Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 25
Filter
3.
Biomedicines ; 10(4)2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776131

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, the first case of COVID-19 was reported and since then several groups have already published that the virus can be present in the testis. To study the influence of SARS-CoV-2 which cause a dysregulation of the androgen receptor (AR) level, thereby leading to fertility problems and inducing germ cell testicular changes in patients after the infection. Formalin-Fixed-Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) testicular samples from patients who died with or as a result of COVID-19 (n = 32) with controls (n = 6), inflammatory changes (n = 9), seminoma with/without metastasis (n = 11) compared with healthy biopsy samples (n = 3) were analyzed and compared via qRT-PCR for the expression of miR-371a-3p. An immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) and ELISA were performed in order to highlight the miR-371a-3p targeting the AR. Serum samples of patients with mild or severe COVID-19 symptoms (n = 34) were analyzed for miR-371a-3p expression. In 70% of the analyzed postmortem testicular tissue samples, a significant upregulation of the miR-371a-3p was detected, and 75% of the samples showed a reduced spermatogenesis. In serum samples, the upregulation of the miR-371a-3p was also detectable. The upregulation of the miR-371a-3p is responsible for the downregulation of the AR in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, resulting in decreased spermatogenesis. Since the dysregulation of the AR is associated with infertility, further studies have to confirm if the identified dysregulation is regressive after a declining infection.

4.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(4): e0229821, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759280

ABSTRACT

Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), which impacts their chances of survival. Whether positive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) mycological tests can be used as a survival proxy remains unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of a previous multicenter, multinational observational study with the aim of assessing the differential prognostic impact of BALF mycological tests, namely, positive (optical density index of ≥1.0) BALF galactomannan (GM) and positive BALF Aspergillus culture alone or in combination for critically ill patients with COVID-19. Of the 592 critically ill patients with COVID-19 enrolled in the main study, 218 were included in this post hoc analysis, as they had both test results available. CAPA was diagnosed in 56/218 patients (26%). Most cases were probable CAPA (51/56 [91%]) and fewer were proven CAPA (5/56 [9%]). In the final multivariable model adjusted for between-center heterogeneity, an independent association with 90-day mortality was observed for the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture in comparison with both tests negative (hazard ratio, 2.53; 95% CI confidence interval [CI], 1.28 to 5.02; P = 0.008). The other independent predictors of 90-day mortality were increasing age and active malignant disease. In conclusion, the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture was associated with increased 90-day mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Additional study is needed to explore the possible prognostic value of other BALF markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , Mycology , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Marchesi, Francesco, Salmanton-Garcia, Jon, Emarah, Ziad, Piukovics, Klára, Nucci, Marcio, Lopez-Garcia, Alberto, Racil, Zdenek, Farina, Francesca, Popova, Marina, Zompi, Sofia, Audisio, Ernesta, Ledoux, Marie-Pierre, Verga, Luisa, Weinbergerova, Barbora, Szotkowski, Tomas, Silva, Maria, Fracchiolla, Nicola Stefano, De Jonge, Nick, Collins, Graham, Marchetti, Monia, Magliano, Gabriele, GarcÍA-Vidal, Carolina, Biernat, Monika, Doesum, Jaap van, Machado, Marina, Demirkan, Fatih, Khabori, Murtadha Al, Zak, Pavel, Visek, Benjamin, Stoma, Igor, MÉNdez, Gustavo-Adolfo, Maertens, Johan, Khanna, Nina, Espigado, Ildefonso, Dragonetti, Giulia, Fianchi, Luana, Principe, Maria Ilaria Del, Cabirta, Alba, Ormazabal-VÉLez, Irati, Jaksic, Ozren, Buquicchio, Caterina, Bonuomo, Valentina, Batinić, Josip, Omrani, Ali, Lamure, Sylvain, Finizio, Olimpia, FernÁNdez, Noemí, Falces-Romero, Iker, Blennow, Ola, Bergantim, Rui, Ali, Natasha, Win, Sein, Praet, Jens V. A. N.; Tisi, Maria Chiara, Shirinova, Ayten, SchÖNlein, Martin, Prattes, Juergen, Piedimonte, Monica, Petzer, Verena, NavrÁTil, Milan, Kulasekararaj, Austin, Jindra, Pavel, Jiří, Glenthøj, Andreas, Fazzi, Rita, de Ramón, Cristina, Cattaneo, Chiara, Calbacho, Maria, Bahr, Nathan, El-Ashwl, Shaimaa Saber, Córdoba, Raúl, Hanakova, Michaela, Zambrotta, Giovanni, Sciumè, Mariarita, Booth, Stephen, Nunes-Rodrigues, Raquel, Sacchi, Maria Vittoria, GarcÍA-PoutÓN, Nicole, MartÍN-GonzÁLez, Juan-Alberto, Khostelidi, Sofya, GrÄFe, Stefanie, Rahimli, Laman, busca, alessandro, Corradini, Paolo, Hoenigl, Martin, Klimko, Nikolai, Koehler, Philipp, Pagliuca, Antonio, Passamonti, Francesco, Cornely, Oliver, pagano, Livio.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328805

