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1.
Hosp Pediatr ; 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879346

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe COVID-19-related pediatric hospitalizations during a period of B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant predominance and to determine age-specific factors associated with severe illness. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We abstracted data from medical charts to conduct a cross-sectional study of patients aged <21 years hospitalized at 6 US children's hospitals during July-August 2021 for COVID-19 or with an incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Among patients with COVID-19, we assessed factors associated with severe illness by calculating age-stratified prevalence ratios (PR). We defined severe illness as receiving high-flow nasal cannula, positive airway pressure, or invasive mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Of 947 hospitalized patients, 759 (80.1%) had COVID-19, of whom 287 (37.8%) had severe illness. Factors associated with severe illness included coinfection with RSV (PR 3.64) and bacteria (PR 1.88) in infants; RSV coinfection in patients aged 1-4 years (PR 1.96); and obesity in patients aged 5-11 (PR 2.20) and 12-17 years (PR 2.48). Having ≥2 underlying medical conditions was associated with severe illness in patients aged <1 (PR 1.82), 5-11 (PR 3.72), and 12-17 years (PR 3.19). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, factors associated with severe illness included RSV coinfection in those aged <5 years, obesity in those aged 5-17 years, and other underlying conditions for all age groups <18 years. These findings can inform pediatric practice, risk communication, and prevention strategies, including vaccination against COVID-19.

3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5152): 1766-1772, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727019

ABSTRACT

During June 2021, the highly transmissible† B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, became the predominant circulating strain in the United States. U.S. pediatric COVID-19-related hospitalizations increased during July-August 2021 following emergence of the Delta variant and peaked in September 2021.§ As of May 12, 2021, CDC recommended COVID-19 vaccinations for persons aged ≥12 years,¶ and on November 2, 2021, COVID-19 vaccinations were recommended for persons aged 5-11 years.** To date, clinical signs and symptoms, illness course, and factors contributing to hospitalizations during the period of Delta predominance have not been well described in pediatric patients. CDC partnered with six children's hospitals to review medical record data for patients aged <18 years with COVID-19-related hospitalizations during July-August 2021.†† Among 915 patients identified, 713 (77.9%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 (acute COVID-19 as the primary or contributing reason for hospitalization), 177 (19.3%) had incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test results (asymptomatic or mild infection unrelated to the reason for hospitalization), and 25 (2.7%) had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a rare but serious inflammatory condition associated with COVID-19.§§ Among the 713 patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 24.7% were aged <1 year, 17.1% were aged 1-4 years, 20.1% were aged 5-11 years, and 38.1% were aged 12-17 years. Approximately two thirds of patients (67.5%) had one or more underlying medical conditions, with obesity being the most common (32.4%); among patients aged 12-17 years, 61.4% had obesity. Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 15.8% had a viral coinfection¶¶ (66.4% of whom had respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] infection). Approximately one third (33.9%) of patients aged <5 years hospitalized for COVID-19 had a viral coinfection. Among 272 vaccine-eligible (aged 12-17 years) patients hospitalized for COVID-19, one (0.4%) was fully vaccinated.*** Approximately one half (54.0%) of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 received oxygen support, 29.5% were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and 1.5% died; of those requiring respiratory support, 14.5% required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Among pediatric patients with COVID-19-related hospitalizations, many had severe illness and viral coinfections, and few vaccine-eligible patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were vaccinated, highlighting the importance of vaccination for those aged ≥5 years and other prevention strategies to protect children and adolescents from COVID-19, particularly those with underlying medical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
4.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 74(5): 631-635, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684905

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Hepatic involvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is typically characterized as mild hepatitis with preserved synthetic function in children. Severe hepatitis is a rare complication of COVID-19 infection that has not been extensively described in the pediatric population. We report a case series of four previously healthy children who presented with significant hepatitis as the primary manifestation of COVID-19 infection. Two of these patients met criteria for acute liver failure. None of the patients had respiratory symptoms. One patient was found to have complement dysfunction resulting in microangiopathic features and was treated successfully with eculizumab. This case is in line with adult post-mortem data showing that more severe cases of hepatic dysfunction secondary to COVID-19 infection may be associated with complement activation and microangiopathic features. Liver function should be evaluated in cases of severe COVID-19, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection should be considered as a cause of acute severe hepatitis even in patients without significant respiratory or other systemic symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis , Liver Failure, Acute , Acute Disease , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Liver Failure, Acute/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-5, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447267

