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2.
J Clin Virol ; 150-151: 105156, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, the vaccination program started in March 2021, with ChAdOx1-S being the first available WHO-approved COVID-19 vaccine, followed by Moderna vaccine. This study aimed to investigate the immunogenicity and safety of homologous and heterologous prime-boost regimens with ChAdOx1-S and mRNA-1273. METHODS: From March to November 2021, homologous or heterologous regimens with ChAdOx1-S and mRNA-1273 vaccination (ChAdOx1-S/ChAdOx1-S, mRNA-1273/mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1-S/mRNA-1273) were given to 945 healthy participants. Serum samples were collected at designated time points. The anti-RBD/S1 antibody titers and neutralizing ability were measured by three different immunoassays: Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany), AdviseDx SARS-CoV-2 IgG II (Abbott Diagnostics Division, Sligo, Ireland), and cPass™ SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection Kit (GenScript, New Jersey, USA). RESULTS: We found that heterologous vaccination with ChAdOx1-S/mRNA-1273 had an acceptable safety profile and induced higher total anti-RBD/S1 antibody production (p < 0.0001), yet lower anti-RBD/S1 IgG titer (p < 0.0001) and neutralizing ability (p = 0.0101) than mRNA-1273/mRNA-1273 group. Both regimens showed higher antibody titers and superior neutralizing abilities than ChAdOx1-S/ChAdOx1-S. An age-dependent antibody response to ChAdOx1-S/mRNA-1273 was shown after both the priming and the booster doses. Younger age was associated with higher antibody production and neutralizing ability. CONCLUSIONS: Heterologous ChAdOx1-S/mRNA-1273 vaccination regimen is generally safe and induces a robust humoral immune response that is non-inferior to that of mRNA-1273/mRNA-1273.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 807454, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686483

ABSTRACT

Background: Innate immunity, armed with pattern recognition receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLR), is critical for immune cell activation and the connection to anti-microbial adaptive immunity. However, information regarding the impact of age on the innate immunity in response to SARS-CoV2 adenovirus vector vaccines and its association with specific immune responses remains scarce. Methods: Fifteen subjects between 25-35 years (the young group) and five subjects between 60-70 years (the older adult group) were enrolled before ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccination. We determined activation markers and cytokine production of monocyte, natural killer (NK) cells and B cells ex vivo stimulated with TLR agonist (poly (I:C) for TLR3; LPS for TLR4; imiquimod for TLR7; CpG for TLR9) before vaccination and 3-5 days after each jab with flow cytometry. Anti-SARS-CoV2 neutralization antibody titers (surrogate virus neutralization tests, sVNTs) were measured using serum collected 2 months after the first jab and one month after full vaccination. Results: The older adult vaccinees had weaker vaccine-induced sVNTs than young vaccinees after 1st jab (47.2±19.3% vs. 21.2±22.2%, p value<0.05), but this difference became insignificant after the 2nd jab. Imiquimod, LPS and CpG strongly induced CD86 expression in IgD+CD27- naïve and IgD-CD27+ memory B cells in the young group. In contrast, only the IgD+ CD27- naïve B cells responded to these TLR agonists in the older adult group. Imiquimode strongly induced the CD86 expression in CD14+ monocytes in the young group but not in the older adult group. After vaccination, the young group had significantly higher IFN-γ expression in CD3- CD56dim NK cells after the 1st jab, whilst the older adult group had significantly higher IFN-γ and granzyme B expression in CD56bright NK cells after the 2nd jab (all p value <0.05). The IFN-γ expression in CD56dim and CD56bright NK cells after the first vaccination and CD86 expression in CD14+ monocyte and IgD-CD27-double-negative B cells after LPS and imiquimod stimulation correlated with vaccine-induced antibody responses. Conclusions: The innate immune responses after the first vaccination correlated with the neutralizing antibody production. Older people may have defective innate immune responses by TLR stimulation and weak or delayed innate immune activation profile after vaccination compared with young people.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Imiquimod/pharmacology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunosenescence/immunology , Interferon-gamma/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Poly I-C/administration & dosage , Poly I-C/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Vaccination
4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(2)2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674435

