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1.
Nurs Health Sci ; 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978511

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has led to procedural changes in vascular access services in order to protect healthcare workers and patients from further spread of the virus. Operational changes made by the vascular access service at a healthcare system in New York City during the first wave of the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic in New York City included a team-based approach as well as consideration for types of lines placed to address the increase in patient volume while providing safety to healthcare workers and conserving PPE equipment. The study consists of two samples of adult inpatients admitted to Mount Sinai Hospital in NYC in need of vascular access. Chi-square tests of independence were utilized to analyze trends in data. By the fourth wave, usage of shorter life span ultrasound-guided peripheral IVs increased significantly and the use of longer lasting intravenous catheters decreased significantly between the first and fourth waves of COVID-19. The goals of this paper are to show that with greater knowledge about proper PPE and mindful resource utilization, hospitals are able to become more comfortable and efficient while providing increasingly frequent vascular access services in the current and future pandemics.

2.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-3, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The surge in critically ill patients has pressured hospitals to expand their intensive care unit capacities and critical care staff. This was difficult given the country's shortage of intensivists. This paper describes the implementation of a multidisciplinary central line placement team and its impact in reducing the vascular access workload of ICU physicians during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Vascular surgeons, interventionalists, and anesthesiologists, were redeployed to the ICU Access team to place central and arterial lines. Nurses with expertise in vascular access were recruited to the team to streamline consultation and assist with line placement. RESULTS: While 51 central and arterial lines were placed per 100 ICU patients in 2019, there were 87 central and arterial lines placed per 100 COVID-19 ICU patients in the sole month of April, 2020. The ICU Access Team placed 107 of the 226 vascular access devices in April 2020, reducing the procedure-related workload of ICU treating teams by 46%. CONCLUSIONS: The ICU Access Team was able to complete a large proportion of vascular access insertions without reported complications. Given another mass casualty event, this ICU Access Team could be reassembled to rapidly meet the increased vascular access needs of patients.

3.
Critical care explorations ; 4(3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1728504

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: The third wave of COVID-19 is unique in that vaccines have been widely available;however, the highly transmissible Delta variant has been the predominant strain. Temporal changes of hospitalized patient characteristics should continue to be analyzed as COVID-19 progresses. OBJECTIVES: Compare the demographics and outcomes of hospitalized patients during New York City’s third wave of COVID-19 to the first two waves. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study across five hospitals within Mount Sinai Health System, a quaternary academic medical system in New York City. Participants were adult inpatients admitted with COVID-19 identified by positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 polymerase chain reaction at admission or clinical documentation of infection during the three waves of COVID-19. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Patient demographics, comorbidities, vaccination status, and outcomes of COVID-19 patients hospitalized at Mount Sinai Health System were examined. Patients admitted during the third wave were notably younger than the first two, were mostly unvaccinated against COVID-19, and there was a higher rate of patients who self-report as Black or African American as compared with the first two waves. The rate of patients requiring ICU level of care remained consistent throughout all three periods;however, the rate of patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation decreased and inhospital mortality has trended down. Unvaccinated patients in the third wave are significantly younger with lower comorbidity burden than fully vaccinated patients. RESULTS: A total of 13,036 patients were included between the 3 waves. In the 3rd wave patients were notably younger, with a lower intubation rate and lower inhospital death rate. In the 3rd wave, 400 (62.9%) were unvaccinated, 236 (37.1%) were fully vaccinated, and 34 (4.8%) were partially vaccinated. Unvaccinated patients had similar rates of intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation compared with vaccinated patients, though inhospital mortality was lower in unvaccinated patients compared with vaccinated patients which may be expected given their lower age and burden of comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: We continue to see improved outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Patients that are unvaccinated against COVID-19 are younger and have less reported comorbidities.

