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1.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(6)2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35740177

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to investigate the incidence of candidemia, as well as the factors associated with Candida species distribution and fluconazole resistance, among patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) during the COVID-19 pandemic, as compared to two pre-pandemic periods. All patients admitted to the ICU due to COVID-19 from March 2020 to October 2021, as well as during two pre-pandemic periods (2005-2008 and 2012-2015), who developed candidemia, were included. During the COVID-19 study period, the incidence of candidemia was 10.2%, significantly higher compared with 3.2% and 4.2% in the two pre-pandemic periods, respectively. The proportion of non-albicans Candida species increased (from 60.6% to 62.3% and 75.8%, respectively), with a predominance of C. parapsilosis. A marked increase in fluconazole resistance (from 31% to 37.7% and 48.4%, respectively) was also observed. Regarding the total patient population with candidemia (n = 205), fluconazole resistance was independently associated with ICU length of stay (LOS) before candidemia (OR 1.03; CI: 1.01-1.06, p = 0.003), whereas the presence of shock at candidemia onset was associated with C. albicans (OR 6.89; CI: 2.2-25, p = 0.001), and with fluconazole-susceptible species (OR 0.23; CI: 0.07-0.64, p = 0.006). In conclusion, substantial increases in the incidence of candidemia, in non-albicansCandida species, and in fluconazole resistance were found in patients admitted to the ICU due to COVID-19, compared to pre-pandemic periods. At candidemia onset, prolonged ICU LOS was associated with fluconazole-resistant and the presence of shock with fluconazole-susceptible species.

2.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416467

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although older adults aret ahigh risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission, age is often used as a selection criterion in case of ICU beds scarcity. We sought to compare the proportion, clinical features and mortality between patients ≥70 years old and younger ICU patients with COVID-19. METHODS: All patients, consecutively admitted to our COVID ICU, where age was not used as an admission criterion, from March 2020 through April 2021, were included. Demographics, clinical and laboratory characteristics were recorded. Illness severity and Charlson comorbidity índex (CCI) were calculated. Patients≥70 years old were compared to youngers. RESULTS: Of 458 patients [68 (59-76) years, 70% males], 206 (45%) were≥70 years old. Compared to younger, older patients had higher illness severity scores [APACHE II 18 (14-23) versus 12 (9-16), p<0.001, SOFA 8 (6-10) versus 6 (2-8), p<0.001, CCI 5 (4-6) versus 2 (1-3), p <0.001], increased need for mechanical ventilation (92% vs 72%, p<0.001) and ICU mortality (74% versus. 29%, p<0.001). Age (HR: 1.045, CI: 1.02-1.07, p=0.001), CCI (HR: 1.135, CI: 1.037-1.243, p=0.006) and APACHE I I (HR: 1.070, CI: 1.013-1.130, p=0.015) were independently associated with mortality. Among comorbidities, obesity, chronic pulmonary disease and chronic kidney disease were independent risk factors for death. CONCLUSIONS: When age is not used as criterion for admission to COVID ICU, patients≥70 years old represent a considerable proportion and, compared to younger ones, they have higher mortality. Age, severity of illness and CCI, and certain comorbidities are independent risk factors for mortality.