ABSTRACT

Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid™) is an effective and safe antiviral drug that inhibits the main protease (Mpro), 3CL protease, of SARS-CoV-2. A reduction in COVID-19-related hospitalization or death was observed in patients treated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir within five days of symptom onset. Moreover, good oral availability enables the usage of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, not only in hospitalized patients, but also among outpatients. Nirmatrelvir (PF-07321332) has been demonstrated to stop the spread of COVID-19 in animal models. Despite frequent mutations in the viral genomes of SARS-CoV-2, nirmatrelvir shows an effective antiviral effect against recent coronavirus mutants. Despite the promising antiviral effect of nirmatrelvir, there are several unresolved concerns. First, the final results of large-scale clinical trials for early therapy of mild cases of COVID-19 are not yet published. Second, the effectiveness of nirmatrelvir against upcoming variants in the coming years requires close monitoring. Considering the promising preliminary results of the EPIC-HR trial, nirmatrelvir/ritonavir in conjunction with vaccines and non-pharmacological interventions, may represent the dawn in the dark of the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(12): 1396-1406, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: MVC-COV1901, a recombinant protein vaccine containing pre-fusion-stabilised spike protein S-2P adjuvanted with CpG 1018 and aluminium hydroxide, has been shown to be well tolerated with a good safety profile in healthy adults aged 20-49 years in a phase 1 trial, and provided a good cellular and humoral immune responses. We present the interim safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity results of a phase 2 clinical trial of the MVC-COV1901 vaccine in Taiwan. METHODS: This is a large-scale, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial done at ten medical centres and one regional hospital in Taiwan. Individuals aged 20 years or older who were generally healthy or had stable pre-existing medical conditions were eligible for enrolment. Exclusion criteria included (but were not limited to) travel overseas within 14 days of screening, intention to travel overseas within 6 months of the screening visit, and the absence of prespecified medical conditions, including immunosuppressive illness, a history of autoimmune disease, malignancy with risk to recur, a bleeding disorder, uncontrolled HIV infection, uncontrolled hepatitis B and C virus infections, SARS-CoV-1 or SARS-CoV-2 infections, an allergy to any vaccine, or a serious medical condition that could interfere with the study. Study participants were randomly assigned (6:1) to receive two doses of either MVC-COV1901 or placebo, administered via intramuscular injection on day 1 and day 29. MVC-COV1901 contained 15 µg of S-2P protein adjuvanted with 750 µg CpG 1018 and 375 µg aluminium hydroxide in a 0·5 mL aqueous solution, and the placebo contained the same volume of saline. Randomisation was done centrally by use of an interactive web response system, stratified by age (≥20 to <65 years and ≥65 years). Participants and investigators were masked to group assignment. The primary outcomes were to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of MVC-COV1901 from day 1 (the day of the first dose) to day 57 (28 days after the second dose). Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose. Immunogenicity was assessed by measuring geometric mean titres (GMTs) and seroconversion rates of neutralising antibody and antigen-specific IgG in the per-protocol population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04695652. FINDINGS: Of 4173 individuals screened between Dec 30, 2020, and April 2, 2021, 3854 were enrolled and randomly assigned: 3304 to the MVC-COV1901 group and 550 to the placebo group. A total of 3844 participants (3295 in the MVC-COV1901 group and 549 in the placebo group) were included in the safety analysis set, and 1053 participants (903 and 150) had received both doses and were included in the per-protocol immunogenicity analysis set. From the start of this phase 2 trial to the time of interim analysis, no vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. The most common solicited adverse events in all study participants were pain at the injection site (2346 [71·2%] of 3295 in the MVC-COV1901 group and 128 [23·3%] of 549 in the placebo group), and malaise or fatigue (1186 [36·0%] and 163 [29·7%]). Fever was rarely reported (23 [0·7%] and two [0·4%]). At 28 days after the second dose of MVC-COV1901, the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody GMT was 662·3 (95% CI 628·7-697·8; 408·5 IU/mL), the GMT ratio (geometric mean fold increase in titres at day 57 vs baseline) was 163·2 (155·0-171·9), and the seroconversion rate was 99·8% (95% CI 99·2-100·0). INTERPRETATION: MVC-COV1901 has a good safety profile and elicits promising immunogenicity responses. These data support MVC-COV1901 to enter phase 3 efficacy trials. FUNDING: Medigen Vaccine Biologics and Taiwan Centres for Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Welfare.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Aluminum Hydroxide , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan , Young Adult
6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296594

