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1.
J Dent ; 123: 104203, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895174

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Using a battery of preclinical tests to support development of a light-based treatment for COVID-19, establish a range of 425 nm light doses that are non-hazardous to the tissues of the oral cavity and assess whether a 425 nm light dose in this non-hazardous range can inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in artificial saliva. METHODS: The potential hazards to oral tissues associated with a range of acute 425 nm light doses were assessed using a battery of four preclinical tests: (1) cytotoxicity, using well-differentiated human large airway and buccal epithelial models; (2) toxicity to commensal oral bacteria, using a panel of model organisms; (3) light-induced histopathological changes, using ex vivo porcine esophageal tissue, and (4) thermal damage, by dosing the oropharynx of intact porcine head specimens. Then, 425 nm light doses established as non-hazardous using these tests were evaluated for their potential to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in artificial saliva. RESULTS: A dose range was established at which 425 nm light is not cytotoxic in well-differentiated human large airway or buccal epithelial models, is not cytotoxic to a panel of commensal oral bacteria, does not induce histopathological damage in ex vivo porcine esophageal tissue, and does not induce thermal damage to the oropharynx of intact porcine head specimens. Using these tests, no hazards were observed for 425 nm light doses less than 63 J/cm2 delivered at irradiance less than 200 mW/cm2. A non-hazardous 425 nm light dose in this range (30 J/cm2 at 50 mW/cm2) was shown to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in vitro in artificial saliva. CONCLUSION: Preclinical hazard assessments and SARS-CoV-2 inactivation efficacy testing were combined to guide the development of a 425 nm light-based treatment for COVID-19. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The process used here to evaluate the potential hazards associated with 425 nm acute light dosing of the oral cavity to treat COVID-19 can be extended to other wavelengths, anatomical targets, and therapeutic applications to accelerate the development of novel photomedicine treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Mouth , Oropharynx , Saliva , Saliva, Artificial , Swine
2.
Clin Transl Sci ; 15(5): 1291-1303, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673035

ABSTRACT

The RD-X19 is an investigational, handheld medical device precisely engineered to emit blue light through the oral cavity to target the oropharynx and surrounding tissues. At doses shown to be noncytotoxic in an in vitro three-dimensional human epithelial tissue model, the monochromatic visible light delivered by RD-X19 results in light-initiated expression of immune stimulating cytokines IL-1α and IL-1ß, with corresponding inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication. A single exposure of 425 nm blue light at 60 J/cm2 led to greater than 99% reductions against all SARS-CoV-2 strains tested in vitro, including the more transmissible (Alpha) and immune evasive (Beta) variants. These preclinical findings along with other studies led to a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled early feasibility study using the investigational device as a treatment for outpatients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The study enrolled 31 subjects with a positive SARS-CoV-2 antigen test and at least two moderate COVID-19 signs and symptoms at baseline. Subjects were randomized 2:1 (RD-X19: sham) and treated twice daily for 4 days. Efficacy outcome measures included assessments of SARS-CoV-2 saliva viral load and clinical assessments of COVID-19. There were no local application site reactions and no device-related adverse events. At the end of the study (day 8), the mean change in log10 viral load was -3.29 for RD-X19 and -1.81 for sham, demonstrating a treatment benefit of -1.48 logs (95% confidence internal, -2.88 to -0.071, nominal p = 0.040). Among the clinical outcome measures, differences between RD-X19 and sham were also observed, with a 57-h reduction of median time to sustained resolution of COVID-19 signs and symptoms (log rank test, nominal p = 0.044).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20595, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475487

ABSTRACT

The delivery of safe, visible wavelengths of light can be an effective, pathogen-agnostic, countermeasure that would expand the current portfolio of SARS-CoV-2 intervention strategies beyond the conventional approaches of vaccine, antibody, and antiviral therapeutics. Employing custom biological light units, that incorporate optically engineered light-emitting diode (LED) arrays, we harnessed monochromatic wavelengths of light for uniform delivery across biological surfaces. We demonstrated that primary 3D human tracheal/bronchial-derived epithelial tissues tolerated high doses of a narrow spectral band of visible light centered at a peak wavelength of 425 nm. We extended these studies to Vero E6 cells to understand how light may influence the viability of a mammalian cell line conventionally used for assaying SARS-CoV-2. The exposure of single-cell monolayers of Vero E6 cells to similar doses of 425 nm blue light resulted in viabilities that were dependent on dose and cell density. Doses of 425 nm blue light that are well-tolerated by Vero E6 cells also inhibited infection and replication of cell-associated SARS-CoV-2 by > 99% 24 h post-infection after a single five-minute light exposure. Moreover, the 425 nm blue light inactivated cell-free betacoronaviruses including SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 up to 99.99% in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, clinically applicable doses of 425 nm blue light dramatically inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in primary human 3D tracheal/bronchial tissue. Safe doses of visible light should be considered part of the strategic portfolio for the development of SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic countermeasures to mitigate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Light , SARS-CoV-2 , Trachea/radiation effects , Virus Replication/radiation effects , Adult , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bronchi , Calibration , Cell-Free System , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epithelium/pathology , Female , Humans , Respiratory Mucosa/radiation effects , Trachea/virology , Vero Cells
4.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 287, 2021 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Representing biological networks as graphs is a powerful approach to reveal underlying patterns, signatures, and critical components from high-throughput biomolecular data. However, graphs do not natively capture the multi-way relationships present among genes and proteins in biological systems. Hypergraphs are generalizations of graphs that naturally model multi-way relationships and have shown promise in modeling systems such as protein complexes and metabolic reactions. In this paper we seek to understand how hypergraphs can more faithfully identify, and potentially predict, important genes based on complex relationships inferred from genomic expression data sets. RESULTS: We compiled a novel data set of transcriptional host response to pathogenic viral infections and formulated relationships between genes as a hypergraph where hyperedges represent significantly perturbed genes, and vertices represent individual biological samples with specific experimental conditions. We find that hypergraph betweenness centrality is a superior method for identification of genes important to viral response when compared with graph centrality. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the utility of using hypergraphs to represent complex biological systems and highlight central important responses in common to a variety of highly pathogenic viruses.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Models, Biological , Genomics , Proteins
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