3.
Shock ; 57(4): 501-507, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864780

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Renal resistive index (RRI) has been used to evaluate renal blood flow. Our aim was to investigate the relation between RRI and global tissue hypoperfusion indices and their association with clinical outcome, in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: RRI was measured within 24 h of ICU admission. Gas exchange and routine hemodynamic variables at the time of RRI assessment were recorded. An elevated RRI was defined as >0.7. The ratio of central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure difference by arterial-to-central venous oxygen content difference (P(cv-a)CO2/C(a-cv)O2) and lactate were used as global tissue hypoperfusion indices. RESULTS: A total of 126 patients were included [median age 61 (IQR 28) years, 74% males]. P(cv-a)CO2/C(a-cv)O2 ratio and arterial lactate were significantly higher in patients with RRI >0.7 compared with those with RRI ≤0.7 [2.88 (3.39) vs. 0.62 (0.57) mmol/L and 2.4 (2.2) vs. 1.2 (0.6)] respectively, both P < 0.001)]. RRI was significantly correlated with P(cv-a)CO2/C(a-cv)O2 ratio and arterial lactate for the whole patient population (rho = 0.64, both P < 0.0001) and for the subset of patients with shock (rho = 0.47, P = 0.001; and r = 0.64, P < 0.0001 respectively). Logistic regression models showed a significant association between RRI and P(cv-a)CO2/C(a-cv)O2 ratio with clinical outcome. The combination of RRI with P(cv-a)CO2)/(C(a-cv)O2 ratio and lactate better predicted mortality than RRI alone [AUC 84.8% (95% CI 5.1% -94.4%)] vs. [AUC 74.9% (95% CI 61%-88.8%)] respectively, P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Renal blood flow assessed by RRI, on ICU admission, correlates with global tissue hypoperfusion indices. In addition, RRI in combination with tissue perfusion estimation better predicts clinical outcome than RRI alone.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide , Intensive Care Units , Blood Gas Analysis , Female , Humans , Lactic Acid , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
4.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(10): e531, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647032

ABSTRACT

Since changes in pharmacological treatments for severely ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 have been incorporated into clinical practice, both by their use (corticosteroids and remdesivir) and by stopping them (e.g., hydroxychloroquine), we sought to compare the rate of intubation and mortality of intubated patients in our ICUs between the first and second waves of the pandemic. DESIGN: Single-center, observational. SETTING: Four coronavirus disease 2019 designated ICUs at an urban Greek teaching hospital. PATIENTS: All adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 consecutively admitted to ICU during the first (n = 50) and second (n = 212) waves of the pandemic. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The percentage of intubated ICU patients dropped from 82% during the first wave to 66% during the second wave (p = 0.042). However, the absolute number of intubated ICU patients was lower during the first than the second wave (41 vs 140 patients). ICU or hospital mortality of intubated patients increased from 39% during the first wave to 60% during the second wave (p = 0.028). The binary logistic regression for hospital mortality as the dependent variable in intubated patients and covariates the age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, cardiovascular comorbidity, lactate, positive end-expiratory pressure, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, and wave, distinguished only Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (odds ratio, 1.40 with 95% CI, 1.14-1.72; p = 0.001) as the sole independent predictor of hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacological adaptations and other measures may have led to fewer intubations over time. However, these changes do not seem to be translated into improved outcomes of intubated patients. Perhaps the same change in the use of drugs and protocols that could cause fewer intubations of ICU patients might be a reason of increased mortality in those patients who are eventually intubated. Furthermore, the relative staff inexperience and overall increase in patients' comorbidities during the second wave could have contributed to increased Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and mortality of intubated patients.

5.
World J Crit Care Med ; 10(5): 278-289, 2021 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the context of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it has been reported that elderly patients are particularly at risk of developing severe illness and exhibiting increased mortality. While many studies on hospitalized elderly patients with COVID-19 have been published, limited information is available on the characteristics and clinical outcomes of those elderly patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). AIM: To review the available evidence of the clinical data of elderly patients admitted to the ICU due to COVID-19. METHODS: We searched for published articles available in English literature to identify those studies conducted in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU due to COVID-19, either exclusively designed for the elderly or for the whole ICU population with COVID-19, provided that analyses according to the patients' age had been conducted. RESULTS: Only one study exclusively focusing on critically ill elderly patients admitted to the ICU due to COVID-19 was found. Eighteen additional studies involving 17011 ICU patients and providing information for elderly patients as a subset of the whole study population have also been included in the present review article. Among the whole patient population, included in these studies, 8310 patients were older than 65 years of age and 2630 patients were older than 70 years. Clinical manifestations were similar for all patients; however, compared to younger ones, they suffered from more comorbidities and showed a varied, albeit high mortality. CONCLUSION: In summary, at present, although elderly patients constitute a considerable proportion of critically ill patients admitted to the ICU due to severe COVID-19, studies providing specific information are limited. The evidence so far suggests that advanced age and comorbidities are associated with worse clinical outcome. Future studies exclusively designed for this vulnerable group are needed.

6.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233686

ABSTRACT

For critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who require intensive care unit (ICU) admission, extremely high mortality rates (even 97%) have been reported. We hypothesized that overburdened hospital resources by the extent of the pandemic rather than the disease per se might play an important role on unfavorable prognosis. We sought to determine the outcome of such patients admitted to the general ICUs of a hospital with sufficient resources. We performed a prospective observational study of adult patients with COVID-19 consecutively admitted to COVID-designated ICUs at Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece. Among 50 patients, ICU and hospital mortality was 32% (16/50). Median PaO2/FiO2 was 121 mmHg (interquartile range (IQR), 86-171 mmHg) and most patients had moderate or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Hospital resources may be an important aspect of mortality rates, since severely ill COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe ARDS may have understandable mortality, provided that they are admitted to general ICUs without limitations on hospital resources.

7.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(12): 3665-3674, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: De-escalation of empirical antimicrobial therapy, a key component of antibiotic stewardship, is considered difficult in ICUs with high rates of antimicrobial resistance. OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility and the impact of antimicrobial de-escalation in ICUs with high rates of antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: Multicentre, prospective, observational study in septic patients with documented infections. Patients in whom de-escalation was applied were compared with patients without de-escalation by the use of a propensity score matching by SOFA score on the day of de-escalation initiation. RESULTS: A total of 262 patients (mean age 62.2 ± 15.1 years) were included. Antibiotic-resistant pathogens comprised 62.9%, classified as MDR (12.5%), extensively drug-resistant (49%) and pandrug-resistant (1.2%). In 97 (37%) patients de-escalation was judged not feasible in view of the antibiotic susceptibility results. Of the remaining 165 patients, judged as patients with de-escalation possibility, de-escalation was applied in 60 (22.9%). These were matched to an equal number of patients without de-escalation. In this subset of 120 patients, de-escalation compared with no de-escalation was associated with lower all-cause 28 day mortality (13.3% versus 36.7%, OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.66, P = 0.006); ICU and hospital mortality were also lower. De-escalation was associated with a subsequent collateral decrease in the SOFA score. Cox multivariate regression analysis revealed de-escalation as a significant factor for 28 day survival (HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.14-0.70, P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: In ICUs with high levels of antimicrobial resistance, feasibility of antimicrobial de-escalation was limited because of the multi-resistant pathogens isolated. However, when de-escalation was feasible and applied, it was associated with lower mortality.


Subject(s)
Sepsis , Shock, Septic , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Sepsis/drug therapy , Shock, Septic/drug therapy
9.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(6): 728-730, 2020 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995400
10.
Turk Thorac J ; 20(4): 262-264, 2019 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584389

ABSTRACT

Tooth aspiration is a rare issue in the course of patients with trauma and may remain undiagnosed for a long period, resulting in delayed complications, such as atelectasis and recurrent infections. Flexible bronchoscopy is considered the preferred primary procedure for the management of airway foreign bodies in adults. However, it may cause intracranial hypertension in trauma patients with concomitant head injuries. We herein report a case of a patient with traumatic brain injury who underwent tooth aspiration using flexible bronchoscopy, with continuous monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP). The importance of a thorough review of radiographs and chest computed tomography for foreign body aspiration in trauma patients was highlighted, particularly in a maxillofacial trauma, as tooth aspiration may remain undiagnosed for extended periods. Moreover, the difficulty in maintaining the ICP within normal limits during bronchoscopy in patients with traumatic brain injury was reinstated, and the need for continuous monitoring of the cerebral hemodynamics and harmonization was emphasized, with recommendations for bronchoscopy via an endotracheal tube.