4.
J Patient Saf ; 18(4): e810-e815, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses are important emerging human and animal pathogens. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is responsible for the current global pandemic. Early in the course of the pandemic, New York City became one of the world's "hot spots" with more than 250,000 cases and more than 15,000 deaths. Although medical providers in New York were fortunate to have the knowledge gained in China and Italy before it came under siege, the magnitude and severity of the disease were unprecedented and arguably under appreciated. The surge of patients with significant COVID-19 threatened to overwhelm health care systems, as New York City health systems realized that the number of specialized critical care providers would be inadequate. A large academic medical system recognized that rapid redeployment of noncritical providers into such roles would be needed. An educational gap was therefore identified: numerous providers with minimal critical care knowledge or experience would now be required to provide critical-level patient care under supervision of intensivists. Safe provision of such high level of patient care mandated the development of "educational crash courses." METHODS: The purpose of this special article is to summarize the approach adopted by the Institute for Critical Care Medicine and Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine's Human Emulation, Education, and Evaluation Lab for Patient Safety and Professional Study Simulation Center in developing a training program for noncritical care providers in this novel disease. RESULTS: Using this joint approach, we were able to swiftly educate a wide range of nonintensive care unit providers (such as surgical, internal medicine, nursing, and advanced practice providers) by focusing on refreshing critical care knowledge and developing essential skillsets to assist in the care of these patients. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that the practical methods reviewed here could be adopted by any health care system that is preparing for an unprecedented surge of critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Crit Care Med ; 49(9): 1427-1438, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434524

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Determine the characteristics of postintensive care syndrome in the cognitive, physical, and psychiatric domains in coronavirus disease 2019 ICU survivors. DESIGN: Single-center descriptive cohort study from April 21, to July 7, 2020. SETTING: Critical care recovery clinic at The Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. PATIENTS: Adults who had critical illness due to coronavirus disease 2019 requiring an ICU stay of 7 days or more and who agreed to a telehealth follow-up in the critical care recovery clinic 1-month post hospital discharge. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASURES AND MAIN RESULTS: Patient-reported outcome measures assessing physical and psychiatric domains were collected electronically, a cognitive test was performed by a clinician, and clinical data were obtained through electronic medical records. Outcome measures assessed postintensive care syndrome symptoms in the physical (Modified Rankin Scale, Dalhousie Clinical Frailty Scale, Neuro-Quality of Life Upper Extremity and Lower Extremity Function, Neuro-Quality of Life Fatigue), psychiatric (Insomnia Severity Scale; Patient Health Questionnaire-9; and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition), and cognitive (Telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment) domains. The 3-Level Version of Euro-QoL-5D was used to assess the physical and psychiatric domains. A diagnosis of postintensive care syndrome was made in cases with evidence of impairment in at least one postintensive care syndrome domain. We included 45 patients with a mean (sd) age of 54 (13) years, and 73% were male. Ninety-one percent of coronavirus disease 2019 ICU survivors fit diagnostic criteria for postintensive care syndrome. 86.7 % had impairments in the physical domain, 22 (48%) reported impairments in the psychiatric domain, and four (8%) had impairments on cognitive screening. We found that 58% had some degree of mobility impairment. In the psychiatric domain, 38% exhibited at least mild depression, and 18 % moderate to severe depression. Eighteen percent presented Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, scores suggestive of posttraumatic stress syndrome diagnosis. In the Telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment, 9% had impaired cognition. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of critical illness related to coronavirus disease 2019 are at high risk of developing postintensive care syndrome. These findings highlight the importance of planning for appropriate post-ICU care to diagnose and treat this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Survivors/psychology
7.
Acute Crit Care ; 36(3): 201-207, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in a surge of critically ill patients. This was especially true in New York City. We present a roadmap for hospitals and healthcare systems to prepare for a Pandemic. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of how Mount Sinai Hospital (MSH) was able to rapidly prepare to handle the pandemic. MSH, the largest academic hospital within the Mount Sinai Health System, rapidly expanded the intensive care unit (ICU) bed capacity, including creating new ICU beds, expanded the workforce, and created guidelines. RESULTS: MSH a 1,139-bed quaternary care academic referral hospital with 104 ICU beds expanded to 1,453 beds (27.5% increase) with 235 ICU beds (126% increase) during the pandemic peak in the first week of April 2020. From March to June 2020, with follow-up through October 2020, MSH admitted 2,591 COVID-19-positive patients, 614 to ICUs. Most admitted patients received noninvasive support including a non-rebreather mask, high flow nasal cannula, and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. Among ICU patients, 68.4% (n=420) received mechanical ventilation; among the admitted ICU patients, 42.8% (n=263) died, and 47.8% (n=294) were discharged alive. CONCLUSIONS: Flexible bed management initiatives; teamwork across multiple disciplines; and development and implementation of guidelines were critical accommodating the surge of critically ill patients. Non-ICU services and staff were deployed to augment the critical care work force and open new critical care units. This approach to rapidly expand bed availability and staffing across the system helped provide the best care for the patients and saved lives.

