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1.
Blood ; 140(4): 349-358, 2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978749

ABSTRACT

CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have evolved as a new standard-of-care (SOC) treatment in patients with relapsed/refractory (r/r) large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL). Here, we report the first German real-world data on SOC CAR T-cell therapies with the aim to explore risk factors associated with outcomes. Patients who received SOC axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) or tisagenlecleucel (tisa-cel) for LBCL and were registered with the German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation (DRST) were eligible. The main outcomes analyzed were toxicities, response, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS). We report 356 patients who received axi-cel (n = 173) or tisa-cel (n = 183) between November 2018 and April 2021 at 21 German centers. Whereas the axi-cel and tisa-cel cohorts were comparable for age, sex, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), international prognostic index (IPI), and pretreatment, the tisa-cel group comprised significantly more patients with poor performance status, ineligibility for ZUMA-1, and the need for bridging, respectively. With a median follow-up of 11 months, Kaplan-Meier estimates of OS, PFS, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) 12 months after dosing were 52%, 30%, and 6%, respectively. While NRM was largely driven by infections subsequent to prolonged neutropenia and/or severe neurotoxicity and significantly higher with axi-cel, significant risk factors for PFS on the multivariate analysis included bridging failure, elevated LDH, age, and tisa-cel use. In conclusion, this study suggests that important outcome determinants of CD19-directed CAR T-cell treatment of LBCL in the real-world setting are bridging success, CAR-T product selection, LDH, and the absence of prolonged neutropenia and/or severe neurotoxicity. These findings may have implications for designing risk-adapted CAR T-cell therapy strategies.


Subject(s)
Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse , Neutropenia , Antigens, CD19 , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology , Neutropenia/chemically induced
2.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 88, 2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes community-acquired respiratory tract infections during winter. However, outbreaks in hospitals also occur repeatedly. In particular, patients with hematologic malignancies are at an increased risk for a severe and potentially fatal course of RSV infection. Here we present the investigation of an RSV outbreak in a hematology ward for adults following the ORION statement. METHODS: An epidemiologic and molecular outbreak analysis was performed. We developed and employed a minimal oligonucleotide probe set in target capture probe sequencing that allows cost-effective RSV-A or -B capturing to reconstruct RSV genomes from clinical samples. RESULTS: Four adult patients were involved in the outbreak caused by RSV-B in March 2019. The enforcement of the pre-existing infection control measures by effective training of hospital staff contributed to a successful containment. PCR-based RSV screening on the ward enabled early detection of new cases and rapid isolation measures. The molecular analysis demonstrated that the outbreak sequences were highly related and distinct to other RSV-B strains circulating at the same time. CONCLUSIONS: A multimodal infection control concept is essential for the timely detection and control of RSV outbreaks in patients with hematological disease. Among other measures, preventive screening for respiratory viruses is recommended. Furthermore, the integration of conventional and molecular epidemiology, such as whole-genome sequencing and variant calling, significantly contributes to the understanding of transmission pathways. Based on this, appropriate conclusions can be drawn for targeted prevention measures that have prepared us for the COVID-19 pandemic beyond the RSV approach described here.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Adult , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 863039, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775685

ABSTRACT

Evaluating long-term protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in convalescing individuals is of high clinical relevance. In this prospective study of a cohort of 46 SARS-CoV-2 patients infected with the Wuhan strain of SARS-CoV-2 we longitudinally analyzed changes in humoral and cellular immunity upon early and late convalescence. Antibody neutralization capacity was measured by surrogate virus neutralization test and cellular responses were investigated with 31-colour spectral flow cytometry. Spike-specific, isotype-switched B cells developed already during the disease phase, showed a memory phenotype and did not decrease in numbers even during late convalescence. Otherwise, no long-lasting perturbations of the immune compartment following COVID-19 clearance were observed. During convalescence anti-Spike (S1) IgG antibodies strongly decreased in all patients. We detected neutralizing antibodies against the Wuhan strain as well as the Alpha and Delta but not against the Beta, Gamma or Omicron variants for up to 7 months post COVID-19. Furthermore, correlation analysis revealed a strong association between sera anti-S1 IgG titers and their neutralization capacity against the Wuhan strain as well as Alpha and Delta. Overall, our data suggest that even 7 month after the clearance of COVID-19 many patients possess a protective layer of immunity, indicated by the persistence of Spike-specific memory B cells and by the presence of neutralizing antibodies against the Alpha and Delta variants. However, lack of neutralizing antibodies against the Beta, Gamma and Omicron variants even during the peak response is of major concern as this indicates viral evasion of the humoral immune response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Convalescence , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G , Prospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 721738, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378191

ABSTRACT

Here, we described the case of a B cell-deficient patient after CD19 CAR-T cell therapy for refractory B cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma with protracted coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). For weeks, this patient only inefficiently contained the virus while convalescent plasma transfusion correlated with virus clearance. Interestingly, following convalescent plasma therapy natural killer cells matured and virus-specific T cells expanded, presumably allowing virus clearance and recovery from the disease. Our findings, thus, suggest that convalescent plasma therapy can activate cellular immune responses to clear SARS-CoV-2 infections. If confirmed in larger clinical studies, these data could be of general importance for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/complications , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphopoiesis , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
5.
EBioMedicine ; 57: 102885, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elucidating the role of T cell responses in COVID-19 is of utmost importance to understand the clearance of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: 30 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 60 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) participated in this study. We used two comprehensive 11-colour flow cytometric panels conforming to Good Laboratory Practice and approved for clinical diagnostics. FINDINGS: Absolute numbers of lymphocyte subsets were differentially decreased in COVID-19 patients according to clinical severity. In severe disease (SD) patients, all lymphocyte subsets were reduced, whilst in mild disease (MD) NK, NKT and γδ T cells were at the level of HC. Additionally, we provide evidence of T cell activation in MD but not SD, when compared to HC. Follow up samples revealed a marked increase in effector T cells and memory subsets in convalescing but not in non-convalescing patients. INTERPRETATION: Our data suggest that activation and expansion of innate and adaptive lymphocytes play a major role in COVID-19. Additionally, recovery is associated with formation of T cell memory as suggested by the missing formation of effector and central memory T cells in SD but not in MD. Understanding T cell-responses in the context of clinical severity might serve as foundation to overcome the lack of effective anti-viral immune response in severely affected COVID-19 patients and can offer prognostic value as biomarker for disease outcome and control. FUNDING: Funded by State of Lower Saxony grant 14-76,103-184CORONA-11/20 and German Research Foundation, Excellence Strategy - EXC2155"RESIST"-Project ID39087428, and DFG-SFB900/3-Project ID158989968, grants SFB900-B3, SFB900-B8.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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