11.
Crit Care Res Pract ; 2019: 7169492, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428473

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Mechanically ventilated patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction are at risk of weaning failure. We hypothesized that optimization of cardiovascular function might facilitate the weaning process. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of levosimendan in difficult-to-wean patients with impaired LV performance. Materials and Methods: Nineteen mechanically ventilated patients, with LV ejection fraction (LVEF) 34 ± 8%, difficult-to-wean from the ventilator, were assessed by transthoracic echocardiography before the start and at the end of a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) (first SBT). Eight patients successfully weaned. The remaining 11 failed-to-wean patients received a 24-hour infusion of levosimendan, and they were reassessed during a second SBT. Results: After levosimendan administration, LVEF increased from 30 ± 10 to 36 ± 3% (p=0.01). End-SBT peak e' velocity increased from 7 to 9 cm/s (p=0.02). E/e' increased from 10.5 to 12.9 during the first SBT, whereas it remained constant at 10 throughout the second SBT (p=0.01). During the second SBT, partial pressure of arterial oxygen and central venous oxygen saturation improved, compared to the first one (93 ± 34 vs. 67 ± 28 mmHg, p=0.03, and 66 ± 11% vs. 57 ± 9%, p=0.02, respectively). Nine of the 11 patients were successfully weaned from the ventilator. Conclusions: In difficult-to-wean from mechanical ventilation patients with LV dysfunction, levosimendan might contribute to successful weaning by improving both systolic and diastolic LV function.

12.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 6, 2019 Jan 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30627804

ABSTRACT

Among the multiple causes of weaning failure from mechanical ventilation, cardiovascular dysfunction is increasingly recognized as a quite frequent cause that can be treated successfully. In this review, we summarize the contemporary evidence of the most important clinical and diagnostic aspects of weaning failure of cardiovascular origin with special focus on treatment. Pathophysiological mechanisms are complex and mainly include increase in right and left ventricular preload and afterload and potentially induce myocardial ischemia. Patients at risk include those with preexisting cardiopulmonary disease either known or suspected. Clinically, cardiovascular etiology as a predominant cause or a contributor to weaning failure, though critical for early diagnosis and intervention, may be difficult to be recognized and distinguished from noncardiac causes suggesting the need of high suspicion. A cardiovascular diagnostic workup including bedside echocardiography, lung ultrasound, electrocardiogram and biomarkers of cardiovascular dysfunction or other adjunct techniques and, in selected cases, right heart catheterization and/or coronary angiography, should be obtained to confirm the diagnosis. Official clinical practice guidelines that address treatment of a confirmed weaning-induced cardiovascular dysfunction do not exist. As the etiologies of weaning-induced cardiovascular dysfunction are diverse, principles of management depend on the individual pathophysiological mechanisms, including preload optimization by fluid removal, guided by B-type natriuretic peptide measurement, nitrates administration in excessive afterload and/or myocardial ischemia, contractility improvement in severe systolic dysfunction as well as other rational treatment in specific indications in order to lead to successful weaning from mechanical ventilation.

