Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
2.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(12): 1610-1615, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996362

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We describe a coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in a cancer center's head and neck surgery ward and the interventions to halt ongoing exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among healthcare workers and patients with cancer. METHODS: Case definition included all healthcare workers and all patients associated to the ward from January 27 to January 31, 2022 with a positive SARS-COV-2 antigen test. This retrospective descriptive study was conducted between January 27, 2022, and February 14, 2022. RESULTS: From January 28, 2022, to February 9, 2022, 84 cases (36 healthcare workers, 48 patients) were screened, and 26 (12 healthcare workers, 14 patients) were identified as SARS-CoV-2-positive. The proportion of healthcare providers who performed aerosol generating procedures on positive patients was 91% for positive cases and 49% for non-cases. Room sharing with patients with COVID-19 was 64% for positive cases and 21% for non-cases (57% vs. 21% with positive tracheostomy patients; 43% vs. 9% with positive cases using a nebulizer; 50% vs. 15% with positive cases requiring sputum suctioning, respectively). Compliance with the universal masking policy for patients was 36% of positive cases and 79% of non-cases. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a nosocomial outbreak of COVID-19 in a head and neck surgery ward during the Omicron pandemic. Notably, there were a high number of positive cases among healthcare workers who performed aerosol generating procedures for positive patients and patients who shared the room with a patient with COVID-19 with the potential to generate aerosols.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 258(1): 63-68, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938489

ABSTRACT

The detailed clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is rarely reported. We report the first case of HCL diagnosed with prolonged pancytopenia after COVID-19 infection in Japan. We describe the case of a 56-year-old man who was diagnosed with COVID-19. Computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacities in the bilateral lung lobes as well as splenomegaly. Remdesivir and dexamethasone were administered for the treatment of COVID-19. Since the pancytopenia persisted, bone marrow examination was performed, and he was diagnosed with HCL. Although pancytopenia can occur with COVID-19 alone, clinicians should be alerted regarding the presence of hematologic malignancies in patients in whom pancytopenia persists after COVID-19 treatment or in those with splenomegaly. Further, the condition of all previously reported patients with COVID-19 associated with HCL was severe enough to require mechanical ventilation. This is the first case in which the disease was not severe. The interleukin-6 (IL-6) level was lower in this case than in previous cases, suggesting that racial differences in IL-6 production may have contributed to COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Leukemia, Hairy Cell , Pancytopenia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Leukemia, Hairy Cell/complications , Leukemia, Hairy Cell/drug therapy , Leukemia, Hairy Cell/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pancytopenia/complications , Splenomegaly/complications , Splenomegaly/pathology
4.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 781796, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847220

ABSTRACT

This study explores the factors contributing to the prolonged psychological distress of frontline nurses and physicians caring for COVID-19 patients in hospitals in Singapore and Japan. A cross-sectional survey between September and December 2020 yielded 1,644 responses (23.8%), from 62 nurses and 64 physicians in Singapore and 1,280 nurses and 238 physicians in Japan. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that significant risk factors for prolonged psychological distress included being a frontline nurse [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-4.66], having an underlying medical condition (aOR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.22-2.46), experiencing prejudice because they undertook COVID-19 patient care (aOR = 3.05, 95% CI: 2.23-4.18), having trouble dealing with panicked or uncooperative patients (aOR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.71-3.25), and experiencing an outbreak of COVID-19 in the hospital (aOR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.38-3.04). Factors inversely associated with psychological distress included age (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-1.00), number of beds in the hospital (aOR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57-0.94), clinical practice of carefully putting on and taking off personal protective equipment in daily COVID-19 patient care (aOR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.37-0.73), and knowledge on COVID-19 (aOR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.94). These results could help us identify vulnerable healthcare providers who need urgent mental care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Measures that may reduce psychological strain include adequate supply of medical resources, education on precautionary measures, and communication strategies to combat discrimination against frontline healthcare providers.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 668, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387328

ABSTRACT

Except remdesivir, no specific antivirals for SARS-CoV-2 infection are currently available. Here, we characterize two small-molecule-compounds, named GRL-1720 and 5h, containing an indoline and indole moiety, respectively, which target the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). We use VeroE6 cell-based assays with RNA-qPCR, cytopathic assays, and immunocytochemistry and show both compounds to block the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 with EC50 values of 15 ± 4 and 4.2 ± 0.7 µM for GRL-1720 and 5h, respectively. Remdesivir permitted viral breakthrough at high concentrations; however, compound 5h completely blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro without viral breakthrough or detectable cytotoxicity. Combination of 5h and remdesivir exhibits synergism against SARS-CoV-2. Additional X-ray structural analysis show that 5h forms a covalent bond with Mpro and makes polar interactions with multiple active site amino acid residues. The present data suggest that 5h might serve as a lead Mpro inhibitor for the development of therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Proteases/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Indoles/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Vero Cells , Viral Proteases/metabolism
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15997, 2021 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345579

ABSTRACT

Simple tests of infectiousness that return results in minutes and directly from samples even with low viral loads could be a potential game-changer in the fight against COVID-19. Here, we describe an improved isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay, termed the RICCA (RNA Isothermal Co-assisted and Coupled Amplification) reaction, that consists of a simple one-pot format of 'sample-in and result-out' with a primary focus on the detection of low copy numbers of RNA virus directly from saliva without the need for laboratory processing. We demonstrate our assay by detecting 16S rRNA directly from E. coli cells with a sensitivity as low as 8 CFU/µL and RNA fragments from a synthetic template of SARS-CoV-2 with a sensitivity as low as 1740 copies/µL. We further demonstrate the applicability of our assay for real-time testing at the point of care by designing a closed format for paper-based lateral flow assay and detecting heat-inactivated SARS-COV-2 virus in human saliva at concentrations ranging from 28,000 to 2.8 copies/µL with a total assay time of 15-30 min.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA Viruses/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Equipment Design , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , RNA Viruses/isolation & purification , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology
8.
Prog Disaster Sci ; 8: 100127, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-867038

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate how evacuation measures could be effectively implemented in the event of multiple disasters caused by natural hazards under conditions of the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) pandemic, which is rapidly spreading worldwide. We conducted a review of literature focusing on complex disasters, entailing natural disasters in combination of outbreaks or endemics of infectious diseases. Using the Google Scholar search engine, we identified and reviewed 24 papers sourced from academia, governments, and concerned organizations, and associated data on such disasters, commencing with the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, which occurred in 1995. In light of our review, we developed a summary of correspondences and problems linked to compound disasters involving conjunctions of outbreaks/endemics and natural disasters that could offer insights for developing measures to deal with natural disasters that occur in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We subsequently attempted to differentiate the characteristics of evacuation measures relating to COVID-19 from those relating to other infectious diseases using three sets of extracted keywords: (1) surveillance and information sharing, (2) evacuation center environment and stockpiled supplies, and (3) community disaster risk reduction and community leadership. We identified issues relating to evacuation measures that would need to be explored further to improve disaster management and preparedness in the future.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL