of anti-NP antibodies, the correlation with PRNT titer at the convalescent phase was poor. In conclusion, semi-quantitative immunoassay kits targeting the RBD showed neutralizing activity that was correlated by titer; measurement of anti-NP antibodies would be useful for determining past infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoassay , Neutralization Tests , Nucleocapsid Proteins , SARS-CoV-2
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320007

ABSTRACT

Memory T-cell responses have been demonstrated after recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells have not been comprehensively investigated ex vivo. We detected SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells by MHC-I multimer staining and examined their phenotypes in relation to their functional capacity in acute and convalescent COVID-19. In the convalescent phase, multimer+ cells exhibited early differentiated effector-memory phenotypes. The frequency of CD127+KLRG1- memory precursor effector cells among multimer+ cells was significantly lower in convalescent individuals with severe disease than those with mild disease. Cytokine-secretion assays combined with MHC-I multimer staining revealed that the proportion of IFN-γ-producing cells was significantly lower among SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells than those specific to other viruses. Importantly, the proportion of IFN-γ-producing cells was significantly higher in PD-1+ cells than PD-1- cells among multimer+ cells in both the acute and convalescence phases, indicating that PD-1-expressing, SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells are not exhausted, but functional. Our findings provide insights for effective vaccine development.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314184

ABSTRACT

Background: Since mid-April 2020, cases of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that mimic Kawasaki disease (KD) have been reported in Europe and North America. However, no cases have been in East Asia, where KD is more prevalent. Case presentation: A previously healthy 11-year-old boy was admitted with a 4-day history of fever and abdominal pain. He had no contact history to any patient with COVID-19. Blood acute inflammatory markers were highly elevated. He was treated with antibiotics for suspected bacterial enteritis, but he suddenly developed hypotension. Inotropics and intravenous immunoglobulin were administered to manage septic shock. On hospitalization day 6, he developed signs and symptoms of KD (conjunctival injection, strawberry tongue, cracked lip, and coronary artery dilatation) in addition to pleural/pericardial effusion and mesenteric lymphadenitis. The results of microbiologic tests, including reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), were negative. Fluorescent immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed abundant IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in his serum, but no IgM antibodies. He was discharged successfully on day 13. Conclusion: MIS-C may occur in children with a previously asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. A high index of suspicion is required for this novel syndrome in unusual cases of KD or KD shock syndrome with multisystem inflammation, even when there is no clear history of contact or symptoms of COVID-19.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314175

ABSTRACT

Back ground. Asymptomatic/mildly symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients produce a considerable amount of virus and transmit severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) through close contact. Preventing in-hospital transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is challenging, since symptom-based screening protocols may miss asymptomatic/mildly symptomatic patients. In particular, dental health workers (HCWs) are at high risk of exposure, as face-to-face contact and exposure to oral secretions is unavoidable. We report exposure of HCWs during dental procedures on a mild symptomatic COVID-19 patient. Methods. A 32-year old male visited a dental clinic at a tertiary care hospital. He experienced mild cough, which started three days before the dental visit, but did not report his symptom during the entrance screening. He underwent several dental procedures and imaging for orthognathic surgery without wearing a mask. Seven HCWs were closely exposed to the patient during dental procedures that could have generated droplets and aerosols. One HCW had close contact with the patient during radiologic exams, and seven HCWs had casual contact. All HCWs wore particulate filtering respirators with 94% filter capacity and gloves, but none wore eye protection or gowns. The next day, the patient experienced dysgeusia and was diagnosed with COVID-19 with high viral load. Results. All HCWs who had close contact with the patient were quarantined for 14 days, and polymerase chain reaction and antibody tests for SARS-CoV-2 were negative. Conclusion. This exposure event suggests the protective effect of particulate filtering respirators in dental clinics. The appropriate personal protective equipment for routine patient care during COVID-19 pandemic should be established. The appropriate personal protective equipment for routine patient care during COVID-19 pandemic should be established.