13.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 12: e14-e19, 2016 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28531664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The association of nutritional support practices with intensive care unit (ICU) - acquired infections is a current field of interest. The objective of this study was to determine whether different routes of delivery of nutritional support are associated with a different risk of bloodstream infection (BSI) in critically ill patients. METHODS: An observational study in a multidisciplinary ICU. Adult ICU patients, with ICU stay ≥96 h who were fed artificially were included. Patients were grouped into three categories of nutrition support routes: those on enteral nutrition alone (EN group), on parenteral nutrition alone (PN group) or on both EN and PN (EN+PN group). Illness severity, co-morbidities and routine laboratory values were recorded on ICU admission. Route of feeding, caloric, protein and immunonutrient intake was recorded daily for each patient. Nosocomial BSIs were identified by infection control surveillance methods. The incidence of BSI among the three groups was compared with Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional-hazards models. RESULTS: A total of 249 patients were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences between groups in illness severity scores and in the time to nutritional support initiation (median time 48 [24-48] hours). The median daily caloric intake was significantly lower for the EN group than for patients of PN and EN+PN group (415 [157-687] kcal vs. 1077 [297-2087] kcal and 1292 [890-1819] kcal respectively, p < 0.001). BSI occurred in 69 (27.7%) patients. Bivariate Cox analysis revealed that APACHE II score and admission category were significantly associated to BSI development [hazard ratio (HR), 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.09 and HR 0.45; 95% CI 0.18-1.15, respectively]. Presence of co-morbidities, SOFA score, hospital length of stay (LOS) before ICU admission, late initial feeding, serum albumin at admission, average daily maximum concentration of serum glucose, caloric, protein and immunonutrient intake did not affect the hazard of BSI development. After adjustment for the confounding variables, in a multivariate analysis, patients of the EN + PN group had lower incidence of BSI than the other two groups (HR 0.30; 95% CI 0.17-0.53), irrespective of the number of days of PN intake and the percentage of calories received from PN. There was no difference in the hazard for BSI development between the EN and PN group. Patients with EN + PN had a significantly longer ICU-LOS whereas mortality was not different among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective analysis of 249 consecutively enrolled ICU patients, we found that in critically ill patients EN + PN feeding strategy was associated with a significantly reduced hazard of BSI development, compared to EN or PN route of nutritional support.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness/therapy , Nutritional Support/methods , Sepsis/epidemiology , APACHE , Aged , Energy Intake , Enteral Nutrition , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritional Status , Parenteral Nutrition , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
14.
Microvasc Res ; 103: 14-8, 2016 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26431994

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate microcirculation over 24 h renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in critically ill patients. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, prospective, observational study, measuring microcirculation parameters, monitored by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) before hemodiafiltration onset (H0), and at six (H6) and 24 h (H24) during CRRT in critically ill patients. Serum Cystatin C (sCysC) and soluble (s)E-selectin levels were measured at the same time points. Twenty-eight patients [19 men (68%)] were included in the study. RESULTS: Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2, %) [76.5 ± 12.5 (H0) vs 75 ± 11 (H6) vs 70 ± 16 (H24), p = 0.04], reperfusion rate, indicating endothelial function (EF, %/sec) [2.25 ± 1.44 (H0) vs 2.1 ± 1.8 (H6) vs 1.6 ± 1.4 (H24), p = 0.02] and sCysC (mg/L) [2.7 ± 0.8 (H0) vs 2.2 ± 0.6 (H6) vs 1.8 ± 0.8 (H24), p < 0.0001] significantly decreased within the 24 h CRRT. Change of EF positively correlated with changes of sCysC within 24 h CRRT (r = 0.464, p = 0.013) while in patients with diabetes the change of StO2 correlated with dose (r = − 0.8, p = 0.01). No correlation existed between hemoglobin and temperature changes with the deteriorated microcirculation indices. sE-Selectin levels in serum were elevated; no difference was established over the 24 h CRRT period. A strong correlation existed between the sE-Selectin concentration change at H6 and H24 and the mean arterial pressure change in the same period (r = 0.77, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the first 24 h of CRRT implementation in critically ill patients, deterioration of microcirculation parameters was noted. Microcirculatory alterations correlated with sCysC changes and with dose in patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Hemodiafiltration/methods , Intensive Care Units , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Microcirculation , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Aged , Arterial Pressure , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Flow Velocity , Critical Illness , Cystatin C/blood , E-Selectin/blood , Female , Greece , Hand , Hemodiafiltration/adverse effects , Humans , Kidney Diseases/blood , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Regional Blood Flow , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Shock ; 40(4): 274-80, 2013 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23856918