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify the impact of universal masking on COVID-19 incidence and putative SARS-CoV-2 transmissions events among children's hospital healthcare workers (HCWs). DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study. SETTING: Single academic free-standing children's hospital. METHODS: We performed whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2- PCR-positive samples collected from HCWs 3 weeks before and 6 weeks after implementing a universal masking policy. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to identify clusters of clonally related SARS-CoV-2 indicative of putative transmission events. We measured COVID-19 incidence, SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rates, and frequency of putative transmission events before and after the masking policy was implemented. RESULTS: HCW COVID-19 incidence and test positivity declined from 14.3 to 4.3 cases per week, and from 18.4% to 9.0%, respectively. Putative transmission events were only identified prior to universal masking. CONCLUSIONS: A universal masking policy was associated with reductions in HCW COVID-19 infections and occupational acquisition of SARS-CoV-2.

8.
J Pediatr ; 239: 74-80.e1, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433570

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess rates of asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity in K-8 schools with risk mitigation procedures in place, and to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 transmission in school and household contacts of these positive individuals. STUDY DESIGN: In this prospective observational study, screening testing for SARS-CoV-2 was performed by oropharyngeal swabbing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in students and staff at K-8 private schools in high-risk Chicago ZIP codes. New coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnoses or symptoms among participants, household contacts, and nonparticipants in each school were queried. RESULTS: Among 11 K-8 private schools across 8 Chicago ZIP codes, 468 participants (346 students, 122 staff members) underwent screening testing. At the first school, 17 participants (36%) tested positive, but epidemiologic investigation suggested against in-school transmission. Only 5 participants in the subsequent 10 schools tested positive for an overall 4.7% positivity rate (1.2% excluding school 1). All but 1 positive test among in-person students had high PCR cycle threshold values, suggesting very low SARS-CoV-2 viral loads. In all schools, no additional students, staff, or household contacts reported new diagnoses or symptoms of COVID-19 during the 2 weeks following screening testing. CONCLUSIONS: We identified infrequent asymptomatic COVID-19 in schools in high-risk Chicago communities and did not identify transmission among school staff, students, or their household contacts. These data suggest that COVID-19 mitigation procedures, including masking and physical distancing, are effective in preventing transmission of COVID-19 in schools. These results may inform future strategies for screening testing in K-8 schools.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mass Screening , Schools , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Chicago/epidemiology , Faculty , Humans , Prospective Studies , Students
14.
Clin Ther ; 43(6): e163-e172, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240250

ABSTRACT

Young children will ultimately need to be vaccinated to stop the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Initial studies of vaccine were performed in adults. Randomized controlled trials are the gold standard. In the COVID-19 pandemic, many questions need to be answered about the ethics and feasibility of these trials. Given the harms of the COVID-19 pandemic and the now-known efficacy of the vaccines in adults and teens, the question of whether clinical equipoise exists for a placebo-controlled trial of vaccines in younger children remains. Parents may be reluctant to enroll children in these trials because they want their child to receive the vaccine or because they are worried about vaccines or clinical trials in general. One option for gathering data on tolerability and efficacy in children would be to use a nonrandomized trial to enroll parents willing to vaccinate their children and those who are hesitant. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of such an open-label trial that could provide guidance for future pandemics. (Clin Ther.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Trials as Topic/ethics , Ethical Analysis , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Clinical Case Reports ; : 1, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1212732

ABSTRACT

This case highlights the importance of identifying SARS‐CoV‐2 preoperatively, irrespective of symptoms, as symptoms may be mild, especially in children compared to adults, and asymptomatic carriers can have high viral loads and be infectious. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Clinical Case Reports is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

17.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(5): 530-531, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055877
18.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(1)2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048659