7.
Frontiers in immunology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564399

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate clinical effectiveness of regdanvimab, a monoclonal antibody agent for treating coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted at two general hospitals during the study period of December 2020 to May 2021. Mild COVID-19 patients with risk factors for disease progression admitted to the hospitals within seven days of symptom onset were enrolled and followed until discharge or referral. Multivariate analyses for disease progression were conducted in the total and propensity score (PS)-matched cohorts. Results A total of 778 mild COVID-19 patients were included and classified as the regdanvimab (n = 234) and supportive care (n = 544) groups. Significantly fewer patients required O2 supplementation via nasal prong in the regdanvimab group (8.1%) than in the supportive care group (18.4%, P < 0.001). The decreased risk for O2 support by regdanvimab treatment was noticed in the multivariate analysis of the total cohort (HR 0.570, 95% CI 0.343–0.946, P = 0.030), but it was not statistically significant in the PS-matched cohort (P = 0.057). Progression to severe disease was also significantly lower in the regdanvimab group (2.1%) than in the supportive care group (9.6%, P < 0.001). The significantly reduced risk for progression to severe disease by regdanvimab treatment was observed in the analysis of both the total cohort (HR 0.262, 95% CI 0.103–0.667, P = 0.005) and PS-matched cohort (HR 0.176, 95% CI 0.060–0.516, P = 0.002). Potential risk factors for progression were investigated in the supportive care group and SpO2 < 97% and CRP elevation >1.5 mg/dL were common risk factors for O2 support and progression to severe disease. Among the patients with any of these factors, regdanvimab treatment was associated with decreased risk for progression to severe disease with slightly lower HR (HR 0.202, 95% CI 0.062–0.657, P = 0.008) than that of the total cohort. Conclusion Regdanvimab treatment was associated with a decreased risk of progression to severe disease.

8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 744206, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459508

ABSTRACT

The effects of corticosteroid use on the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (ChAd) vaccine were evaluated. Healthcare workers (HCWs) who took low-dose corticosteroid agents around the time of the first dose of ChAd (ChAdPd group) were recruited and the reactogenicity and immunogenicity were compared with those of ChAd (ChAd group) and BNT162b2 vaccination (BNT group) of HCWs without corticosteroid exposure. The immunogenicity was measured three weeks after vaccination using quantitative anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) antibody electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assay. A total of 67 HCWs comprising 24 ChAd, 29 BNT, and 14 ChAdPd was included. The median total corticosteroid dose of the ChAdPd group was 30 mg prednisolone equivalents (interquartile range (IQR) 20-71.3 mg). HCWs in the ChAdPd group experienced significantly milder reactogenicity (median total score 7.5, IQR 4.0-18.0) compared to those in the ChAd group (median 23.0, IQR 8.0-43.0, P=0.012) but similar to that in the BNT group (median 5.0, IQR 3.0-9.0, P=0.067). The S antibody concentration of the ChAdPd group (62.4 ± 70.0 U/mL) was higher than that of the ChAd group, though without statistical significance (3.45 ± 57.6 U/mL, P=0.192). The cellular immune response was most robust in the ChAdPd group, with significantly higher IFN-γ concentration (5.363 ± 4.276 IU/mL), compared to the ChAd (0.978 ± 1.181 IU/mL, P=0.002) and BNT (1.656 ± 1.925 IU/mL, P=0.009) groups. This finding suggest that short-term corticosteroid reduces reactogenicity of the first dose of ChAd without hindering immunogenicity.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/drug effects , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Vaccination
10.
J Clin Med ; 9(7)2020 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403634

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate antibody production in asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Sera from asymptomatic to severe COVID-19 patients were collected. Microneutralization (MN), fluorescence immunoassay (FIA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed. RESULTS: A total of 70 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were evaluated, including 15 asymptomatic/anosmia, 49 mild symptomatic, and 6 pneumonia patients. The production of the neutralizing antibody was observed in 100% of pneumonia, 93.9% of mild symptomatic, and 80.0% of asymptomatic/anosmia groups. All the patients in the pneumonia group showed high MN titer (≥1:80), while 36.7% of mild symptomatic and 20.0% of asymptomatic/anosmia groups showed high titer (p < 0.001). Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies could be more sensitively detected by FIA IgG (98.8%) and ELISA (97.6%) in overall. For the FIA IgG test, all patients in the pneumonia group exhibited a high COI value (≥15.0), while 89.8% of mild symptomatic and 73.3% of asymptomatic/anosmia groups showed a high value (p = 0.049). For the ELISA test, all patients in the pneumonia group showed a high optical density (OD) ratio (≥3.0), while 65.3% of mild symptomatic and 53.3% of asymptomatic/anosmia groups showed a high ratio (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Most asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 patients produced the neutralizing antibody, although the titers were lower than pneumonia patients. ELISA and FIA sensitively detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.

11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273426

ABSTRACT

Asymptomatic/mildly symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients produce a considerable amount of virus and transmit severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) through close contact. Preventing in-hospital transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is challenging, since symptom-based screening protocols may miss asymptomatic/mildly symptomatic patients. In particular, dental healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of exposure, as face-to-face contact and exposure to oral secretions is unavoidable. We report exposure of HCWs during dental procedures on a mild symptomatic COVID-19 patient. A 32-year-old male visited a dental clinic at a tertiary care hospital. He experienced mild cough, which started three days before the dental visit, but did not report his symptom during the entrance screening. He underwent several dental procedures and imaging for orthognathic surgery without wearing a mask. Seven HCWs were closely exposed to the patient during dental procedures that could have generated droplets and aerosols. One HCW had close contact with the patient during radiologic exams, and seven HCWs had casual contact. All HCWs wore particulate filtering respirators with 94% filter capacity and gloves, but none wore eye protection or gowns. The next day, the patient experienced dysgeusia and was diagnosed with COVID-19 with high viral load. All HCWs who had close contact with the patient were quarantined for 14 days, and polymerase chain reaction and antibody tests for SARS-CoV-2 were negative. This exposure event suggests the protective effect of particulate filtering respirators in dental clinics. The recommendations of different levels of personal protective equipment (PPE) for dental HCWs according to the procedure types should be established according to the planned procedure, the risk of COVID-19 infection of the patient, and the outbreak situation of the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dental Clinics , Adult , Health Personnel , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilators, Mechanical
12.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(5): 983-986, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157512

