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1.
Case Reports in Oncology ; 13(3):1430-1440, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1396171

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a serious threat and has been reported with different presentations and complications. Older age, along with comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, or cardiac disease, increases the risk factors for COVID-19 severity and death [N Engl J Med. 2020;382(18):1708–20 and Lancet Respir Med. 2020 05;8(5):475–81]. It is proposed that cancer patients have a significantly higher incidence of severe incidents including admission to the intensive care unit, the necessity for assisted ventilation, and even death after catching the virus compared with non-cancer patients [Lancet Oncol. 2020;21(3):335–7]. It is also described that cancer patients appear to be twice as likely to contract infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) [JAMA Oncol. 2020;6(7):1108–10]. Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, with patients typically presenting with cytopenias, marked splenomegaly in 80–90% of patients, circulating leukemia cells, bone marrow infiltration and the presence of BRAF V600E somatic mutation [Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus. 2014;30(Suppl 1):413–7]. Leukemic cells classically have central nuclei and abundant cytoplasm with hairy-like projections and express CD11c, CD25, CD103, and CD123 [Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus. 2014;30(Suppl 1):413–7]. Loss of CD123 in HCL has been rarely reported in the literature [Am J Hematol. 2019;94(12):1413–22]. We describe a unique case of a COVID-19-positive male who presented with severe respiratory symptoms, deteriorated quickly, and was intubated. Workup of severe progressive pancytopenia and bone marrow examination revealed HCL without splenomegaly and with atypical unusual loss of CD123. To our knowledge, this is the first case of CD123-negative HCL without splenomegaly associated with COVID-19 infection as the initial presentation.

2.
Case Rep Oncol ; 13(3): 1430-1440, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992125

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a serious threat and has been reported with different presentations and complications. Older age, along with comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, or cardiac disease, increases the risk factors for COVID-19 severity and death [N Engl J Med. 2020;382(18):1708-20 and Lancet Respir Med. 2020 05;8(5):475-81]. It is proposed that cancer patients have a significantly higher incidence of severe incidents including admission to the intensive care unit, the necessity for assisted ventilation, and even death after catching the virus compared with non-cancer patients [Lancet Oncol. 2020;21(3):335-7]. It is also described that cancer patients appear to be twice as likely to contract infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) [JAMA Oncol. 2020;6(7):1108-10]. Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, with patients typically presenting with cytopenias, marked splenomegaly in 80-90% of patients, circulating leukemia cells, bone marrow infiltration and the presence of BRAF V600E somatic mutation [Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus. 2014;30(Suppl 1):413-7]. Leukemic cells classically have central nuclei and abundant cytoplasm with hairy-like projections and express CD11c, CD25, CD103, and CD123 [Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus. 2014;30(Suppl 1):413-7]. Loss of CD123 in HCL has been rarely reported in the literature [Am J Hematol. 2019;94(12):1413-22]. We describe a unique case of a COVID-19-positive male who presented with severe respiratory symptoms, deteriorated quickly, and was intubated. Workup of severe progressive pancytopenia and bone marrow examination revealed HCL without splenomegaly and with atypical unusual loss of CD123. To our knowledge, this is the first case of CD123-negative HCL without splenomegaly associated with COVID-19 infection as the initial presentation.

3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(11): e0008853, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917979

ABSTRACT

With the evolution of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the number of patients brought to medical attention has increased. This has led to the unmasking of many coexisting occult infections and comorbidities such as tuberculosis, dengue, human immunodeficiency viral infection, diabetes, and hypertension. We report the first case of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, unveiling the diagnosis of asymptomatic filariasis. A 37-year-old gentleman presented with shortness of breath, fever, and cough. He was found to have COVID-19 pneumonia. During his stay, microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti was detected incidentally on a blood smear exam. Consequently, the patient received appropriate treatment for both conditions. In order not to miss relevant concomitant diagnoses, it is prudent to keep a broad differential diagnosis when faced with SARS-CoV-2-infected patients; this is especially true when atypical symptoms are present or in areas endemic with other infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Filariasis/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections/parasitology , Filariasis/virology , Humans , Incidental Findings , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/parasitology , SARS-CoV-2 , Wuchereria bancrofti
4.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e926062, 2020 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND COVID-19 is a newly emerging disease that is not yet fully understood. It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel virus that is easily transmitted from human to human through the respiratory route. Usually, it presents with fever, headache, fatigue accompanied by respiratory symptoms like cough and dyspnea, and other systemic involvements. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common lymphoproliferative neoplasm characterized by absolute lymphocytosis and demonstration of clonality unlike other causes of lymphocytosis. Patients with CLL are considered immunocompromised because of impaired humoral immunity (mainly) and cellular immunity. Therefore, they are vulnerable to various infections including COVID-19. Little is known about the COVID-19 infection when it unmasks CLL. CASE REPORT A 49-year-old man with no significant previous illnesses, and an unremarkable family history, presented with a moderate COVID-19 infection. He initially presented to the emergency department with fever and mild shortness of breath. A complete blood count showed a high white blood cell count with absolute lymphocytosis. Flow cytometry revealed the clonality of the lymphocytes confirming the diagnosis of CLL. Despite having CLL, he developed a moderate COVID-19 infection and recovered in a few days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CLL, which presented with a COVID-19 infection as the initial presentation. CONCLUSIONS Lymphocytosis is an unexpected finding in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection and the elevated lymphocytes may be indicative of other conditions. Secondary causes of lymphocytosis like malignancy or other infections should be considered in these cases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925932, 2020 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-854650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging disease that is still not fully characterized. It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel virus that can be transmitted easily from human to human mainly by the respiratory route. Currently, there is no specific treatment for COVID-19 or a vaccine for prevention. The disease has various degrees of severity. It often presents with nonspecific symptoms such as fever, headache, and fatigue, accompanied by respiratory symptoms (e.g., cough and dyspnea) and other systemic involvement. Severe disease is associated with hemophagocytic syndrome and cytokine storm due to altered immune response. Patients with severe disease are more likely to have increased liver enzymes. The disease can affect the liver through various mechanisms. CASE REPORT We report an unusual case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a 24-year-old man with no previous medical illness, who presented with mild respiratory involvement. He had no serious lung injury during the disease course. However, he experienced acute fulminant hepatitis B infection and cytokine release syndrome that led to multiorgan failure and death. CONCLUSIONS It is uncommon for SARS-CoV-2 infection with mild respiratory symptoms to result in severe systemic disease and organ failure. We report an unusual case of acute hepatitis B infection with concomitant SARS-CoV-2 leading to fulminant hepatitis, multiorgan failure, and death.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Liver Failure, Acute/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Humans , Liver Failure, Acute/diagnosis , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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