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1.
Vaccine ; 40(12): 1699-1701, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1698235
2.
Saf Health Work ; 2022 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984033
3.
Sustainability ; 14(15):9033, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1957430

ABSTRACT

Globally, self-medication has increased, where 25% of adults use OTC medicines. This research is intended to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding OTC medicines among adults in Brunei Darussalam. An online cross-sectional survey was performed using a questionnaire adapted from similar research conducted among students in Brunei Darussalam. A total of 364 responses were collected, where the median age of the study participants was 23 years. The mean knowledge score was 7.3 out of 9, with most respondents (77.7%) having good knowledge of OTC medicines. Almost all (92.9%) showed a positive attitude towards OTC use. A statistically significant difference (p ≤0.05) was observed in attitude scores between age groups and education levels. Most of the study participants (88.2%) have practiced self-medication with OTC medicines, mainly due to their easy accessibility (79.4%). A small number practiced improper habits, such as consuming more than the recommended dose (6.0%) and not checking the expiry date (0.5%). The practice of self-medicating with OTC medicines can be advantageous when patients fully know the medications and nature of their disease. Knowledge of proper OTC medicine use among adults in Brunei Darussalam is essential to avoid improper user practices and potential health hazards associated with the misuse of medications.

4.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2402-2413, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718416

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's case fatality rate (CFR) by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. On the basis of data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR was estimated based on the different geographical regions and levels of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially, the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high-income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors, and the mitigatory efforts of individual countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
5.
J Nurs Scholarsh ; 54(5): 607-612, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707901

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify factors responsible for hospital health care workers' intention to leave their job during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was delivered to solicit hospital health care workers' demographics, intention to leave, workplace environment, and changes related to COVID-19 from July to November 2020 in Taiwan. Principal component analysis was performed to compare group-related factors. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the risk factors for the intention of health care workers to leave their job. FINDINGS: Among the 1209 health care workers (mean age, 36.3 years) who participated in the study, intention to leave the job was found to be related to factors relating to COVID-19, including perceived risk, affected social relationships, and increased workload and job stress, after adjustment for demographic and work factors. Supportive administration/management were protective factors against leaving the job. These results were supported by sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the intention of health care workers to leave their job during a pandemic is related to potentially modifiable factors relating to the infection itself and work environment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: High perceived risk of COVID-19, affected social relationaops, and increased workload and job stress were positively associated with the intention of health care workers to leave their job, whereas supportive administration and management were protective factors against leaving the job. Development of workplace strategies is important to help mitigate these above factors, improve psychological wellbeing, and promote workforce stability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel/psychology , Hospitals , Humans , Intention , Job Satisfaction , Pandemics , Personnel Turnover , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 658107, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518562

ABSTRACT

Background: In middle-income countries such as Vietnam, where healthcare resources are already constrained, protecting healthcare workers (HCWs) is essential for ensuring the sustainability of COVID-19 response in Vietnam. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practices regarding the prevention of the COVID-19 among the HCWs in Vietnam to identify the ways of disseminating information to maximize the safety of these essential workers. Methods: An online cross-sectional study, using respondent-driven sampling, was conducted in Vietnam with 742 participants within 2 weeks. The validity of the questionnaire was examined by exploratory factor analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the level of knowledge and practices among the HCWs to prevent the COVID-19. Inferential statistics and regression modeling were used to identify the associated factors with results. Results: Vietnamese HCWs had a high level of knowledge with more than 75% of the participants demonstrating awareness of all the modes of transmission aside from air. The mean knowledge score was 3.7 ± 0.8 (range 1-5). Nearly all the participants relied on the Ministry of Health (98.3%) and the internet (95.5%) for information regarding the COVID-19. The participants endorsed a moderately high level of self-protective practices with mean scores of 4.2 and 3.6 (band score 1-5) for the precautionary and psychological measures, respectively. Nurses were more likely to practice the precautionary measures than doctors and the HCWs at the central level were more likely to practice the psychological measures than those at the district level. Conclusion: Future education initiatives should consolidate the latest literature in an accessible format, focusing initially on the gaps of knowledge regarding aerosol transmission. These initiatives should primarily focus on the doctors, especially those in emergency and intensive care departments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam
7.
Front Psychol ; 12: 563193, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399165