ABSTRACT

In an investigation of six anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody kits with different target antigen and methodology, each kit showed comparable performance. As false-positive reactions occurred independently with different kits, specificity increased to 100% when pairs of kits were used. With three-kit combination, both sensitivity (99.1%) and specificity (100%) increased.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , False Positive Reactions , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(11): e83, 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146214

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir is widely used for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but controversies regarding its efficacy still remain. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the effect of remdesivir on clinical and virologic outcomes of severe COVID-19 patients from June to July 2020. Primary clinical endpoints included clinical recovery, additional mechanical ventilator (MV) support, and duration of oxygen or MV support. Viral load reduction by hospital day (HD) 15 was evaluated by calculating changes in cycle threshold (Ct) values. RESULTS: A total of 86 severe COVID-19 patients were evaluated including 48 remdesivir-treated patients. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. Remdesivir was administered an average of 7.42 days from symptom onset. The proportions of clinical recovery of the remdesivir and supportive care group at HD 14 (56.3% and 39.5%) and HD 28 (87.5% and 78.9%) were not statistically different. The proportion of patients requiring MV support by HD 28 was significantly lower in the remdesivir group than in the supportive care group (22.9% vs. 44.7%, P = 0.032), and MV duration was significantly shorter in the remdesivir group (average, 1.97 vs. 5.37 days; P = 0.017). Analysis of upper respiratory tract specimens demonstrated that increases of Ct value from HD 1-5 to 11-15 were significantly greater in the remdesivir group than the supportive care group (average, 10.19 vs. 5.36; P = 0.007), and the slope of the Ct value increase was also significantly steeper in the remdesivir group (average, 5.10 vs. 2.68; P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: The remdesivir group showed clinical and virologic benefit in terms of MV requirement and viral load reduction, supporting remdesivir treatment for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Viral Load
14.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(7): e86, 2020 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110268

ABSTRACT

As of February 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak started in China in December 2019 has been spreading in many countries in the world. With the numbers of confirmed cases are increasing, information on the epidemiologic investigation and clinical manifestation have been accumulated. However, data on viral load kinetics in confirmed cases are lacking. Here, we present the viral load kinetics of the first two confirmed patients with mild to moderate illnesses in Korea in whom distinct viral load kinetics are shown. This report suggests that viral load kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 may be different from that of previously reported other coronavirus infections such as SARS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Viral Load , Adult , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Immunity ; 54(1): 44-52.e3, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065202

ABSTRACT

Memory T cell responses have been demonstrated in COVID-19 convalescents, but ex vivo phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells have been unclear. We detected SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells by MHC class I multimer staining and examined their phenotypes and functions in acute and convalescent COVID-19. Multimer+ cells exhibited early differentiated effector-memory phenotypes in the early convalescent phase. The frequency of stem-like memory cells was increased among multimer+ cells in the late convalescent phase. Cytokine secretion assays combined with MHC class I multimer staining revealed that the proportion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing cells was significantly lower among SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells than those specific to influenza A virus. Importantly, the proportion of IFN-γ-producing cells was higher in PD-1+ cells than PD-1- cells among multimer+ cells, indicating that PD-1-expressing, SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells are not exhausted, but functional. Our current findings provide information for understanding of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells elicited by infection or vaccination.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Acute-Phase Reaction/immunology , Acute-Phase Reaction/virology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Immunophenotyping , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation , Viral Load
16.
Infect Chemother ; 52(3): 410-414, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993751

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is spreading rapidly all over the world, being a major threat to public health. Since clinical feature of COVID-19 has not been fully evaluated yet, empirical antibacterial agents are frequently combined for the treatment of COVID-19 in addition to antiviral agents, concerning co-existing bacterial pathogens. We experienced a case of severe thrombocytopenia with epistaxis and petechiae, while treating a COVID-19 patient with ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, and lopinavir/ritonavir. The platelet count decreased to 2,000/mm³ and recovered after discontinuation of the three suspected drugs. In treating a potentially fatal emerging infectious disease, empirical and/or experimental approach would be unavoidable. However, the present case suggests that the possibility of adverse effects caused by polypharmacy should also be carefully considered.

