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Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512377


Tryptophan is an essential amino acid whose metabolites play key roles in diverse physiological processes. Due to low reserves in the body, especially under various catabolic conditions, tryptophan deficiency manifests itself rapidly, and both the serotonin and kynurenine pathways of metabolism are clinically significant in critically ill patients. In this review, we highlight these pathways as sources of serotonin and melatonin, which then regulate neurotransmission, influence circadian rhythm, cognitive functions, and the development of delirium. Kynurenines serve important signaling functions in inter-organ communication and modulate endogenous inflammation. Increased plasma kynurenine levels and kynurenine-tryptophan ratios are early indicators for the development of sepsis. They also influence the regulation of skeletal muscle mass and thereby the development of polyneuromyopathy in critically ill patients. The modulation of tryptophan metabolism could help prevent and treat age-related disease with low grade chronic inflammation as well as post intensive care syndrome in all its varied manifestations: cognitive decline (including delirium or dementia), physical impairment (catabolism, protein breakdown, loss of muscle mass and tone), and mental impairment (depression, anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder).

Critical Illness , Kynurenine/metabolism , Tryptophan/deficiency , Delirium/etiology , Depression/etiology , Humans , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Melatonin/biosynthesis , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Sepsis/metabolism , Serotonin/biosynthesis
EPMA J ; : 1-14, 2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227926


Chronic liver disease management is a comprehensive approach requiring multi-professional expertise and well-orchestrated healthcare measures thoroughly organized by responsible medical units. Contextually, the corresponding multi-faceted chain of healthcare events is likely to be severely disturbed or even temporarily broken under the force majeure conditions such as global pandemics. Consequently, the chronic liver disease is highly representative for the management of any severe chronic disorder under lasting pandemics with unprecedented numbers of acutely diseased persons who, together with the chronically sick patient cohorts, have to be treated using the given capacity of healthcare systems with their limited resources. Current study aimed at exploring potentially negative impacts of the SARS CoV-2 outbreak on the quality of the advanced chronic liver disease (ACLD) management considering two well-classified parameters, namely, (1) the continuity of the patient registrations and (2) the level of mortality rates, comparing pre-COVID-19 statistics with these under the current pandemic in Slovak Republic. Altogether 1091 registrations to cirrhosis registry (with 60.8% versus 39.2% males to females ratio) were included with a median age of 57 years for patients under consideration. Already within the very first 3 months of the pandemic outbreak in Slovakia (lockdown declared from March 16, 2020, until May 20, 2020), the continuity of the patient registrations has been broken followed by significantly increased ACLD-related death rates. During this period of time, the total number of new registrations decreased by about 60% (15 registrations in 2020 versus 38 in 2018 and 38 in 2019). Corresponding mortality increased by about 52% (23 deaths in 2020 versus 10 in 2018 and 12 in 2019). Based on these results and in line with the framework of 3PM guidelines, the pandemic priority pathways (PPP) are strongly recommended for maintaining tertiary care uninterrupted. For the evidence-based implementation of PPP, creation of predictive algorithms and individualized care strategy tailored to the patient is essential. Resulting classification of measures is summarized as follows:The Green PPP Line is reserved for prioritized (urgent and comprehensive) treatment of patients at highest risk to die from ACLD (tertiary care) as compared to the risk from possible COVID-19 infection.The Orange PPP Line considers patients at middle risk of adverse outcomes from ACLD with re-addressing them to the secondary care. As further deterioration of ACLD is still probable, pro-active management is ascertained with tertiary center serving as the 24/7 telemedicine consultation hub for a secondary facility (on a physician-physician level).The Red PPP Line is related to the patients at low risk to die from ACLD, re-addressing them to the primary care. Since patients with stable chronic liver diseases without advanced fibrosis are at trivial inherent risk, they should be kept out of the healthcare setting as far as possible by the telemedical (patient-nurse or patient- physician) measurements. The assigned priority has to be monitored and re-evaluated individually-in intervals based on the baseline prognostic score such as MELD. The approach is conform with principles of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM / 3PM) and demonstrates a potential of great clinical utility for an optimal management of any severe chronic disorder (cardiovascular, neurological and cancer) under lasting pandemics.