ABSTRACT

Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are at high risk of mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The optimal management of AML patients with COVID-19 has not been established. Our multicenter study included 388 adult AML patients with COVID-19 diagnosis between February 2020 and October 2021. The vast majority were receiving or had received AML treatment in the prior 3 months. COVID-19 was severe in 41.2% and critical in 21.1% of cases. The chemotherapeutic schedule was modified in 174 patients (44.8%), delayed in 68 and permanently discontinued in 106. After a median follow-up of 325 days, 180 patients (46.4%) had died. Death was attributed to COVID-19 (43.3%), AML (26.1%) or to a combination of both (26.7%). Active disease, older age, and treatment discontinuation were associated with death, whereas AML treatment delay was protective. Seventy-nine patients had a simultaneous AML and COVID-19 diagnosis, with an improved survival when AML treatment could be delayed. Patients with COVID-19 diagnosis between January and August 2020 had a significantly lower survival. COVID-19 in AML patients was associated with a high mortality rate and modifications of therapeutic algorithms. The best approach to improve survival was to delay AML treatment.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295175

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute respiratory distress syndrome patients are at risk for fungal infections, especially aspergillosis and mucormycosis. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is differentiated in a pulmonary form and Aspergillus tracheobronchitis (ATB). During the first wave of the pandemic, bronchoscopy for diagnosing Aspergillus superinfections was rarely performed in COVID-19 patients, so that detailed on data on ATB in CAPA patients is scarce. We analyzed prevalence and mortality of tracheobronchitis in patients with CAPA.Methods: We conducted a retrospective, single-centre study at the 14-bed intensive care unit (ICU) of the Department I of Internal Medicine of the University Hospital of Cologne, Germany from March 2020 to February 2021. CAPA patients were identified by twice weekly analysis of tracheal aspirates for Aspergillus growth, Aspergillus DNA (PCR) and galactomannan combined with serum galactomannan testing. In case of positive results, bronchoscopy with the examination of trachea and lower airways and bronchoalveolar lavage followed.Findings: A total of 69 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the ICU, with 17 patients developing probable CAPA. All CAPA patients received bronchoscopy resulting in a clinical diagnosis of tracheobronchitis in 8 patients with signs of tracheal lesions, pseudomembranes or vulnerable bloody trachea. Seven bronchoalveolar lavages revealed culture and eight PCR positivity for Aspergillus fumigatus. In 7 of 8 tracheobronchitis patients, bronchoalveolar lavage samples tested positive for galactomannan antigen optical density index of >0.5. The overall mortality of CAPA patients was 52.9% and the overall mortality of ATB patients was 75%.Interpretation: Our data indicate a substantial prevalence of tracheobronchitis in this single-center cohort of CAPA patients. To facilitate early diagnosis bronchoscopic tracheal examination is crucial as computed tomography lacks diagnostic accuracy to enable timely initiation of therapy.Funding Information: This work was in part supported by the German Registry of COVID-19 Autopsies (www.DeRegCOVID.ukaachen.de), funded by the Federal Ministry of Health (ZMVI1-2520COR201), and the project DEFEAT PANDEMICs, funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (01KX2021).Declaration of Interests: PK reports grants or contracts from German Federal Ministry of Research and Education and the State of North Rhine-Westphalia;Consulting fees Ambu GmbH, Gilead Sciences, Noxxon N.V. and Pfizer Pharma;Honoraria for lectures from Akademie für Infektionsmedizin e.V., Ambu GmbH, Astellas Pharma, BioRad Laboratories Inc., European Confederation of Medical Mycology, Gilead Sciences, GPR Academy Ruesselsheim, medupdate GmbH, MedMedia, MSD Sharp & Dohme GmbH, Pfizer Pharma GmbH, Scilink Comunicación Científica SC and University Hospital and LMU Munich;Participation on an Advisory Board from Ambu GmbH, Gilead Sciences, Pfizer Pharma;A pending patent currently reviewed at the German Patent and Trade Mark Office;Other non-financial interests from Elsevier, Wiley and Taylor & Francis online outside the submitted work. SvS none. JGB reports scientific grants and travel expenses from Kite/Gilead outside the submitted work. FF has a clinician scientist