17.
Immunity ; 54(1): 44-52.e3, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988082

ABSTRACT

Memory T cell responses have been demonstrated in COVID-19 convalescents, but ex vivo phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells have been unclear. We detected SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells by MHC class I multimer staining and examined their phenotypes and functions in acute and convalescent COVID-19. Multimer+ cells exhibited early differentiated effector-memory phenotypes in the early convalescent phase. The frequency of stem-like memory cells was increased among multimer+ cells in the late convalescent phase. Cytokine secretion assays combined with MHC class I multimer staining revealed that the proportion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing cells was significantly lower among SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells than those specific to influenza A virus. Importantly, the proportion of IFN-γ-producing cells was higher in PD-1+ cells than PD-1- cells among multimer+ cells, indicating that PD-1-expressing, SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells are not exhausted, but functional. Our current findings provide information for understanding of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells elicited by infection or vaccination.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Acute-Phase Reaction/immunology , Acute-Phase Reaction/virology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Immunophenotyping , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation , Viral Load
18.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 587613, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970954

ABSTRACT

The safety of healthcare workers (HCWs) against severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission is an important aspect of managing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In the South Korea, highly stringent infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines are implemented, and reports of healthcare-associated SARS-CoV-2 transmission among HCWs are limited. However, subclinical infections may have been missed by the current symptom-based screening strategy. To evaluate the risk of undetected SARS-CoV-2 transmissions from COVID-19 patients to HCWs, we conducted a multicenter seroprevalence study after the first surge of the COVID-19 outbreak. A total of 432 HCWs were evaluated, comprising 309 HCWs designated to laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patient care and 123 non-designated HCWs. Designated HCWs wore personal protective equipment including an N95 respirator, eye protection, hooded overalls, shoe covers, and inner and outer gloves. Use of a powered air-purifying respirator was recommended for aerosol-generating procedures or long-duration care activities. A high-sensitivity (99.1%) fluorescence immunoassay immunoglobulin G (IgG) kit was used as the initial screening test, and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits for total and IgG antibodies were used to confirm the test results. A microneutralization test was additionally performed to evaluate the neutralizing activity of positive specimens. Among the evaluated HCWs, none of the non-designated HCWs had a positive result, while one of the HCWs designated for COVID-19 patient care (1/309, 0.3%) was seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 with confirmed neutralizing activity (1:40). This finding suggests that subclinical seroconversion may occur among HCWs caring for COVID-19 patients, although the risk is low under strict IPC guidance.

19.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(43): e391, 2020 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918115

ABSTRACT

Since mid-April 2020, cases of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 that mimics Kawasaki disease (KD) have been reported in Europe and North America. However, no cases have been reported in Korea. We describe an 11-year old boy with fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea who developed hypotension requiring inotropes in intensive care unit. His blood test revealed elevated inflammatory markers, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and coagulopathy. Afterward, he developed signs of KD such as conjunctival injection, strawberry tongue, cracked lip, and coronary artery dilatation, and parenchymal consolidation without respiratory symptoms. Microbiological tests were all negative including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. However, serum immunoglobulin G against SARS-CoV-2 was positive in repeated tests using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescent immunoassay. He was recovered well after intravenous immunoglobulin administration and discharged without complication on hospital day 13. We report the first Korean child who met all the criteria of MIS-C with features of incomplete KD or KD shock syndrome.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Abdomen/diagnostic imaging , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography
20.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 9(7):2268, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-653284

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate antibody production in asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 patients. Methods: Sera from asymptomatic to severe COVID-19 patients were collected. Microneutralization (MN), fluorescence immunoassay (FIA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed. Results: A total of 70 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were evaluated, including 15 asymptomatic/anosmia, 49 mild symptomatic, and 6 pneumonia patients. The production of the neutralizing antibody was observed in 100% of pneumonia, 93.9% of mild symptomatic, and 80.0% of asymptomatic/anosmia groups. All the patients in the pneumonia group showed high MN titer (≥1:80), while 36.7% of mild symptomatic and 20.0% of asymptomatic/anosmia groups showed high titer (p <0.001). Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies could be more sensitively detected by FIA IgG (98.8%) and ELISA (97.6%) in overall. For the FIA IgG test, all patients in the pneumonia group exhibited a high COI value (≥15.0), while 89.8% of mild symptomatic and 73.3% of asymptomatic/anosmia groups showed a high value (p = 0.049). For the ELISA test, all patients in the pneumonia group showed a high optical density (OD) ratio (≥3.0), while 65.3% of mild symptomatic and 53.3% of asymptomatic/anosmia groups showed a high ratio (p = 0.006). Conclusions: Most asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 patients produced the neutralizing antibody, although the titers were lower than pneumonia patients. ELISA and FIA sensitively detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.

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