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1.
J Biol Rhythms ; : 7487304221132355, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116745

ABSTRACT

Data from human and animal studies are highly suggestive of an influence of time of day of vaccine administration on host immune responses. In this population-based study, we aimed to investigate the effect of time of day of administration of a COVID-19 vector vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca), on SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike S1 immunoglobulin (IgG) levels. Participants were 803 university employees who received their first vaccine dose in March 2021, had serology data at baseline and at 3 weeks, and were seronegative at baseline. Antibody levels were determined in binding antibody units (BAU/mL) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Generalized additive models (GAM) and linear regression were used to evaluate the association of time of day of vaccination continuously and in hourly bins with antibody levels at 3 weeks. Participants had a mean age of 42 years (SD: 12; range: 21-74) and 60% were female. Time of day of vaccination was associated non-linearly ("reverse J-shape") with antibody levels. Morning vaccination was associated with the highest (9:00-10:00 h: mean 292.1 BAU/mL; SD: 262.1), early afternoon vaccination with the lowest (12:00-13:00 h: mean 217.3 BAU/mL; SD: 153.6), and late afternoon vaccination with intermediate (14:00-15:00 h: mean 280.7 BAU/mL; SD: 262.4) antibody levels. Antibody levels induced by 12:00-13:00 h vaccination (but not other time intervals) were significantly lower compared to 9:00-10:00 h vaccination after adjusting for potential confounders (beta coefficient = -75.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -131.3, -20.4). Our findings show that time of day of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has an impact on the magnitude of IgG antibody levels at 3 weeks. Whether this difference persists after booster vaccine doses and whether it influences the level of protection against COVID-19 needs further evaluation.

2.
Ann Behav Med ; 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The study of impact of lockdowns on individual health-related behaviors has produced divergent results. PURPOSE: To identify patterns of change in multiple health-related behaviors analyzed as a whole, and their individual determinants. METHODS: Between March and August 2020, we collected data on smoking, alcohol, physical activity, weight, and sleep in a population-based cohort from Catalonia who had available pre-pandemic data. We performed multiple correspondence and cluster analyses to identify patterns of change in health-related behaviors and built multivariable multinomial logistic regressions to identify determinants of behavioral change. RESULTS: In 10,032 participants (59% female, mean (SD) age 55 (8) years), 8,606 individuals (86%) modified their behavior during the lockdown. We identified five patterns of behavioral change that were heterogeneous and directed both towards worsening and improvement in diverse combinations. Patterns ranged from "global worsening" (2,063 participants, 21%) characterized by increases in smoking, alcohol consumption, and weight, and decreases in physical activity levels and sleep time, to "improvement" (2,548 participants, 25%) characterized by increases in physical activity levels, decreases in weight and alcohol consumption, and both increases and decreases in sleep time. Being female, of older age, teleworking, having a higher education level, assuming caregiving responsibilities, and being more exposed to pandemic news were associated with changing behavior (all p < .05), but did not discriminate between favorable or unfavorable changes. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the population experienced changes in health-related behavior during lockdowns. Determinants of behavior modification were not explicitly associated with the direction of changes but allowed the identification of older, teleworking, and highly educated women who assumed caregiving responsibilities at home as susceptible population groups more vulnerable to lockdowns.

3.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 347, 2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity of the population in relation to infection, COVID-19 vaccination, and host characteristics is likely reflected in the underlying SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. METHODS: We measured IgM, IgA, and IgG levels against SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antigens in 1076 adults of a cohort study in Catalonia between June and November 2020 and a second time between May and July 2021. Questionnaire data and electronic health records on vaccination and COVID-19 testing were available in both periods. Data on several lifestyle, health-related, and sociodemographic characteristics were also available. RESULTS: Antibody seroreversion occurred in 35.8% of the 64 participants non-vaccinated and infected almost a year ago and was related to asymptomatic infection, age above 60 years, and smoking. Moreover, the analysis on kinetics revealed that among all responses, IgG RBD, IgA RBD, and IgG S2 decreased less within 1 year after infection. Among vaccinated, 2.1% did not present antibodies at the time of testing and approximately 1% had breakthrough infections post-vaccination. In the post-vaccination era, IgM responses and those against nucleoprotein were much less prevalent. In previously infected individuals, vaccination boosted the immune response and there was a slight but statistically significant increase in responses after a 2nd compared to the 1st dose. Infected vaccinated participants had superior antibody levels across time compared to naïve-vaccinated people. mRNA vaccines and, particularly the Spikevax, induced higher antibodies after 1st and 2nd doses compared to Vaxzevria or Janssen COVID-19 vaccines. In multivariable regression analyses, antibody responses after vaccination were predicted by the type of vaccine, infection age, sex, smoking, and mental and cardiovascular diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support that infected people would benefit from vaccination. Results also indicate that hybrid immunity results in superior antibody responses and infection-naïve people would need a booster dose earlier than previously infected people. Mental diseases are associated with less efficient responses to vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Middle Aged , Nucleoproteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology
4.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 37, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793937