position supported by the deans office, medical faculty, University of Cologne. JSG none. FP none. BB reports honoraria, travel expenses and advisory role from/for Astellas, Celgene, Johnson & Johnson, Kite/Gilead, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, Takeda and financing of scientific research by Astellas, Celgene, Kite/Gilead, MSD and Takeda outside the submitted work. DAE received honoraria from Sanofi and TAKEDA outside the submitted work. ASV reports travel grants from Gilead Sciences outside the submitted work. OK reports payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations or speakers bureaus by Gilead and Pfizer and receipt of equipment, materials, drugs, medical writing, gifts or other services by Pfizer MSD, Basilea, Gilead, Virotech and Wako Fujifilm outside the submitted work. PB none. MK reports payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations or speakers bureaus by Gilead, MSD and Pfizer outside the submitted work. OAC reports grants or contracts from Amplyx, Basilea, BMBF, Cidara, DZIF, EU-DG RTD (101037867), F2G, Gilead, Matinas, MedPace, MSD, Mundipharma, Octapharma, Pfizer, Scynexis;Consulting fees from Amplyx, Biocon, Biosys, Cidara, Da Volterra, Gilead, Matinas, MedPace, Menarini, Molecular Partners, MSG-ERC, Noxxon, Octapharma, PSI, Scynexis, Seres;Honoraria for lectures from Abbott, Al 344 Jazeera Pharmaceuticals, Astellas, Grupo Biotoscana/United Medical/Knight, Hikma, MedScape, MedUpdate, Merck/MSD, Mylan, Pfizer;Payment for expert testimony from Cidara;Participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board from Actelion, Allecra, Cidara, Entasis, IQVIA, Jannsen, MedPace, Paratek, PSI, Shionogi;A pending patent currently reviewed at the German Patent and Trade Mark Office;Other interests from DGHO, DGI, ECMM, ISHAM, MSG-ERC, Wiley outside the submitted work.Ethics Approval Statement: Patients with CAPA were included in the FungiScope® global registry for emerging invasive fungal infections (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov;National Clinical Trials identifier NCT01731353), which was approved by the local ethics committee of the University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany (identifier 05-102).

9.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 168, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with hematological malignancies (HM) are at high risk of mortality from SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19). A better understanding of risk factors for adverse outcomes may improve clinical management in these patients. We therefore studied baseline characteristics of HM patients developing COVID-19 and analyzed predictors of mortality. METHODS: The survey was supported by the Scientific Working Group Infection in Hematology of the European Hematology Association (EHA). Eligible for the analysis were adult patients with HM and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 observed between March and December 2020. RESULTS: The study sample includes 3801 cases, represented by lymphoproliferative (mainly non-Hodgkin lymphoma n = 1084, myeloma n = 684 and chronic lymphoid leukemia n = 474) and myeloproliferative malignancies (mainly acute myeloid leukemia n = 497 and myelodysplastic syndromes n = 279). Severe/critical COVID-19 was observed in 63.8% of patients (n = 2425). Overall, 2778 (73.1%) of the patients were hospitalized, 689 (18.1%) of whom were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Overall, 1185 patients (31.2%) died. The primary cause of death was COVID-19 in 688 patients (58.1%), HM in 173 patients (14.6%), and a combination of both COVID-19 and progressing HM in 155 patients (13.1%). Highest mortality was observed in acute myeloid leukemia (199/497, 40%) and myelodysplastic syndromes (118/279, 42.3%). The mortality rate significantly decreased between the first COVID-19 wave (March-May 2020) and the second wave (October-December 2020) (581/1427, 40.7% vs. 439/1773, 24.8%, p value < 0.0001). In the multivariable analysis, age, active malignancy, chronic cardiac disease, liver disease, renal impairment, smoking history, and ICU stay correlated with mortality. Acute myeloid leukemia was a higher mortality risk than lymphoproliferative diseases. CONCLUSIONS: This survey confirms that COVID-19 patients with HM are at high risk of lethal complications. However, improved COVID-19 prevention has reduced mortality despite an increase in the number of reported cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
12.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(4): 580-587, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375916

