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Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 313-318, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633747


OBJECTIVES: There is no consensus on specific serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH) D) levels associated with higher risk of severe outcome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). According to the literature patients with serum 25(OH) D levels <12 ng/ml are clearly deficient at all ages. Our aim was to assess COVID-19 mortality in the settings of severe 25(OH) D deficiency. A cohort study of 357 patients with COVID-19 was conducted. Subjects were monitored until discharge or in-hospital death. At admission, severity parameters (C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, Charlson comorbidity index, etc.) were assessed. These parameters were compared regarding 25(OH) D levels threshold 12 ng/ml, where values below 12 ng/ml were considered absolute vitamin D deficiency. RESULTS: 25(OH) D levels at the time of admission were independently associated with mortality (p <0.05). Nonsurvivors (N = 168) had lower 25(OH) D levels, SO2, higher age, CRP, viral load, and Charlson comorbidity index in comparison to survivors. Patients with serum 25(OH) D levels <12 ng/ml had higher mortality (55% vs 45 %), viral load (21.5 vs 23.1), and Charlson comorbidity index (5.3 vs 4.4) than those with serum 25(OH) D levels >12 ng/ml (p <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 with serum 25(OH) D levels <12 ng/ml have higher mortality. Among other factors, severe vitamin D deficiency likely leads to poor outcome.

COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications
EPMA J ; : 1-14, 2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227926


Chronic liver disease management is a comprehensive approach requiring multi-professional expertise and well-orchestrated healthcare measures thoroughly organized by responsible medical units. Contextually, the corresponding multi-faceted chain of healthcare events is likely to be severely disturbed or even temporarily broken under the force majeure conditions such as global pandemics. Consequently, the chronic liver disease is highly representative for the management of any severe chronic disorder under lasting pandemics with unprecedented numbers of acutely diseased persons who, together with the chronically sick patient cohorts, have to be treated using the given capacity of healthcare systems with their limited resources. Current study aimed at exploring potentially negative impacts of the SARS CoV-2 outbreak on the quality of the advanced chronic liver disease (ACLD) management considering two well-classified parameters, namely, (1) the continuity of the patient registrations and (2) the level of mortality rates, comparing pre-COVID-19 statistics with these under the current pandemic in Slovak Republic. Altogether 1091 registrations to cirrhosis registry (with 60.8% versus 39.2% males to females ratio) were included with a median age of 57 years for patients under consideration. Already within the very first 3 months of the pandemic outbreak in Slovakia (lockdown declared from March 16, 2020, until May 20, 2020), the continuity of the patient registrations has been broken followed by significantly increased ACLD-related death rates. During this period of time, the total number of new registrations decreased by about 60% (15 registrations in 2020 versus 38 in 2018 and 38 in 2019). Corresponding mortality increased by about 52% (23 deaths in 2020 versus 10 in 2018 and 12 in 2019). Based on these results and in line with the framework of 3PM guidelines, the pandemic priority pathways (PPP) are strongly recommended for maintaining tertiary care uninterrupted. For the evidence-based implementation of PPP, creation of predictive algorithms and individualized care strategy tailored to the patient is essential. Resulting classification of measures is summarized as follows:The Green PPP Line is reserved for prioritized (urgent and comprehensive) treatment of patients at highest risk to die from ACLD (tertiary care) as compared to the risk from possible COVID-19 infection.The Orange PPP Line considers patients at middle risk of adverse outcomes from ACLD with re-addressing them to the secondary care. As further deterioration of ACLD is still probable, pro-active management is ascertained with tertiary center serving as the 24/7 telemedicine consultation hub for a secondary facility (on a physician-physician level).The Red PPP Line is related to the patients at low risk to die from ACLD, re-addressing them to the primary care. Since patients with stable chronic liver diseases without advanced fibrosis are at trivial inherent risk, they should be kept out of the healthcare setting as far as possible by the telemedical (patient-nurse or patient- physician) measurements. The assigned priority has to be monitored and re-evaluated individually-in intervals based on the baseline prognostic score such as MELD. The approach is conform with principles of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM / 3PM) and demonstrates a potential of great clinical utility for an optimal management of any severe chronic disorder (cardiovascular, neurological and cancer) under lasting pandemics.