ABSTRACT

Climate change, urbanisation, chemical pollution and disruption of ecosystems, including biodiversity loss, affect our health and wellbeing. Research is crucial to be able to respond to the current and future challenges that are often complex and interconnected by nature. The HERA Agenda, summarised in this commentary, identifies six thematic research goals in the environment, climate and health fields. These include research to 1) reduce the effects of climate change and biodiversity loss on health and environment, 2) promote healthy lives in cities and communities, 3) eliminate harmful chemical exposures, 4) improve health impact assessment and implementation research, 5) develop infrastructures, technologies and human resources and 6) promote research on transformational change towards sustainability. Numerous specific recommendations for research topics, i.e., specific research goals, are presented under each major research goal. Several methods were used to define the priorities, including web-based surveys targeting researchers and stakeholder groups as well as a series of online and face-to-face workshops, involving hundreds of researchers and other stakeholders. The results call for an unprecedented effort to support a better understanding of the causes, interlinkages and impacts of environmental stressors on health and the environment. This will require breakdown of silos within policies, research, actors as well as in our institutional arrangements in order to enable more holistic approaches and solutions to emerge. The HERA project has developed a unique and exciting opportunity in Europe to consensuate priorities in research and strengthen research that has direct societal impact.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Ecosystem , Cities , Europe , Humans , Urbanization
5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(11): 117003, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence links ambient air pollution with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease, an association that is methodologically challenging to investigate. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between long-term exposure to air pollution with SARS-CoV-2 infection measured through antibody response, level of antibody response among those infected, and COVID-19 disease. METHODS: We contacted 9,605 adult participants from a population-based cohort study in Catalonia between June and November 2020; most participants were between 40 and 65 years of age. We drew blood samples from 4,103 participants and measured immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG antibodies against five viral target antigens to establish infection to the virus and levels of antibody response among those infected. We defined COVID-19 disease using self-reported hospital admission, prior positive diagnostic test, or more than three self-reported COVID-19 symptoms after contact with a COVID-19 case. We estimated prepandemic (2018-2019) exposure to fine particulate matter [PM with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5µm (PM2.5)], nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), and ozone (O3) at the residential address using hybrid land-use regression models. We calculated log-binomial risk ratios (RRs), adjusting for individual- and area-level covariates. RESULTS: Among those tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, 743 (18.1%) were seropositive. Air pollution levels were not statistically significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection: Adjusted RRs per interquartile range were 1.07 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.18) for NO2, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.14) for PM2.5, 1.00 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.09) for BC, and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.06) for O3. Among infected participants, exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 were positively associated with IgG levels for all viral target antigens. Among all participants, 481 (5.0%) had COVID-19 disease. Air pollution levels were associated with COVID-19 disease: adjusted RRs=1.14 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.29) for NO2 and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.32) for PM2.5. Exposure to O3 was associated with a slightly decreased risk (RR=0.92; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.03). Associations of air pollution with COVID-19 disease were more pronounced for severe COVID-19, with RRs=1.26 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.79) for NO2 and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.16) for PM2.5. DISCUSSION: Exposure to air pollution was associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 disease and level of antibody response among infected but not with SARS-CoV-2 infection. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9726.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Antibody Formation , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Middle Aged , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21571, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500510

ABSTRACT

Sparse data exist on the complex natural immunity to SARS-CoV-2 at the population level. We applied a well-validated multiplex serology test in 5000 participants of a general population study in Catalonia in blood samples collected from end June to mid November 2020. Based on responses to fifteen isotype-antigen combinations, we detected a seroprevalence of 18.1% in adults (n = 4740), and modeled extrapolation to the general population of Catalonia indicated a 15.3% seroprevalence. Antibodies persisted up to 9 months after infection. Immune profiling of infected individuals revealed that with increasing severity of infection (asymptomatic, 1-3 symptoms, ≥ 4 symptoms, admitted to hospital/ICU), seroresponses were more robust and rich with a shift towards IgG over IgA and anti-spike over anti-nucleocapsid responses. Among seropositive participants, lower antibody levels were observed for those ≥ 60 years vs < 60 years old and smokers vs non-smokers. Overweight/obese participants vs normal weight had higher antibody levels. Adolescents (13-15 years old) (n = 260) showed a seroprevalence of 11.5%, were less likely to be tested seropositive compared to their parents and had dominant anti-spike rather than anti-nucleocapsid IgG responses. Our study provides an unbiased estimate of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in Catalonia and new evidence on the durability and heterogeneity of post-infection immunity.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibody Formation , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain
7.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine ; 78(Suppl 1):A155, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1480285