8.
Acute Crit Care ; 36(3): 201-207, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in a surge of critically ill patients. This was especially true in New York City. We present a roadmap for hospitals and healthcare systems to prepare for a Pandemic. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of how Mount Sinai Hospital (MSH) was able to rapidly prepare to handle the pandemic. MSH, the largest academic hospital within the Mount Sinai Health System, rapidly expanded the intensive care unit (ICU) bed capacity, including creating new ICU beds, expanded the workforce, and created guidelines. RESULTS: MSH a 1,139-bed quaternary care academic referral hospital with 104 ICU beds expanded to 1,453 beds (27.5% increase) with 235 ICU beds (126% increase) during the pandemic peak in the first week of April 2020. From March to June 2020, with follow-up through October 2020, MSH admitted 2,591 COVID-19-positive patients, 614 to ICUs. Most admitted patients received noninvasive support including a non-rebreather mask, high flow nasal cannula, and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. Among ICU patients, 68.4% (n=420) received mechanical ventilation; among the admitted ICU patients, 42.8% (n=263) died, and 47.8% (n=294) were discharged alive. CONCLUSIONS: Flexible bed management initiatives; teamwork across multiple disciplines; and development and implementation of guidelines were critical accommodating the surge of critically ill patients. Non-ICU services and staff were deployed to augment the critical care work force and open new critical care units. This approach to rapidly expand bed availability and staffing across the system helped provide the best care for the patients and saved lives.

9.
Am J Cardiol ; 159: 129-137, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347476

ABSTRACT

During the clinical care of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, diminished QRS amplitude on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) was observed to precede clinical decompensation, culminating in death. This prompted investigation into the prognostic utility and specificity of low QRS complex amplitude (LoQRS) in COVID-19. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive adults admitted to a telemetry service with SARS-CoV-2 (n = 140) or influenza (n = 281) infection with a final disposition-death or discharge. LoQRS was defined as a composite of QRS amplitude <5 mm or <10 mm in the limb or precordial leads, respectively, or a ≥50% decrease in QRS amplitude on follow-up ECG during hospitalization. LoQRS was more prevalent in patients with COVID-19 than influenza (24.3% vs 11.7%, p = 0.001), and in patients who died than survived with either COVID-19 (48.1% vs 10.2%, p <0.001) or influenza (38.9% vs 9.9%, p <0.001). LoQRS was independently associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 when adjusted for baseline clinical variables (odds ratio [OR] 11.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.9 to 33.8, p <0.001), presenting and peak troponin, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, albumin, intubation, and vasopressor requirement (OR 13.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 145.5, p = 0.029). The median time to death in COVID-19 from the first ECG with LoQRS was 52 hours (interquartile range 18 to 130). Dynamic QRS amplitude diminution is a strong independent predictor of death over not only the course of COVID-19 infection, but also influenza infection. In conclusion, this finding may serve as a pragmatic prognostication tool reflecting evolving clinical changes during hospitalization, over a potentially actionable time interval for clinical reassessment.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography , Influenza, Human/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(4): e0381, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211429

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 has been a worldwide pandemic since early 2020 with New York City being the epicenter in the United States during early 2020. Although cases of decreased coronavirus disease 2019 during the summer, cases began to rise once more in the fall-winter period. Little is known about trends in patient characteristics, medical care, and outcome between these time periods. We report initial patient characteristics and outcomes from a large quaternary referral center in New York City between Spring (March to June), Summer (July to September), and Winter (October to December), including prevalence of renal failure, respiratory failure, and mortality; stratified across several key populations of interest including all patients, ICU patients, those requiring of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation and high-flow nasal cannula, and those intubated in each time period.