ABSTRACT

The distribution of upper respiratory viral loads (VL) in asymptomatic children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unknown. We assessed PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values and estimated VL in infected asymptomatic children diagnosed in nine pediatric hospital testing programs. Records for asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with positive clinical SARS-CoV-2 tests were reviewed. Ct values were (i) adjusted by centering each value around the institutional median Ct value from symptomatic children tested with that assay and (ii) converted to estimated VL (numbers of copies per milliliter) using internal or manufacturer data. Adjusted Ct values and estimated VL for asymptomatic versus symptomatic children (118 asymptomatic versus 197 symptomatic children aged 0 to 4 years, 79 asymptomatic versus 97 symptomatic children aged 5 to 9 years, 69 asymptomatic versus 75 symptomatic children aged 10 to 13 years, 73 asymptomatic versus 109 symptomatic children aged 14 to 17 years) were compared. The median adjusted Ct value for asymptomatic children was 10.3 cycles higher than for symptomatic children (P < 0.0001), and VL were 3 to 4 logs lower than for symptomatic children (P < 0.0001); differences were consistent (P < 0.0001) across all four age brackets. These differences were consistent across all institutions and by sex, ethnicity, and race. Asymptomatic children with diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 6.5; P = 0.01), a recent contact (OR, 2.3; P = 0.02), and testing for surveillance (OR, 2.7; P = 0.005) had higher estimated risks of having a Ct value in the lowest quartile than children without, while an immunocompromised status had no effect. Children with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection had lower levels of virus in their nasopharynx/oropharynx than symptomatic children, but the timing of infection relative to diagnosis likely impacted levels in asymptomatic children. Caution is recommended when choosing diagnostic tests for screening of asymptomatic children.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Viral Load , Adolescent , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(3): 167-177, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The CNS manifestations of COVID-19 in children have primarily been described in case reports, which limit the ability to appreciate the full spectrum of the disease in paediatric patients. We aimed to identify enough cases that could be evaluated in aggregate to better understand the neuroimaging manifestations of COVID-19 in the paediatric population. METHODS: An international call for cases of children with encephalopathy related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and abnormal neuroimaging findings was made. Clinical history and associated plasma and cerebrospinal fluid data were requested. These data were reviewed by a central neuroradiology panel, a child neurologist, and a paediatric infectious diseases expert. The children were categorised on the basis of their time of probable exposure to SARS-CoV-2. In addition, cases were excluded when a direct link to SARS-CoV-2 infection could not be established or an established alternate diagnostic cause could be hypothesised. The accepted referral centre imaging data, from ten countries, were remotely reviewed by a central panel of five paediatric neuroradiologists and a consensus opinion obtained on the imaging findings. FINDINGS: 38 children with neurological disease related to SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified from France (n=13), the UK (n=8), the USA (n=5), Brazil (n=4), Argentina (n=4), India (n=2), Peru (n=1), and Saudi Arabia (n=1). Recurring patterns of disease were identified, with neuroimaging abnormalities ranging from mild to severe. The most common imaging patterns were postinfectious immune-mediated acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like changes of the brain (16 patients), myelitis (eight patients), and neural enhancement (13 patients). Cranial nerve enhancement could occur in the absence of corresponding neurological symptoms. Splenial lesions (seven patients) and myositis (four patients) were predominantly observed in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome. Cerebrovascular complications in children were less common than in adults. Significant pre-existing conditions were absent and most children had favourable outcomes. However, fatal atypical CNS co-infections developed in four previously healthy children infected with SARS-CoV-2. INTERPRETATION: Acute-phase and delayed-phase SARS-CoV-2-related CNS abnormalities are seen in children. Recurring patterns of disease and atypical neuroimaging manifestations can be found and should be recognised being as potentially due to SARS-CoV-2 infection as an underlying aetiological factor. Studies of paediatric specific cohorts are needed to better understand the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the CNS at presentation and on long-term follow-up in children. FUNDING: American Society of Pediatric Neuroradiology, University of Manchester (Manchester, UK). VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Central Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neuroimaging , Adolescent , Argentina/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/physiopathology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/mortality , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnostic imaging , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/physiopathology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant , Male , Peru/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
20.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(5): 617-619, 2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919281

ABSTRACT

Asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) carriage among hospitalized children and risk of transmission to healthcare workers (HCWs) was evaluated by point prevalence survey. We estimated 1-2% prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among children without coronavirus disease 2019 symptoms. There was no secondary transmission among HCWs exposed to these patients.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Personnel, Hospital , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
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