ABSTRACT

S100B protein, an acknowledged biomarker of brain injury, has been reported to be increased in hemorrhagic shock. Also, acute hemorrhage is associated with inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of serum S100B and the potential relationships with interleukin 6 (IL-6), severity of tissue hypoperfusion, and prognosis in patients admitted for surgical control of severe hemorrhage. Patients undergoing elective abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery participated as control subjects. Serum samples were drawn before, at the end of surgery, and after 6 and 24 h. Sixty-four patients with severe hemorrhage (23 trauma and 41 nontrauma) and 17 control subjects were included. Increased preoperative concentrations of S100B protein (1.70 ± 2.13 and 0.81 ± 1.23 µg/L) and IL-6 (241 ± 291 and 226 ± 238 pg/mL) were found in patients with traumatic and nontraumatic reason, respectively, and remained elevated throughout 24 h. Compared with nontrauma, trauma patients exhibited higher preoperative S100B levels (P < 0.05). Overall mortality was 47%. In control subjects, preoperative S100B and IL-6 levels were within normal limits and increased at the end of surgery (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). Preoperative S100B correlated with IL-6 (r = 0.78, P < 0.01), arterial lactate (r = 0.50, P < 0.01), pH (r = -0.45, P < 0.01), and bicarbonate (r = -0.40, P < 0.01). Multiple analysis revealed that preoperative S100B in trauma and lactate in nontrauma patients were independently associated with outcome. In predicting death, preoperative S100B yielded receiver operator characteristics curve areas of 0.75 for all patients and 0.86 for those with trauma. These results indicate that severe hemorrhage in patients without brain injury is associated with increased serum levels of S100B, which correlates with IL-6 and tissue hypoperfusion. Moreover, the predictive ability of S100B for mortality, suggests that it could be a marker of potential clinical value in identifying, among patients with severe hemorrhage, those at greater risk for adverse outcome.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhage/surgery , Interleukin-6/blood , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Bicarbonates/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Hemorrhage/mortality , Humans , Lactic Acid/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
17.
Crit Care Med ; 41(6): 1555-64, 2013 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23587641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with sepsis syndrome commonly have low serum selenium levels. Several randomized controlled trials have examined the efficacy of selenium supplementation on mortality in patients with sepsis. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and safety of high-dose selenium supplementation compared to placebo for the reduction of mortality in patients with sepsis. SOURCES OF DATA: We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SciFinder, and Clinicaltrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled parallel group trials comparing selenium supplementation in doses greater than daily requirement to placebo on the outcome of mortality in patients with sepsis syndrome. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently applied eligibility criteria, assessed quality, and extracted data. The primary outcome was mortality; secondary outcomes were ICU length of stay, nosocomial pneumonia, and adverse events. Trial authors were contacted for additional or clarifying information. RESULTS: Nine trials enrolling a total of 792 patients were included. Selenium supplementation in comparison to placebo was associated with lower mortality (odds ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.54, 0.98; p = 0.03; I = 0%). Among patients receiving and not receiving selenium, there was no difference in ICU length of stay (mean difference, 2.03; 95% CI, -0.51, 4.56; p = 0.12; I = 0%) or nosocomial pneumonia (odds ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.28, 2.49; p = 0.74; I = 56%). Significant heterogeneity among trials in adverse event reporting precluded pooling of results. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with sepsis, selenium supplementation at doses higher than daily requirement may reduce mortality. We observed no impact of selenium on ICU length of stay or risk of nosocomial pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Selenium/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Selenium/administration & dosage , Selenium/adverse effects
18.
Ren Fail ; 35(4): 579-91, 2013.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23472851