ABSTRACT

Objectives To provide data on the immune response to COVID-19 vaccines in people living with HIV (PWH), MVC-COV1901, a recombinant protein vaccine containing S-2P protein adjuvanted with CpG 1018 and aluminium hydroxide, was assessed. Methods A total of 57 PWH of ≥ 20 years of age who are on stable antiretroviral therapy and with CD4 + T cell ≥ 350 cells/mm 3 and HIV viral load < 10 3 copies/ml were compared with 882 HIV-negative participants. Participants received 2 doses of MVC-COV1901 28 days apart. Safety and the immunogenicity were evaluated. Results No vaccine-related serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded. Seroconversion rates (SCRs) of 100% and 99.8% were achieved in people living with HIV (PWH) and comparators, respectively, 28 days after second dose. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) (95% confidence interval [CI]) against wild type SARS-CoV-2 virus were 136.62 IU/mL (WHO Standardized International Unit) (95% CI 114.3-163.3) and 440.41 IU/mL (95% CI 421.3-460.4), for PWH and control groups, respectively, after adjusting for sex, age, BMI category, and comorbidity, and the adjusted GMT ratio of comparator/PWH was 3.22 (95% CI 2.6-4.1). A higher CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with a higher GMT (R=0.27, p=0.039). Conclusions MVC-COV1901 has shown robust safety but weaker immunogenicity responses in PWH. As a result, a third dose or booster doses of MVC-COV1901 may be appropriate for PWH.

7.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 121(1 Pt 1): 81-88, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Early detection and timely quarantine measures are necessary to control disease spread and prevent nosocomial outbreaks of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of a quarantine strategy on patient safety and quality of care. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study enrolled patients admitted to the quarantine ward in a tertiary hospital in southern Taiwan. The incidence and causes of acute critical illness, including clinical deterioration and unexpected complications during the quarantine period, were reviewed. Further investigation was performed to identify risk factors for acute critical illness during quarantine. RESULTS: Of 320 patients admitted to the quarantine ward, more than two-thirds were elderly, and 37.8% were bedridden. During the quarantine period, 68 (21.2%) developed acute critical illness, which more commonly occurred among patients older than 80 years and with a bedridden status, nasogastric tube feeding, or dyspnea symptoms. Bedridden status was an independent predictor of acute critical illness. Through optimization of sampling for COVID-19 and laboratory schedules, both the duration of quarantine and the proportion of acute critical illness among bedridden patients during quarantine exhibited a decreasing trend. There was no COVID-19 nosocomial transmission during the study period. CONCLUSION: The quarantine ward is a key measure to prevent nosocomial transmission of COVID-19 but may carry a potential negative impact on patient care and safety. For patients with multiple comorbidities and a bedridden status, healthcare workers should remain alert to rapid deterioration and unexpected adverse events during quarantine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , Aged , Critical Illness , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296105

ABSTRACT

Summary Background We have assessed the safety and immunogenicity of the COVID-19 vaccine MVC-COV1901, a recombinant protein vaccine containing prefusion-stabilized spike protein S-2P adjuvanted with CpG 1018 and aluminium hydroxide. Methods This is a phase 2, prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and multi-centre study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate MVC-COV1901. The study comprised 3,844 participants of ≥ 20 years who were generally healthy or with stable pre-existing medical conditions. The study participants were randomly assigned in a 6:1 ratio to receive either MVC-COV1901 containing 15 μg of S-2P protein or placebo containing saline. Participants received two doses of MVC-COV1901 or placebo, administered 28 days apart via intramuscular injection. The primary outcomes were to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of MVC-COV1901 from Day 1 (the day of first vaccination) to Day 57 (28 days after the second dose). Immunogenicity of MVC-COV1901 was assessed through geometric mean titres (GMT) and seroconversion rates (SCR) of neutralising antibody and antigen-specific immunoglobulin. This clinical trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04695652 . Findings From the start of this phase 2 trial to the time of interim analysis, no vaccine-related Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) were recorded. The most common solicited adverse events across all study participants were pain at the injection site (64%), and malaise/fatigue (35%). Fever was rarely reported (<1%). For all participants in the MVC-COV1901 group, at 28 days after the second dose against wild type SARS-CoV-2 virus, the GMT was 662·3 (408 IU/mL), the GMT ratio was 163·2, and the seroconversion rate was 99·8%. Interpretation MVC-COV1901 shows good safety profiles and promising immunogenicity responses. The current data supports MVC-COV1901 to enter phase 3 efficacy trials and could enable regulatory considerations for Emergency Use Authorisation (EUA). Funding Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corporation and Taiwan Centres for Disease Control.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20058, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459989