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare workers are frontline responders facing a disproportionate increase in occupational responsibilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Added work-related stress among healthcare personnel may lead to personal and work-related repercussions, such as burnout or decreased quality of care for patients; however, little is known about how the COVID-19 pandemic affects the daily work and life of these workers. This study aimed to evaluate the personal and occupational impacts of the COVID-19 induced partial lockdown in Vietnam among hospital staff. Methods: A cross-sectional web-based study was carried out to collect demographic data and the personal and job impacts of respondents during the second week of national lockdown in April 2020. Snowball sampling technique was applied to recruit 742 hospital staff. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to examine the validity of the instrument. Results: Of the 742 respondents, 21.2% agreed that "working attitude well-maintained," followed by 16.1% of respondents who reported that there were "enough employees at work." Only 3.2% of respondents agreed that "their work was appreciated by society." Furthermore, healthcare workers in the central region were less likely to have experienced "Avoidance of disclosure and discrimination related to COVID-19" than other areas (Coef. = - 0.25, CI: -0.42 to -0.07). Being women also had a negative association with scores in "Avoidance of disclosure and discrimination related to COVID 19" domain (Coef. = -0.27, CI: -0.43 to -0.12) while having a positive association with "negative attitude towards working conditions" domain (Coef. = 0.19, CI: 0.09 to 0.3). In addition, working in administrative offices (Coef. = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.36) and infectious departments (Coef. = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.63) had a positive association with "Increased work pressure due to COVID 19" domain. Conclusion: These findings revealed marginal impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the work and life of hospital staff in Vietnam. Furthermore, this study highlighted the importance of implementing preventive strategies during the nationwide partial lockdown to manage hospital admissions and the burden on healthcare workers. Finally, this study characterizes targeted demographics that may benefit from appreciation by employers and society during a national pandemic.

8.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 562337, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346421

ABSTRACT

Background: The psychosocial impact of COVID-19 is greater among healthcare workers (HCWs) than the general population. This study aims to identify psychosocial problems faced by HCWs in Vietnam during the national partial lockdown between 1 and 22 April 2020 and to identify risk factors associated with psychosocial issues among this population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the second week of April 2020 during the national lockdown in Vietnam. Snowball sampling technique was used to recruit participants through web-based surveys. The Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) was used to assess the impact of COVID-19 on HCWs through online surveys. Results: Of the 349 HCWs, we found 22.6% reported psychosocial problems. Most of participants reported having exposure to COVID-19 daily (48.7%). The majority of them also felt that their job put them at risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections (90.3%) and expressed fear of potential infection (85.7%). Despite COVID-19 risks, 95.4% of participants, however, expressed their willingness to continue working at their current health facility. In addition, 94.8% of participants believed if they or their family members had been infected, their agency leaders would have provided them with appropriate medical care. Lastly, HCWs who worked in the internal medicine department who did not take care of COVID-19 patients or expressed fear of becoming infected were more likely to have higher total IES-R scores. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the support of healthcare leaders and assurance of care might be helpful in mitigating the psychological effects of COVID-19 among HCWs in Vietnam. These resources should be tailored to HCWs who are working in different areas of health services, including staff who are not working directly with COVID-19 patients. In addition, psychosocial health resources should be provided for not only physicians but also nursing staff.

9.
Saf Health Work ; 12(2): 277-281, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193476

ABSTRACT

Singapore's construction sector employs more than 450,000 workers. During the height of the COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore from April to June 2020, migrant workers were disproportionately affected, including many working in the construction sector. Shared accommodation and construction worksites emerged as nexuses for COVID-19 transmission. Official government resources, including COVID-19 epidemiological data, 43 advisories and 19 circulars by Singapore's Ministries of Health and Manpower, were reviewed over 8 month period from March to October 2020. From a peak COVID-19 incidence of 1,424.6/100,000 workers in May 2020, the incidence declined to 3.7/100,000 workers by October 2020. Multilevel safe management measures were implemented to enable the phased reopening of construction worksites from July 2020. Using the Swiss cheese risk management model, the authors described the various governmental, industry, supervisory and worker-specific interventions to prevent, detect and contain COVID-19 for safe resumption of work for the construction sector.

10.
Adv Med Educ Pract ; 11: 615-618, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079405

ABSTRACT

Medical schools must ensure that their curricula evolve in response to changes in clinical practice and the needs of future doctors. Undergraduate medical programs should be better equipped to anticipate and plan for changes in future clinical practice and learning needs of the students. The COVID-19 outbreak and the recent epidemics of new and emerging infections have brought into sharp focus the importance of subjects, such as infectious diseases, infection control, public health, occupational health and virology in medical school curricula. A review of the medical curriculum at PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences revealed that the time allotted for teaching these subjects is much less than that allotted for teaching non-communicable diseases and other subjects. The changing health paradigm requires medical teaching to be continuously redefined and updated. Given the reduced amount of teaching time allotted for subjects, such as infectious diseases, infection control, public health, occupational health and virology, it might be timely to review and recalibrate the teaching hours of these subjects in all the medical curricula, to better prepare our doctors facing the challenges of future epidemics and pandemics.

