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Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin ; 8(1): 20552173221078834, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736272


BACKGROUND: Susac Syndrome (SuS) is an autoimmune endotheliopathy impacting the brain, retina and cochlea that can clinically mimic multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate non-lesional white matter demyelination changes in SuS compared to MS and healthy controls (HC) using quantitative MRI. METHODS: 3T MRI including myelin water imaging and diffusion basis spectrum imaging were acquired for 7 SuS, 10 MS and 10 HC participants. Non-lesional white matter was analyzed in the corpus callosum (CC) and normal appearing white matter (NAWM). Groups were compared using ANCOVA with Tukey correction. RESULTS: SuS CC myelin water fraction (mean 0.092) was lower than MS(0.11, p = 0.01) and HC(0.11, p = 0.04). Another myelin marker, radial diffusivity, was increased in SuS CC(0.27µm2/ms) compared to HC(0.21µm2/ms, p = 0.008) and MS(0.23µm2/ms, p = 0.05). Fractional anisotropy was lower in SuS CC(0.82) than HC(0.86, p = 0.04). Fiber fraction (reflecting axons) did not differ from HC or MS. In NAWM, radial diffusivity and apparent diffusion coefficient were significantly increased in SuS compared to HC(p < 0.001 for both measures) and MS(p = 0.003, p < 0.001 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provided evidence of myelin damage in SuS, particularly in the CC, and more extensive microstructural injury in NAWM, supporting the hypothesis that there are widespread microstructural changes in SuS syndrome including diffuse demyelination.

Multiple Sclerosis Journal ; 26(3 SUPPL):555, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1067121


Background: Neurological disability progression occurs across the spectrum of people living with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Currently, no treatments exist that substantially modify the course of clinical progression in MS, one of the greatest unmet needs in clinical practice. Characterizing the determinants of clinical progression is essential for the development of novel therapeutic agents and treatment approaches that target progression in PwMS. Objectives: The overarching aim of CanProCo is to evaluate a wide spectrum of factors associated with the onset and rate of disease progression in MS, and to describe how these factors interact with one another to influence progression. Methods: CanProCo is a prospective, observational cohort study aiming to recruit 1000 individuals with radiologically-isolated syndrome (RIS), relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), and primary-progressive MS (PPMS) within 10-15 years of disease onset, and 50 healthy controls (HCs) from five large academic MS centers in Canada. Participants undergo detailed clinical evaluations annually. A subset of participants enrolled within 5-10 years of disease onset (n=500) also have blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and MRIs collected facilitating study of biological measures (e.g. single-cell RNAsequencing[ scRNASeq]), MRI-based microstructural assessment, participant characteristics (self-reported, performance-based, clinician- assessed, health-system based), and environmental factors as determinants contributing to the differential progression in MS. Results: Recruitment commenced in April/May 2019 and n=536 patients have been recruited to date (RRMS=457, PPMS=35, RIS=25, HC=19). Baseline age, sex distribution, and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores (median, range) of each subgroup are: RRMS=38 years, 73% female, EDSS=1.5 (0-6.0);PPMS=52 years, 40% female, EDSS=4.0 (1.5-6.5);RIS=41 years, 68% female, EDSS=0 (0-3.0);HC=37 years, 63% female. Recruitment has surpassed the 50% target but has been paused due to the COVID-19 pandemic. scRNASeq on frozen blood samples has been validated. Conclusions: Halting the progression of MS is a fundamental clinical need to improve the lives of PwMS. Achieving this requires leveraging transdisciplinary approaches to better characterize mechanisms underlying clinical progression. CanProCo is the first prospective cohort study aiming to characterize these determinants to inform the development and implementation of efficacious and effective interventions.