11.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 7(9): 1120-1130, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198841

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to determine the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). BACKGROUND: COVID-19 results in increased inflammatory markers previously associated with atrial arrhythmias. However, little is known about their incidence or specificity in COVID-19 or their association with outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 3,970 patients admitted with polymerase chain reaction-positive COVID-19 between February 4 and April 22, 2020, with manual review performed of 1,110. The comparator arm included 1,420 patients with influenza hospitalized between January 1, 2017, and January 1, 2020. RESULTS: Among 3,970 inpatients with COVID-19, the incidence of AF/AFL was 10% (n = 375) and in patients without a history of atrial arrhythmias it was 4% (n = 146). Patients with new-onset AF/AFL were older with increased inflammatory markers including interleukin 6 (93 vs. 68 pg/ml; p < 0.01), and more myocardial injury (troponin-I: 0.2 vs. 0.06 ng/ml; p < 0.01). AF and AFL were associated with increased mortality (46% vs. 26%; p < 0.01). Manual review captured a somewhat higher incidence of AF/AFL (13%, n = 140). Compared to inpatients with COVID-19, patients with influenza (n = 1,420) had similar rates of AF/AFL (12%, n = 163) but lower mortality. The presence of AF/AFL correlated with similarly increased mortality in both COVID-19 (relative risk: 1.77) and influenza (relative risk: 1.78). CONCLUSIONS: AF/AFL occurs in a subset of patients hospitalized with either COVID-19 or influenza and is associated with inflammation and disease severity in both infections. The incidence and associated increase in mortality in both cohorts suggests that AF/AFL is not specific to COVID-19, but is rather a generalized response to the systemic inflammation of severe viral illnesses.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(4): e0397, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the devastating effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, several vaccine prototypes have been developed, with the Pfizer/BioNTech (BNT162b2) platform being the first to receive emergency use authorization. Although taken to market on an unprecedented timeline, the safety profile of the drug during clinical trials was shown to be favorable. Shortly after release, reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention demonstrated a higher-than-average rate of anaphylaxis to the vaccine that has been the cause for concern for safety officials and the general public alike. Here, we present a unique case of protracted anaphylaxis in a recipient of the BNT162b2. CASE SUMMARY: The patient is a 55-year-old female with a history of multiple allergic reactions who presented with respiratory distress and hives after receiving the first dose of the BNT162b2, despite premedication with IV steroids and diphenhydramine. The refractory nature of her reaction was demonstrated by edema of her tongue (visualized on nasolaryngoscopy), requiring an epinephrine infusion for nearly 3 days. She was discharged from the hospital with instructions not to receive the second dose of the vaccine. CONCLUSION: Although the exact etiology of anaphylaxis secondary to this messenger RNA-based vaccine is not completely clear, our literature search and review of the patient's course support either polyethylene glycol versus other excipient-related allergy as a possible cause. Based on the protracted nature to our patient's anaphylaxis, critical care management for patients with a true anaphylactic reaction to BNT162b2 may require monitoring for an extended period of time.

13.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(4): E13-E17, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140039

ABSTRACT

AIM: To identify strategies to improve time to prone in ICUs during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic for patients meeting the criteria for prone position ventilation. BACKGROUND: Healthcare systems worldwide experienced an influx of COVID-19 patients, especially in critical care. COVID-19 patients are at risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Prone position ventilation is the standard of care for mechanically ventilated patients with moderate to severe ARDS. Prone maneuvers in and of itself are time-consuming and labor-intensive, posing additional risks to patients. APPROACH: Our academic medical center developed a travel proning team to address the rapid increase in COVID-19 patients with ARDS necessitating prone positioning. EVALUATION: Over a period of 30 days, 420 ICU patients were intubated, 131 had moderate to severe ARDS and underwent prone positioning. Patients were placed in prone position or returned to supine position more than 834 times over 38 days. At the highest point, 37 procedures were done in 24 hours. CONCLUSION: This quality initiative demonstrated that utilization of a traveling proning team provides efficiency in time to prone. Developing a travel prone team allowed for efficiency in time to prone, supported the ICU clinical teams, and enhanced interdisciplinary collaboration, which is essential during times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Patient Care Team , Patient Positioning/methods , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial/nursing , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/nursing , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology
14.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(4): 523-524, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085600

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed an unprecedented strain on healthcare systems and frontline workers worldwide. The large influx of these high acuity patients has placed pressure on services to modify their operations to meet this increased need. We describe how the Vascular Access Service (VAS) at a New York City academic hospital adopted a team-based approach to efficiently meet increased demand for vascular access devices, while ensuring safety and conserving personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Access Devices , Health Personnel , Humans , Patient Care Team
15.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(2): E1-E5, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066481