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses can be detected in 18.3 to 48.9% of critically ill adults with severe respiratory tract infections (RTIs). The present study aims to assess the clinical significance of respiratory viruses in pragmatically selected adults in medical intensive care unit patients and to identify factors associated with viral respiratory viral tract infections (VRTIs). We conducted a prospective study on critically ill adults with suspected RTIs without recognized respiratory pathogens. Viral cultures with monoclonal antibody identification, in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for influenza virus, and FilmArray respiratory panel were used to detect viral pathogens. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to identify factors associated with VRTIs. Sixty-four (40.5%) of the included 158 critically ill adults had respiratory viruses detected in their respiratory specimens. The commonly detected viruses included influenza virus (20), followed by human rhinovirus/enterovirus (11), respiratory syncitial virus (9), human metapneumovirus (9), human parainfluenza viruses (8), human adenovirus (7), and human coronaviruses (2). The FilmArray respiratory panel detected respiratory viruses in 54 (34.6%) patients, but showed negative results for seven of 13 patients with influenza A/H3 infection. In the multivariable logistic regression model, patient characters associated with VRTIs included those aged < 65 years, household contact with individuals with upper RTI, the presence of fever, cough with sputum production, and sore throat. Respiratory viruses were not uncommonly detected in the pragmatically selected adults with critical illness. The application of multiplex PCR testing for respiratory viruses in selected patient population is a practical strategy, and the viral detection rate could be further improved by the patient characters recognized in this study.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Viruses/pathogenicity , Aged , Critical Illness , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Taiwan/epidemiology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/isolation & purification
10.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480545

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly resulted in a global pandemic with approximately 4 million deaths. Effective oral antiviral agents are urgently needed to treat coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), block SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and prevent progression to severe illness. Molnupiravir (formerly EIDD-2801), a prodrug of beta-d-N4-hydroxycytidine (EIDD-1931) and an inhibitor of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, possesses significant activity against SARS-CoV-2. Its prophylactic efficacy has been evidenced in a ferret model. Two phase-I trials (NCT04392219 and NCT04746183) have demonstrated that oral molnupiravir is safe and well-tolerated at therapeutic doses. After five-days of oral molnupiravir therapy, satisfactory efficacies, assessed by eliminating nasopharyngeal virus in patients with early and mild COVID-19, were disclosed in two phase-II trials (NCT04405739 and NCT04405570). Two phase-II/III trials, NCT04575597 and NCT04575584, with estimated enrollments of 1850 and 304 cases, respectively, are ongoing. The NCT04575597 recently released that molnupiravir significantly reduced the risk of hospitalization or death in adults experiencing mild or moderate COVID-19. To benefit individual and public health, clinical applications of molnupiravir to promptly treat COVID-19 patients and prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission may be expected.

13.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A comprehensive study of respiratory pathogens was conducted in an area with a low prevalence of COVID-19 among the adults quarantined at a tertiary hospital. METHODS: From March to May 2020, 201 patients suspected lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) were surveyed for etiologies by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR: FilmArray TM Respiratory Panel) test combination with cultural method, viral antigen detection and serologic surveys. RESULTS: Total 201 patients tested with FilmArray TM Respiratory Panel were enrolled, of which 68.2% had sputum bacterial culture, 86.1% had pneumococcus and Legionella urine antigen test. Their median age was 72.0 year-old with multiple comorbidities, and 11.4% were nursing home residents. Bacteria accounted for 59.7% of identified pathogens. Atypical pathogens were identified in 31.3% of total pathogens, of which viruses accounted for 23.9%. In comparison to patients with bacterial infection, patients with atypical pathogens were younger (median= 77.2 vs 67.1, years, P = 0.017) and had shorter length of hospital (8.0 vs 4.5, days, P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with LRTI caused by atypical pathogens was indistinguishable from those with bacterial pathogens by clinical manifestations or biomarkers. Multiplex PCR providing rapid diagnosis of atypical pathogens enhance patient care and decision making when rate of sputum culture sampling was low in quarantine ward during pandemic.

