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Hormones (Athens) ; 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275747


AIM: To compare the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (NΑbs) against SARS-CoV-2 after vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech) between patients with T2DM and healthy controls. METHODS: NAb levels after the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine were compared between 50 patients with non-insulin treated T2DM and 50 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched healthy controls up to 3 months after the second dose. The median age of both groups was 70 years. RESULTS: On day 1, mean NAbs of the control and T2DM groups were 14.64% (standard error, SE = 2.30) and 14.04% (SE = 2.14), respectively (p value = 0.926). Three weeks later, the mean NAb values were 39.98% (SE = 3.53) in the control group and 40.97% (SE = 3.99) in participants with T2DM (p value = 0.698). One month after the second vaccination, mean NAb values increased to 87.13% (SE = 2.94) in the control group and 89.00% (SE = 2.18) in the T2DM group. Three months after the second vaccine dose, the mean inhibitory titers decreased to 83.49% (SE = 3.82) (control group) and 76.36% (SE = 3.33) (T2DM group). On all occasions, no significant difference was found between the two groups (all p values > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with T2DM present similar immunological response to COVID-19 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine to that of healthy subjects.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(1): E105-E109, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-382078


Recent reports have shown a strong association between obesity and the severity of COVID-19 infection, even in the absence of other comorbidities. After infecting the host cells, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may cause a hyperinflammatory reaction through the excessive release of cytokines, a condition known as "cytokine storm," while inducing lymphopenia and a disrupted immune response. Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and immune dysregulation, but the exact mechanisms through which it exacerbates COVID-19 infection are not fully clarified. The production of increased amounts of cytokines such as TNFα, IL-1, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) lead to oxidative stress and defective function of innate and adaptive immunity, whereas the activation of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome seems to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the infection. Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness could favor the recently discovered infection of the endothelium by SARS-CoV-2, whereas alterations in cardiac structure and function and the prothrombotic microenvironment in obesity could provide a link for the increased cardiovascular events in these patients. The successful use of anti-inflammatory agents such as IL-1 and IL-6 blockers in similar hyperinflammatory settings, like that of rheumatoid arthritis, has triggered the discussion of whether such agents could be administrated in selected patients with COVID-19 disease.

Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Obesity/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adaptive Immunity , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Endothelium/physiopathology , Heart/physiopathology , Heart/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , Oxidative Stress , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Vascular Stiffness