ABSTRACT

AIM: To identify strategies that increase hospital bed capacity, material resources, and available nurse staffing during a national pandemic. BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak resulted in an influx of acutely ill patients requiring critical care. The volume and acuity of this patient population increased the demand for care and stretched hospitals beyond their capacity. While increasing hospital bed capacity and material resources are crucial, healthcare systems have noted one of the greatest limitations to rapid expansion has been the number of available medical personnel, particularly those trained in emergency and critical care nursing. EVALUATION: Program evaluation occurred on a daily basis with hospital throughput, focusing on logistics including our ability to expand bed volume, resource utilization, and the ability to meet staffing needs. CONCLUSION: This article describes how a quaternary care hospital in New York City prepared for the COVID-19 surge in patients by maximizing and shifting nursing resources to its most impacted services, the emergency department (ED) and the intensive care units (ICUs). A tier-based staffing model and rapid training were operationalized to address nurse-staffing shortages in the ICU and ED, identifying key factors for swift deployment. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGERS: Frequent communication between staff and leaders improves teamwork and builds trust and buy-in during normal operations and particularly in times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Critical Care/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Nursing Staff, Hospital/supply & distribution , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/organization & administration , Hospital Bed Capacity , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
16.
Clin Exp Emerg Med ; 7(4): 319-325, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028809

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic mandated rapid, flexible solutions to meet the anticipated surge in both patient acuity and volume. This paper describes one institution's emergency department (ED) innovation at the center of the COVID-19 crisis, including the creation of a temporary ED-intensive care unit (ICU) and development of interdisciplinary COVID-19-specific care delivery models to care for critically ill patients. Mount Sinai Hospital, an urban quaternary academic medical center, had an existing five-bed resuscitation area insufficiently rescue due to its size and lack of negative pressure rooms. Within 1 week, the ED-based observation unit, which has four negative pressure rooms, was quickly converted into a COVID-19-specific unit, split between a 14-bed stepdown unit and a 13-bed ED-ICU unit. An increase in staffing for physicians, physician assistants, nurses, respiratory therapists, and medical technicians, as well as training in critical care protocols and procedures, was needed to ensure appropriate patient care. The transition of the ED to a COVID-19-specific unit with the inclusion of a temporary expanded ED-ICU at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic was a proactive solution to the growing challenges of surging patients, complexity, and extended boarding of critically ill patients in the ED. This pandemic underscores the importance of ED design innovation with flexible spacing, interdisciplinary collaborations on structure and services, and NP ventilation systems which will remain important moving forward.

17.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(23): 1575, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation may develop significant pneumomediastinum and sub-cutaneous emphysema without associated pneumothorax (SWAP). Prophylactic chest tube placement or sub-fascial "blowholes" are usually recommended to prevent tension pneumothorax and clinical decline. Risk of iatrogenic lung injury and release of virus into the environment is high. Incidence and conservative management data of such barotraumatic complications during the COVID-19 pandemic are lacking. METHODS: All patients with mediastinal air and SWAP evaluated by the department of Thoracic Surgery at the Mount Sinai Hospital between March 30 and April 10, 2020 were identified. All patients without pneumothorax were treated conservatively with daily chest x-ray and observation. Three patients had prophylactic chest tube placement prior to the study period without thoracic surgery consultation. RESULTS: There were 29 cases of mediastinal air with SWAP out of 171 COVID positive intubated patients (17.0%) who were treated conservatively. Patients were intubated for an average of 2.4 days before SWAP was identified. 12 patients (41%) had improvement or resolution without intervention. Two patients progressed to pneumothorax 3 and 8 days following initial presentation. Both had chest tubes placed without incident before there were any changes in oxygenation, hemodynamics, supportive medications, or ventilator settings. There were 3 patients who had percutaneous tubes placed before the study period all of whom had significant worsening of their sub-cutaneous air and air leak. CONCLUSIONS: Conservative management of massive sub-cutaneous emphysema without pneumothorax in COVID-19 patients is safe and limits viral exposure to healthcare workers. Placement of chest tubes is discouraged unless a definite sizable pneumothorax develops.