16.
Microorganisms ; 9(8)2021 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335154

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an RNA virus of the family Coronaviridae, causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an influenza-like disease that chiefly infects the lungs through respiratory transmission. The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, a transmembrane protein in its outer portion, targets angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the binding receptor for the cell entry. As ACE2 is highly expressed in the gut and pulmonary tissues, SARS-CoV-2 infections frequently result in gastrointestinal inflammation, with presentations ordinarily ranging from intestinal cramps to complications with intestinal perforations. However, the evidence detailing successful therapy for gastrointestinal involvement in COVID-19 patients is currently limited. A significant change in fecal microbiomes, namely dysbiosis, was characterized by the enrichment of opportunistic pathogens and the depletion of beneficial commensals and their crucial association to COVID-19 severity has been evidenced. Oral probiotics had been evidenced to improve gut health in achieving homeostasis by exhibiting their antiviral effects via the gut-lung axis. Although numerous commercial probiotics have been effective against coronavirus, their efficacies in treating COVID-19 patients remain debated. In ClinicalTrials.gov, 19 clinical trials regarding the dietary supplement of probiotics, in terms of Lactobacillus and mixtures of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus, for treating COVID-19 cases are ongoing. Accordingly, the preventive or therapeutic role of probiotics for COVID-19 patients can be elucidated in the near future.

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 705657, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332146

ABSTRACT

The adverse effect of COVID-19 pandemic among individuals has been very disturbing especially among healthcare workers. This study aims to examine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, sleep problems, and psychological distress among COVID-19 frontline healthcare workers in Taiwan. Hence, a total of 500 frontline healthcare workers were recruited to participate in this cross-sectional study. They responded to measures on fear of COVID-19, depression, anxiety, stress, insomnia, PTSD, perceived stigma, and self-stigma. The results indicated a prevalence rate of 15.4% for PTSD symptoms, 44.6% for insomnia, 25.6% for depressive symptoms, 30.6% for anxiety symptoms, and 23.4% for stress among the participants. There were significantly positive interrelationships between all these variables. Anxiety symptoms and fear of COVID-19 predicted PTSD whereas symptoms of anxiety, fear of COVID-19, and stress predicted insomnia. The prevalence rates of the psychological problems reveal a worrying view of mental health challenges among Taiwanese frontline healthcare workers. Anxiety symptoms and fear of COVID-19 are the common predictive factors of PTSD and sleep problems suggesting that mental healthcare services for them may help prevent future occurrence of psychological problems by allaying fears of healthcare workers. Therefore, there should be mental healthcare services for healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 26: 308-316, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the trends in serotypes and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) to dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline, omadacycline and other comparator antibiotics from 2017-2020 following implementation of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) and during the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic. METHODS: During the study period, 237 S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from non-duplicate patients, covering 15.0% of IPD cases in Taiwan. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using a Sensititre® system. A latex agglutination method (ImmuLex™ Pneumotest Kit) was used to determine serotypes. RESULTS: Susceptibility rates were high for vancomycin (100%), teicoplanin (100%) and linezolid (100%), followed by ceftaroline (non-meningitis) (98.3%), moxifloxacin (94.9%) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (89.9%). MIC50 and MIC90 values of dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline and omadacycline were generally low. Non-vaccine serotype 23A was the leading cause of IPD across the adult age range. Isolates of serotype 15B were slightly fewer than those of PCV-13 serotypes in patients aged ≥65 years. The overall case fatality rate was 15.2% (36/237) but was especially high for non-PCV-13 serotype 15B (21.4%; 3/14). Vaccine coverage was 44.7% for PCV-13 and 49.4% for the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV-23), but was 57% for both PCV-13 and PPSV-23. CONCLUSION: The incidence of IPD was stationary after PCV-13 introduction and only dramatically decreased in the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline, omadacycline were generally low for S. pneumoniae causing adult IPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Adult , Aminoglycosides , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Lipoglycopeptides , Oxazolidinones , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Serogroup , Taiwan/epidemiology , Teicoplanin/analogs & derivatives , Teicoplanin/pharmacology , Tetracyclines , Tetrazoles
19.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(8): 1027-1035, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284828