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) -associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has emerged as a complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The objectives of this multinational study were to determine the prevalence of CAPA in patients with COVID-19 in intensive care units (ICU) and to investigate risk factors for CAPA as well as outcome. METHODS: The European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) conducted a multinational study including 20 centres from nine countries to assess epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of CAPA. CAPA was defined according to the 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus definitions. RESULTS: A total of 592 patients were included in this study, including 11 (1.9%) patients with histologically proven CAPA, 80 (13.5%) with probable CAPA, 18 (3%) with possible CAPA and 483 (81.6%) without CAPA. CAPA was diagnosed a median of 8 days (range 0-31 days) after ICU admission predominantly in older patients (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.04 per year; 95% CI 1.02-1.06) with any form of invasive respiratory support (HR 3.4; 95% CI 1.84-6.25) and receiving tocilizumab (HR 2.45; 95% CI 1.41-4.25). Median prevalence of CAPA per centre was 10.7% (range 1.7%-26.8%). CAPA was associated with significantly lower 90-day ICU survival rate (29% in patients with CAPA versus 57% in patients without CAPA; Mantel-Byar p < 0.001) and remained an independent negative prognostic variable after adjusting for other predictors of survival (HR 2.14; 95% CI 1.59-2.87, p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of CAPA varied between centres. CAPA was significantly more prevalent among older patients, patients receiving invasive ventilation and patients receiving tocilizumab, and was an independent strong predictor of ICU mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Mycology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(8): 819-834, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279405

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is increasingly reported in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Diagnosis and management of COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) are challenging and our aim was to develop practical guidance. METHODS: A group of 28 international experts reviewed current insights in the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of CAPA and developed recommendations using GRADE methodology. RESULTS: The prevalence of CAPA varied between 0 and 33%, which may be partly due to variable case definitions, but likely represents true variation. Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) remain the cornerstone of CAPA diagnosis, allowing for diagnosis of invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and collection of the best validated specimen for Aspergillus diagnostics. Most patients diagnosed with CAPA lack traditional host factors, but pre-existing structural lung disease and immunomodulating therapy may predispose to CAPA risk. Computed tomography seems to be of limited value to rule CAPA in or out, and serum biomarkers are negative in 85% of patients. As the mortality of CAPA is around 50%, antifungal therapy is recommended for BAL positive patients, but the decision to treat depends on the patients' clinical condition and the institutional incidence of CAPA. We recommend against routinely stopping concomitant corticosteroid or IL-6 blocking therapy in CAPA patients. CONCLUSION: CAPA is a complex disease involving a continuum of respiratory colonization, tissue invasion and angioinvasive disease. Knowledge gaps including true epidemiology, optimal diagnostic work-up, management strategies and role of host-directed therapy require further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(8): e14150, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271067

ABSTRACT

Innate immunity triggers responsible for viral control or hyperinflammation in COVID-19 are largely unknown. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-protein) primes inflammasome formation and release of mature interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) in macrophages derived from COVID-19 patients but not in macrophages from healthy SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals. Furthermore, longitudinal analyses reveal robust S-protein-driven inflammasome activation in macrophages isolated from convalescent COVID-19 patients, which correlates with distinct epigenetic and gene expression signatures suggesting innate immune memory after recovery from COVID-19. Importantly, we show that S-protein-driven IL-1ß secretion from patient-derived macrophages requires non-specific monocyte pre-activation in vivo to trigger NLRP3-inflammasome signaling. Our findings reveal that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes profound and long-lived reprogramming of macrophages resulting in augmented immunogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 S-protein, a major vaccine antigen and potent driver of adaptive and innate immune signaling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-1beta , Macrophages , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(1): e0001021, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262384