ABSTRACT

IntroductionWorking life exposures contribute significantly to non-communicable disease development. However, the challenge remains on how to map occupational exposures during the entire career and link exposures with health outcomes. In this context, the EU EPHOR project aims to characterize the internal exposome, by characterizing exposure biomarkers and biological pathways to link external exposure and health effects. While there is a range of strategies available to monitor the internal exposome, these conventional methods often require invasive collection of biological samples and/or high volumes. However, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic forces us to look also at other approaches to obtain biological samples.ObjectiveWe aimed to explore the use of self-sampling techniques in an occupational exposome context.MethodsWe have conducted a semi-systematic literature review to identify self-sampling techniques used to generate high quality data on several biomarkers of exposure and effect. We are exploring the possibility of using these self-sampling techniques through a pilot study. A tiered analytical approach along with a biological sequence will be followed to efficiently analyze the samples (i.e. blood, urine, saliva, exhaled breath, exhaled breath aerosols and exhaled breath condensate) for a broad spectrum of biomarkers and omics. Additionally, non-invasive targeted and non-targeted exposome markers of acute lung function decline and inflammation will be developed through proteomic analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and exhaled breath VOCs using the ReCIVA Breath Sampler. These data will be integrated to generate signatures or ‘fingerprints’ of exposomes, at individual and group levels.Results and ConclusionThe developed methodology will be applied in 2 cohorts within the EPHOR project: shift-workers and workers with asthma or allergic rhinitis to assess the internal exposure and elucidate biological pathways in disease development.

8.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine ; 78(Suppl 1):A12, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1480268

ABSTRACT

IntroductionDuring the first lockdown in Spain (March-June, 2020) essential workers may have been at increased risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) via occupational exposure. Results from published studies are heterogeneous.MethodsOngoing population-based cohort studies from Catalonia were pooled to form the COVICAT study. A random sub-population donated a blood sample (May-July, 2020) for validated multiplex serology testing. Occupational analyses were restricted to working age (18–65 years). Participants responded to a web-based or telephone survey including questions on socio-demographics, pre-pandemic health, behavioural and environmental risk factors. Occupational questions covered mode of work (e.g. telework), job title, availability of personal protective equipment (PPE), and mode of commuting. Job titles were coded by an occupational hygienist to the Spanish CNO-11 and cross-walked to ISCO-08. COVID-19 cases were defined by symptoms or hospitalisation and SARS CoV-2 seropositivity based on immune responses to 15 isotype-antigen combinations (serology sub-cohort). Logistic regression models were built for type of work, job titles and job-exposure matrix (JEM), covering several dimensions and levels of SARS-CoV-2 transmission probabilities , and adjusted for age, sex, education, deprivation index, population density and survey type.ResultsThis analysis included 8,582 participants, of which 3,599 were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, median (SD) age 53.7 (6.3) years, 59.9% were women. The relative risk for COVID-19 for work in the usual workplace compared to telework was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.44, 2.42), and 1.44 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.90) among the serology study. The relative risk for nurses who worked in their usual workplace was 4.57 (95% CI: 3.12, 6.7). Detailed results by job title, JEM, availability of PPE and commuting mode will be presented.ConclusionsThis study has several strengths, including random serology testing and individual-level exposure data. Detailed results may support extended legal definitions of COVID-19 as a recognized occupational disease.

9.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(1): 1-9, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033448

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 death rate increases exponentially with age, and the main risk factors are having underlying conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, severe chronic respiratory disease and cancer. These characteristics are consistent with the multi-step model of disease. We applied this model to Covid-19 case fatality rates (CFRs) from China, South Korea, Italy, Spain and Japan. In all countries we found that a plot of log(CFR) against log(age) was approximately linear with a slope of about 5. We also conducted similar analyses for selected other respiratory diseases. SARS showed a similar log-log age-pattern to that of Covid-19, albeit with a lower slope, whereas seasonal and pandemic influenza showed quite different age-patterns. Thus, death from Covid-19 and SARS appears to follow a distinct age-pattern, consistent with a multi-step model of disease that in the case of Covid-19 is probably defined by comorbidities and age producing immune-related susceptibility.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , COVID-19/mortality , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
11.
Environ Int ; 146: 106272, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943095

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 raised numerous questions on the interactions between the occurrence of new infections, the environment, climate and health. The European Union requested the H2020 HERA project which aims at setting priorities in research on environment, climate and health, to identify relevant research needs regarding Covid-19. The emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 appears to be related to urbanization, habitat destruction, live animal trade, intensive livestock farming and global travel. The contribution of climate and air pollution requires additional studies. Importantly, the severity of COVID-19 depends on the interactions between the viral infection, ageing and chronic diseases such as metabolic, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and obesity which are themselves influenced by environmental stressors. The mechanisms of these interactions deserve additional scrutiny. Both the pandemic and the social response to the disease have elicited an array of behavioural and societal changes that may remain long after the pandemic and that may have long term health effects including on mental health. Recovery plans are currently being discussed or implemented and the environmental and health impacts of those plans are not clearly foreseen. Clearly, COVID-19 will have a long-lasting impact on the environmental health field and will open new research perspectives and policy needs.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Animals , Climate , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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