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To combat COVID-19, scientists all over the world have expedited the process of vaccine development. Although interim analyses of clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccines, a serious but rare adverse event, thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), has been reported following COVID-19 vaccination. AREAS COVERED: This review, using data from both peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed studies, aimed to provide updated information about the critical issue of COVID-19 vaccine-related TTS. EXPERT OPINION: : The exact epidemiological characteristics and possible pathogenesis of this adverse event remain unclear. Most cases of TTS developed in women within 2 weeks of the first dose of vaccine on the receipt of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines. In countries with mass vaccination against COVID-19, clinicians should be aware of the relevant clinical features of this rare adverse event and perform related laboratory and imaging studies for early diagnosis. Non-heparin anticoagulants, such as fondaparinux, argatroban, or a direct oral anticoagulant (e.g. apixaban or rivaroxaban) and intravenous immunoglobulins are recommended for the treatment of TTS. However, further studies are required to explore the underlying mechanisms of this rare clinical entity. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: What is the context?Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) usually develops within 2 weeks of the first doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccines.TTS mainly occurs in patients aged < 55 years and is associated with high morbidity and mortality.What is new?TTS mimics autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and can be mediated by platelet-activating antibodies against platelet factor 4. Non-heparin anticoagulants, such as fondaparinux, argatroban, or a direct oral anticoagulant (e.g. apixaban or rivaroxaban) should be considered as the treatment of choice if the platelet count is > 50 × 109/L and there is no serious bleeding. Intravenous immunoglobulins and glucocorticoids may help increase the platelet count within days and reduce the risk of hemorrhagic transformation when anticoagulation is initiated.What is the impact?TTS should be a serious concern during the implementation of mass COVID-19 vaccination, and patients should be educated about this complication along with its symptoms such as severe headache, blurred vision, seizure, severe and persistent abdominal pain, painful swelling of the lower leg, and chest pain or dyspnea. The incidence of TTS is low; therefore, maintenance of high vaccination coverage against COVID-19 should be continued.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombosis/chemically induced , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/epidemiology
20.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(8): 1013-1025, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284827

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Several vaccine candidates have been developed using different platforms, including nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), viral vectors (replicating and non-replicating), virus-like particles, peptide-based, recombinant proteins, live attenuated, and inactivated virus modalities. Although many of these vaccines are undergoing pre-clinical trials, several large clinical trials investigating the clinical efficacy and safety of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have produced promising findings. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we provide a status update on COVID-19 vaccines currently undergoing clinical trials and discuss issues of concern beyond vaccine efficacy and safety, including dosing regimens, the mixed vaccine strategy, prior severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection, antibody levels, cellular immunity and protection, variants of concern, COVID-19 vaccine distribution, vaccination willingness, herd immunity, immunity passports, and vaccine indications. EXPERT OPINION: Four vaccines have obtained emergency use authorization, 87 are at the clinical development stage, and 186 are in pre-clinical development. While the knowledge and development of COVID-19 vaccines is rapidly expanding, the benefits of COVID-19 vaccines must outweigh the potential risks of adverse events. To combat the COVID-19 pandemic, clinicians should consistently update COVID-19-associated information, and healthcare authorities and manufacturers should work together to provide adequate and appropriate vaccinations for the prevention of COVID-19. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: What is the context?Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused a global pandemic: the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. The development and implementation of the COVID-19 vaccine could be an important measure to control the COVID-19 pandemic.What is new?Several phase 3 clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 vaccines for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Several COVID-19 vaccines have obtained emergency use authorization and been implemented in many countries. Although concerns regarding unusual blood clots and low platelet counts have been raised, the benefits of COVID-19 vaccines outweigh the potential risks of adverse events.What is the impact?Except for children, the COVID-19 vaccine is recommended for all people, including those pregnant or immunocompromised. Healthcare authorities should advise people receiving the vaccine that they must seek medical attention if they have associated thromboembolism and thrombocytopenia symptoms. More studies are necessary to determine the appropriate vaccine dose and regimen strategy, as well as the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against variants of concerns. A global effort must be made to achieve widespread vaccination and herd immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Safety , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic/methods , Fatigue/chemically induced , Female , Fever/chemically induced , Headache/chemically induced , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/drug effects , Immunocompromised Host/physiology , Male , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , Treatment Outcome
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