ABSTRACT

The ongoing global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), first described in Wuhan, China. A subset of COVID-19 patients has been reported to have acquired secondary infections by microbial pathogens, such as opportunistic fungal pathogens from the genus Aspergillus. To gain insight into COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), we analyzed the genomes and characterized the phenotypic profiles of four CAPA isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus obtained from patients treated in the area of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. By examining the mutational spectrum of single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertion-deletion polymorphisms, and copy number variants among 206 genes known to modulate A. fumigatus virulence, we found that CAPA isolate genomes do not exhibit significant differences from the genome of the Af293 reference strain. By examining a number of factors, including virulence in an invertebrate moth model, growth in the presence of osmotic, cell wall, and oxidative stressors, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and the MIC of antifungal drugs, we found that CAPA isolates were generally, but not always, similar to A. fumigatus reference strains Af293 and CEA17. Notably, CAPA isolate D had more putative loss-of-function mutations in genes known to increase virulence when deleted. Moreover, CAPA isolate D was significantly more virulent than the other three CAPA isolates and the A. fumigatus reference strains Af293 and CEA17, but similarly virulent to two other clinical strains of A. fumigatus. These findings expand our understanding of the genomic and phenotypic characteristics of isolates that cause CAPA. IMPORTANCE The global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has already killed millions of people. COVID-19 patient outcome can be further complicated by secondary infections, such as COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). CAPA is caused by Aspergillus fungal pathogens, but there is little information about the genomic and phenotypic characteristics of CAPA isolates. We conducted genome sequencing and extensive phenotyping of four CAPA isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus from Germany. We found that CAPA isolates were often, but not always, similar to other reference strains of A. fumigatus across 206 genetic determinants of infection-relevant phenotypes, including virulence. For example, CAPA isolate D was more virulent than other CAPA isolates and reference strains in an invertebrate model of fungal disease, but similarly virulent to two other clinical strains. These results expand our understanding of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Genomics , Phenotype , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Aged , Antifungal Agents , Aspergillus , Aspergillus fumigatus/classification , Aspergillus fumigatus/drug effects , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolomics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Mutation , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2 , Secondary Metabolism/genetics , Virulence/genetics
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1077-1086, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067634

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 emerged in China at the end of 2019. Because of the severe immunomodulation and lymphocyte depletion caused by this virus and the subsequent administration of drugs directed at the immune system, we anticipated that patients might experience fungal superinfection. We collected data from 186 patients who had coronavirus disease-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) worldwide during March-August 2020. Overall, 182 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), including 180 with acute respiratory distress syndrome and 175 who received mechanical ventilation. CAPA was diagnosed a median of 10 days after coronavirus disease diagnosis. Aspergillus fumigatus was identified in 80.3% of patient cultures, 4 of which were azole-resistant. Most (52.7%) patients received voriconazole. In total, 52.2% of patients died; of the deaths, 33.0% were attributed to CAPA. We found that the cumulative incidence of CAPA in the ICU ranged from 1.0% to 39.1%.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Incidence , International Cooperation , Male , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , Registries , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
20.
Immunity ; 53(6): 1258-1271.e5, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988080

ABSTRACT

CD4+ T cells reactive against SARS-CoV-2 can be found in unexposed individuals, and these are suggested to arise in response to common cold coronavirus (CCCoV) infection. Here, we utilized SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ T cell enrichment to examine the antigen avidity and clonality of these cells, as well as the relative contribution of CCCoV cross-reactivity. SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ memory T cells were present in virtually all unexposed individuals examined, displaying low functional avidity and multiple, highly variable cross-reactivities that were not restricted to CCCoVs. SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells from COVID-19 patients lacked cross-reactivity to CCCoVs, irrespective of strong memory T cell responses against CCCoV in all donors analyzed. In severe but not mild COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells displayed low functional avidity and clonality, despite increased frequencies. Our findings identify low-avidity CD4+ T cell responses as a hallmark of severe COVID-19 and argue against a protective role for CCCoV-reactive T cells in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , Rhinovirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Cross Reactions , Disease Progression , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Lymphocyte Activation , Protein Binding , Severity of Illness Index , T-Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL