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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595606

ABSTRACT

To investigate the accuracy of fidgety movements (FMs) assessment in Japanese assessors. Sixty specialists participated in the first survey. Of the participants, 18 were assessors certified by the GMs basic-training course. The surveys were composed of FMs assessment of 20 video clips. The correct assessment rates (CARs) were investigated. The survey videos were judged into three types: normal (F + +, F +), abnormal (AF) and absent (F + -, F -). After the first survey, each participant performed a self-learning exercise using clips of the first survey. The follow-up survey was conducted three months after the first survey. The median CAR of the first survey was 65% in certified assessors and 50% in noncertified assessors. The median CARs of certified assessors were significantly higher than that of noncertified assessors for all clips and for normal FMs and AF clips (p < 0.01). After 3 months of self-learning exercise the CARs in each judgement type improved in 28 follow-up survey participants. Their median CAR improved from 60% in the first survey to 84% in the follow-up survey. To practise general movements assessment (GMA), course certification is required. The self-learning exercise with the confirmed judgement FMs clips may be effective for improving the ability of FMs judgement.


Subject(s)
Movement , Humans , Japan
2.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 2489-2509, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375855

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus. Favipiravir is an orally administrable antiviral drug whose mechanism of action is to selectively inhibit RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. A preliminary trial in COVID-19 patients reported significant improvements across a multitude of clinical parameters, but these findings have not been confirmed in an adequate well-controlled trial. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III trial assessing the efficacy and safety of favipiravir in patients with moderate pneumonia not requiring oxygen therapy. METHODS: COVID-19 patients with moderate pneumonia (SpO2 ≥ 94%) within 10 days of onset of fever (temperature ≥ 37.5 °C) were assigned to receive either placebo or favipiravir (1800 mg twice a day on Day 1, followed by 800 mg twice a day for up to 13 days) in a ratio of 1:2. An adaptive design was used to re-estimate the sample size. The primary endpoint was a composite outcome defined as the time to improvement in temperature, oxygen saturation levels (SpO2), and findings on chest imaging, and recovery to SARS-CoV-2-negative. This endpoint was re-examined by the Central Committee under blinded conditions. RESULTS: A total of 156 patients were randomized. The median time of the primary endpoint was 11.9 days in the favipiravir group and 14.7 days in the placebo group, with a significant difference (p = 0.0136). Favipiravir-treated patients with known risk factors such as obesity or coexisting conditions provided better effects. Furthermore, patients with early-onset in the favipiravir group showed higher odds ratio. No deaths were documented. Although adverse events in the favipiravir group were predominantly transient, the incidence was significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested favipiravir may be one of options for moderate COVID-19 pneumonia treatment. However, the risk of adverse events, including hyperuricemia, should be carefully considered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.jp number: JapicCTI-205238.

3.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(8): 1141-1148, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245334