11.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 11(4): 43-45, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073676
12.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 88, 2020 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-708827

ABSTRACT

Guidance from many health authorities recommend that social distancing measures should be implemented in an epidemic when community transmission has already occurred. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 suggest this is too late. Based on international comparisons of the timing and scale of the implementation of social distancing measures, we find that countries that imposed early stringent measures recorded far fewer cases than those that did not. Yet, such measures need not be extreme. We highlight the examples of Hong Kong and Brunei to demonstrate the early use of moderate social distancing measures as a practical containment strategy. We propose that such measures be a key part of responding to potential future waves of the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health Practice , Brunei/epidemiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Time Factors
13.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(9): 634-636, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591446

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Daily numbers of COVID-19 in Singapore from March to May 2020, the cause of a surge in cases in April and the national response were examined, and regulations on migrant worker accommodation studied. METHODS: Information was gathered from daily reports provided by the Ministry of Health, Singapore Statues online and a Ministerial statement given at a Parliament sitting on 4 May 2020. RESULTS: A marked escalation in the daily number of new COVID-19 cases was seen in early April 2020. The majority of cases occurred among an estimated 295 000 low-skilled migrant workers living in foreign worker dormitories. As of 6 May 2020, there were 17 758 confirmed COVID-19 cases among dormitory workers (88% of 20 198 nationally confirmed cases). One dormitory housing approximately 13 000 workers had 19.4% of residents infected. The national response included mobilising several government agencies and public volunteers. There was extensive testing of workers in dormitories, segregation of healthy and infected workers, and daily observation for fever and symptoms. Twenty-four dormitories were declared as 'isolation areas', with residents quarantined for 14 days. New housing, for example, vacant public housing flats, military camps, exhibition centres, floating hotels have been provided that will allow for appropriate social distancing. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted migrant workers as a vulnerable occupational group. Ideally, matters related to inadequate housing of vulnerable migrant workers need to be addressed before a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Housing/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Vulnerable Populations
14.
J Occup Health ; 62(1): e12128, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260590

ABSTRACT

On 31 December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) received reports of pneumonia cases of unknown etiology in the city of Wuhan in Hubei Province, China. The agent responsible was subsequently identified as a coronavirus-SARS-CoV-2. The WHO declared this disease as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern at the end of January 2020. This event evoked a sense of déjà vu, as it has many similarities to the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) of 2002-2003. Both illnesses were caused by a zoonotic novel coronavirus, both originated during winter in China and both spread rapidly all over the world. However, the case-fatality rate of SARS (9.6%) is higher than that of COVID-19 (<4%). Another zoonotic novel coronavirus, MERS-CoV, was responsible for the Middle East respiratory syndrome, which had a case-fatality rate of 34%. Our experiences in coping with the previous coronavirus outbreaks have better equipped us to face the challenges posed by COVID-19, especially in the health care setting. Among the insights gained from the past outbreaks were: outbreaks caused by viruses are hazardous to healthcare workers; the impact of the disease extends beyond the infection; general principles of prevention and control are effective in containing the disease; the disease poses both a public health as well as an occupational health threat; and emerging infectious diseases pose a continuing threat to the world. Given the perspectives gained and lessons learnt from these past events, we should be better prepared to face the current COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/history , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Health/history , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/history , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Health Personnel/history , History, 21st Century , Humans , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
15.
Saf Health Work ; 11(2): 241-243, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197114

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 poses an occupational health risk to health-care workers. Several thousand health-care workers have already been infected, mainly in China. Preventing intra-hospital transmission of the communicable disease is therefore a priority. Based on the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model, the strategies and measures to protect health-care workers in an acute tertiary hospital are described along the domains of work task, technologies and tools, work environmental factors, and organizational conditions. The principle of zero occupational infection remains an achievable goal that all health-care systems need to strive for in the face of a potential pandemic.

16.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 49(3): 161-165, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-77517

ABSTRACT

While counting cases of disease appears straightforward, there are issues to consider when enumerating disease counts during an epidemic. For example, for Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), how is a case defined? Hubei province in China changed its case definition twice in a fortnight-from laboratory-confirmed cases to clinically-confirmed cases without laboratory tests, and back to laboratory-confirmed cases. This caused confusion in the reported number of cases. If a confirmed case requires laboratory testing, what is the population who are laboratory-tested? Due to limited laboratory testing capacity in the early phase of an emerging epidemic, only "suspected cases" are laboratory-tested in most countries. This will result in underdiagnosis of confirmed cases and also raises the question: how is a "suspect case" defined? With the passage of time and increased capability to perform laboratory tests, more people can be screened and the number of confirmed cases will increase. What are the technical considerations of laboratory testing? This includes specimen collection (variable collection methods), samples collected (upper or lower respiratory tract biospecimens), time of collection in relation to course of disease, different laboratory test methods and kits (not all of which may be standardised or approved by authorities such as the Food and Drug Administration). Are approved laboratory facilities and trained manpower available, and how are test results interpreted and false-negatives excluded? These issues will affect the accuracy of disease counts, which in turn will have implications on how we mount an appropriate response to the outbreak.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling
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