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury is one of the most frequent problems occurring in the critically ill patients of the intensive care units and it is well established that it increases both morbidity and mortality in these patients. Moreover, despite technological and pharmaceutical advances during the last decades, the incidence as well as the mortality associated with acute kidney injury in these patients remains unchanged. Creatinine, the most common renal dysfunction biomarker in use, has many disadvantages, such as time delay in its increase and the influence by other factors on its serum concentration, such as age, gender, muscle mass, etc. Hence, the need for better renal biomarkers in order to timely intervene for acute kidney injury prevention is imperative. The lack of an early biomarker is an obstacle for the development of new acute kidney injury prevention strategies. With the incidence of acute kidney injury reaching epidemic dimensions, the need for novel markers is urgent. During the last years, the research for finding such biomarkers has been intense. The purpose of the present article is to review the studies which have tested the predictive ability of those markers (in urine and/or plasma) for early detection of acute kidney injury in the mixed adult intensive care unit population and underline the potential limitations encountered in the various studies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Biomarkers/analysis , Intensive Care Units , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/urine , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/urine , Critical Illness , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests
19.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 3: 135, 2012.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23162536

ABSTRACT

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is one of the most potent microvascular vasodilators identified to date. Vascular relaxation and vasodilation is mediated via activation of the CGRP receptor. This atypical receptor is made up of a G protein-coupled receptor called calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), a single transmembrane protein called receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP), and an additional protein that is required for Ga(s) coupling, known as receptor component protein (RCP). Several mechanisms involved in CGRP-mediated relaxation have been identified. These include nitric oxide (NO)-dependent endothelium-dependent mechanisms or cAMP-mediated endothelium-independent pathways; the latter being more common. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with cerebral vasoconstriction that occurs several days after the hemorrhage and is often fatal. The vasospasm occurs in 30-40% of patients and is the major cause of death from this condition. The vasoconstriction is associated with a decrease in CGRP levels in nerves and an increase in CGRP levels in draining blood, suggesting that CGRP is released from nerves to oppose the vasoconstriction. This evidence has led to the concept that exogenous CGRP may be beneficial in a condition that has proven hard to treat. The present article reviews: (a) the pathophysiology of delayed ischemic neurologic deficit after SAH (b) the basics of the CGRP receptor structure, signal transduction, and vasodilatation mechanisms and (c) the studies that have been conducted so far using CGRP in both animals and humans with SAH.

20.
Ren Fail ; 34(9): 1100-8, 2012.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22889061

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Most studies so far have focused on the performance of individual biomarkers to detect early acute kidney injury (AKI) in the adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients; however, they have not determined the predictive ability of their combinations. The aim of this study was to compare the predictive abilities of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (pNGAL), urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), plasma cystatin C (pCysC), serum creatinine (sCr), and their combinations in detecting AKI in an adult general ICU population. METHODS: A total of 100 consecutive ICU patients were included in the analysis. AKI was defined according to RIFLE criteria. Biomarker predictive abilities were evaluated by area under the curve (AUC), net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). RESULTS: AKI occurred in 36% of patients 7 days post-admission. All three novel biomarkers as well as sCr had moderate predictive abilities for AKI occurrence. The most efficient combinations (pNGAL + sCr and pNGAL + uNGAL + sCr) were selected to participate in the subsequent analyses. Both combinations, when added to a reference clinical model, increased its AUC significantly (0.858, p = 0.04). Their NRI (0.78, p = 0.0002) was equal to that of pNGAL, but higher than that of the other three biomarkers, whereas their IDI was higher than that of any individual biomarker (0.23, p = 0.0001). Both combinations had better specificities, positive likelihood ratios, and positive predictive values than those of any individual biomarker. CONCLUSION: The biomarker combinations had better predictive characteristics compared with those of each biomarker alone.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute-Phase Proteins/urine , Adult , Aged , Creatinine/blood , Cystatin C/blood , Disease Progression , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lipocalin-2 , Lipocalins/blood , Lipocalins/urine , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/blood , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/urine
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