ABSTRACT

Importance: Patients with cancer and health care workers (HCWs) are at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Assessing the antibody status of patients with cancer and HCWs can help understand the spread of COVID-19 in cancer care. Objective: To evaluate serum SARS-CoV-2 antibody status in patients with cancer and HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants were enrolled for this prospective cross-sectional study between August 3 and October 30, 2020, from 2 comprehensive cancer centers in the epidemic area around Tokyo, Japan. Patients with cancer aged 16 years or older and employees were enrolled. Participants with suspected COVID-19 infection at the time of enrollment were excluded. Exposures: Cancer of any type and cancer treatment, including chemotherapy, surgery, immune checkpoint inhibitors, radiotherapy, and targeted molecular therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Seroprevalence and antibody levels in patients with cancer and HCWs. Seropositivity was defined as positivity to nucleocapsid IgG (N-IgG) and/or spike IgG (S-IgG). Serum levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies against the nucleocapsid and spike proteins were measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Results: A total of 500 patients with cancer (median age, 62.5 years [range, 21-88 years]; 265 men [55.4%]) and 1190 HCWs (median age, 40 years [range, 20-70 years]; 382 men [25.4%]) were enrolled. In patients with cancer, 489 (97.8%) had solid tumors, and 355 (71.0%) had received anticancer treatment within 1 month. Among HCWs, 385 (32.3%) were nurses or assistant nurses, 266 (22.4%) were administrative officers, 197 (16.6%) were researchers, 179 (15.0%) were physicians, 113 (9.5%) were technicians, and 50 (4.2%) were pharmacists. The seroprevalence was 1.0% (95% CI, 0.33%-2.32%) in patients and 0.67% (95% CI, 0.29%-1.32%) in HCWs (P = .48). However, the N-IgG and S-IgG antibody levels were significantly lower in patients than in HCWs (N-IgG: ß, -0.38; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.21; P < .001; and S-IgG: ß, -0.39; 95% CI, -0.54 to -0.23; P < .001). Additionally, among patients, N-IgG levels were significantly lower in those who received chemotherapy than in those who did not (median N-IgG levels, 0.1 [interquartile range (IQR), 0-0.3] vs 0.1 [IQR, 0-0.4], P = .04). In contrast, N-IgG and S-IgG levels were significantly higher in patients who received immune checkpoint inhibitors than in those who did not (median N-IgG levels: 0.2 [IQR, 0.1-0.5] vs 0.1 [IQR, 0-0.3], P = .02; S-IgG levels: 0.15 [IQR, 0-0.3] vs 0.1[IQR, 0-0.2], P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of Japanese patients with cancer and HCWs, the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies did not differ between the 2 groups; however, findings suggest that comorbid cancer and treatment with systemic therapy, including chemotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors, may influence the immune response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/blood , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
4.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 51(3): 400-407, 2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851806

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a uniform infection screening protocol could be used to safely perform head and neck cancer surgery during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and clarify how surgical treatment changed compared with the pre-pandemic period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Tokyo, we continued providing head and neck cancer care, guided by our own uniform screening protocol. In this study, medical records of 208 patients with head and neck malignancy, who underwent surgical treatment at our hospital during the first and second wave of pandemic for each 2-month period (first wave: 30 March 2020-30 May 2020, second wave: 14 July 2020-14 September 2020) and the 2-month pre-pandemic period (30 October 2019-30 December 2020), were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 133 patients were admitted for surgical treatment and all, except six patients with emergency tracheostomy, were screened according to the protocol. As a result, all 127 patients received surgical treatment as planned, and all 1247 medical staff members involved in the surgeries were uninfected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. During the first wave of pandemic, 20% reduction of head and neck surgery was requited; however, restrictions of surgery were not necessary during the second wave. Surgical procedure, length of hospitalization, postoperative complications and number of medical staff were unchanged compared with pre-pandemic period. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that continuation of head and neck anticancer surgical treatment in an epidemic area during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic were safe and feasible, if adequate and strict preventive measures are vigorously and successfully carried out.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Mass Screening/methods , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Mass Screening/standards , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo
5.
J Clin Exp Hematop ; 60(4): 174-178, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742880

ABSTRACT

Although some patients with COVID-19 develop only mild symptoms, fatal complications have been observed among those with comorbidities. As patients with cancer are immunocompromised, they are thought to have a high risk of severe illness associated with COVID-19. We report a COVID-19 patient with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) who was treated using favipiravir. A 69-year-old woman with lymphoma-type ATL was treated using cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone and mogamulizumab (M-CHOP) with substantial efficacy. However, in cycle 4 of M-CHOP therapy, she developed fever with mild cough. The patient was admitted to the hospital and CT revealed bilateral ground-glass opacities. SARS-CoV-2 was detected by RT-PCR and the patient was diagnosed with COVID-19. Considering severe immunosuppression caused by ATL, we initiated favipiravir therapy. Subsequently, the fever improved without antipyretics and her C-reactive protein level decreased rapidly. SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests were negative on days 17 and 18 of favipiravir therapy, and the patient was discharged without residual disease on the final CT. This is the first documented case of COVID-19 in a patient with ATL. Although severe immunosuppression caused by ATL was present, severe COVID-19 pneumonia did not develop. The immunosuppressed condition caused by hematological malignancy may not always be a risk factor for severe illness associated with COVID-19. Further accumulation of data regarding COVID-19 in patients with hematological malignancies is warranted to clarify the risk factors for severe illness, the best-in-class antiviral agent, and the optimal treatment strategy in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell/virology , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell/pathology
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