18.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(11): e008920, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who develop cardiac injury are reported to experience higher rates of malignant cardiac arrhythmias. However, little is known about these arrhythmias-their frequency, the underlying mechanisms, and their impact on mortality. METHODS: We extracted data from a registry (NCT04358029) regarding consecutive inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 who were receiving continuous telemetric ECG monitoring and had a definitive disposition of hospital discharge or death. Between patients who died versus discharged, we compared a primary composite end point of cardiac arrest from ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation or bradyarrhythmias such as atrioventricular block. RESULTS: Among 800 patients with COVID-19 at Mount Sinai Hospital with definitive dispositions, 140 patients had telemetric monitoring, and either died (52) or were discharged (88). The median (interquartile range) age was 61 years (48-74); 73% men; and ethnicity was White in 34%. Comorbidities included hypertension in 61%, coronary artery disease in 25%, ventricular arrhythmia history in 1.4%, and no significant comorbidities in 16%. Compared with discharged patients, those who died had elevated peak troponin I levels (0.27 versus 0.02 ng/mL) and more primary end point events (17% versus 4%, P=0.01)-a difference driven by tachyarrhythmias. Fatal tachyarrhythmias invariably occurred in the presence of severe metabolic imbalance, while atrioventricular block was largely an independent primary event. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who die experience malignant cardiac arrhythmias more often than those surviving to discharge. However, these events represent a minority of cardiovascular deaths, and ventricular tachyarrhythmias are mainly associated with severe metabolic derangement. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04358029.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Heart Rate , Action Potentials , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prognosis , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Young Adult
19.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(10): e0254, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether increasing time between admission and intubation was associated with mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who underwent mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection who were admitted between January 30, 2020, and April 30, 2020, and underwent intubation and mechanical ventilation prior to May 1, 2020. Patients were followed up through August 15, 2020. SETTING: Five hospitals within the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City, NY. PATIENTS: Adult patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection who underwent intubation and mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS: Tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. A hospital-stratified time-varying Cox model was used to evaluate the effect of time from admission to intubation on in-hospital death. A total of 755 adult patients out of 5,843 admitted with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection underwent tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation during the study period. The median age of patients was 65 years (interquartile range, 56-72 yr) and 64% were male. As of the time of follow-up, 121 patients (16%) who were intubated and mechanically ventilated had been discharged home, 512 (68%) had died, 113 (15%) had been discharged to a skilled nursing facility, and 9 (1%) remained in the hospital. The median time from admission to intubation was 2.3 days (interquartile range, 0.6-6.3 d). Each additional day between hospital admission and intubation was significantly associated with higher in-hospital death (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who were intubated and mechanically ventilated, intubation earlier in the course of hospital admission may be associated with improved survival.

20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(18): 2043-2055, 2020 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887081

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury is frequent among patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with a poor prognosis. However, the mechanisms of myocardial injury remain unclear and prior studies have not reported cardiovascular imaging data. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize the echocardiographic abnormalities associated with myocardial injury and their prognostic impact in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter cohort study including 7 hospitals in New York City and Milan of hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who had undergone transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) and electrocardiographic evaluation during their index hospitalization. Myocardial injury was defined as any elevation in cardiac troponin at the time of clinical presentation or during the hospitalization. RESULTS: A total of 305 patients were included. Mean age was 63 years and 205 patients (67.2%) were male. Overall, myocardial injury was observed in 190 patients (62.3%). Compared with patients without myocardial injury, those with myocardial injury had more electrocardiographic abnormalities, higher inflammatory biomarkers and an increased prevalence of major echocardiographic abnormalities that included left ventricular wall motion abnormalities, global left ventricular dysfunction, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction grade II or III, right ventricular dysfunction and pericardial effusions. Rates of in-hospital mortality were 5.2%, 18.6%, and 31.7% in patients without myocardial injury, with myocardial injury without TTE abnormalities, and with myocardial injury and TTE abnormalities. Following multivariable adjustment, myocardial injury with TTE abnormalities was associated with higher risk of death but not myocardial injury without TTE abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with COVID-19 who underwent TTE, cardiac structural abnormalities were present in nearly two-thirds of patients with myocardial injury. Myocardial injury was associated with increased in-hospital mortality particularly if echocardiographic abnormalities were present.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction/virology , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronary Angiography , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart/physiopathology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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