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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360776

ABSTRACT

The year 2020 became the year of the outbreak of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which escalated into a worldwide pandemic and continued into 2021. One of the unique symptoms of the SARS-CoV-2 disease, COVID-19, is the loss of chemical senses, i.e., smell and taste. Smell training is one of the methods used in facilitating recovery of the olfactory sense, and it uses essential oils of lemon, rose, clove, and eucalyptus. These essential oils were not selected based on their chemical constituents. Although scientific studies have shown that they improve recovery, there may be better combinations for facilitating recovery. Many phytochemicals have bioactive properties with anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects. In this review, we describe the chemical compounds with anti- inflammatory and anti-viral effects, and we list the plants that contain these chemical compounds. We expand the review from terpenes to the less volatile flavonoids in order to propose a combination of essential oils and diets that can be used to develop a new taste training method, as there has been no taste training so far. Finally, we discuss the possible use of these in clinical settings.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/drug therapy , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/drug therapy , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Ageusia/metabolism , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e26459, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The year 2020 was the year of the global COVID-19 pandemic. The severity of the situation has become so substantial that many or even most of the patients with mild to moderate symptoms had to self-isolate without specific medical treatments or even without being tested for COVID-19. Many patients joined internet membership groups to exchange information and support each other. OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to determine the benefits and limits of using social media to understand the symptoms of patients with suspected COVID-19 with mild to moderate symptoms and, in particular, their symptoms of anosmia (loss of the sense of smell) and ageusia (loss of the sense of taste). The voluntary reports on an internet website of a membership group will be the platform of the analyses. METHODS: Posts and comments of members of an internet group known as COVID-19 Smell and Taste Loss, founded on March 24, 2020, to support patients with suspected COVID-19 were collected and analyzed daily. Demographic data were collected using the software mechanism called Group Insights on the membership group website. RESULTS: Membership groups on social media have become rare sources of support for patients with suspected COVID-19 with mild to moderate symptoms. These groups provided mental support to their members and became resources for information on COVID-19 tests and medicines or supplements. However, the membership was voluntary, and often the members leave without notification. It is hard to be precise from the free voluntary reports. The number of women in the group (6995/9227, 75.38% as of October 12, 2020) was about three times more than men (2272/9227, 24.62% as of October 12, 2020), and the peak age of members was between 20-40 years in both men and women. Patients who were asymptomatic other than the senses comprised 14.93% (53/355) of the total patients. Recovery of the senses was higher in the patients who were asymptomatic besides having anosmia and ageusia. Most (112/123, 91.06%) patients experienced other symptoms first and then lost their senses, on average, 4.2 days later. Patients without other symptoms tended to recover earlier (P=.02). Patients with anosmia and ageusia occasionally reported distorted smell and taste (parosmia and dysgeusia) as well as experiencing or perceiving the smell and taste without the sources of the smell or taste (phantosmia and phantogeusia). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis of the social media database of suspected COVID-19 patients' voices demonstrated that, although accurate diagnosis of patients is not always obtained with social media-based analyses, it may be a useful tool to collect a large amount of data on symptoms and the clinical course of worldwide rapidly growing infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Social Media
3.
Laryngoscope ; 131(6): E2013-E2017, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969763

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Intracellular entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) depends on the interaction between its spike protein with the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and depends on Furin-mediated spike protein cleavage and spike protein priming by host cell proteases, including transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). As the expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin in the middle and inner ear remain unclear, we analyzed the expression of these proteins in mouse ear tissues. STUDY DESIGN: Animal Research. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine the distribution of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin in the Eustachian tube, middle ear spaces, and cochlea of mice. RESULTS: ACE2 was present in the nucleus of the epithelium of the middle ear and Eustachian tube, as well as in some nuclei of the hair cells in the organ of Corti, in the stria vascularis, and the spiral ganglion cells. ACE2 was also expressed in the cytoplasm of the stria vascularis. TMPRSS2 was expressed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in the middle spaces, with the expression being stronger in the nucleus in the mucosal epithelium of the middle ear spaces and Eustachian tube. TMPRSS2 was present in the cytoplasm in the organ of Corti and stria vascularis and in the nucleus and cytoplasm in the spiral ganglion. Furin was expressed in the cytoplasm in the middle ear spaces, Eustachian tube, and cochlea. CONCLUSIONS: ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin are diffusely present in the Eustachian tube, middle ear spaces, and cochlea, suggesting that these tissues are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 131:E2013-E2017, 2021.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Ear, Inner/pathology , Ear, Middle/pathology , Eustachian Tube/pathology , Furin/genetics , Gene Expression/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Animals , Cochlea/pathology , Epithelium/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Mice , Mucous Membrane/pathology , Organ of Corti/pathology , Spiral Ganglion/pathology , Stria Vascularis/pathology , Temporal Bone/pathology
4.
Laryngoscope ; 131(3): E932-E939, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-774497

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit not only respiratory symptoms but also symptoms of chemo-sensitive disorders. Cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 depends on the binding of its spike protein to a cellular receptor named angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and the subsequent spike protein-priming by host cell proteases, including transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Thus, high expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 is considered to enhance the invading capacity of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: To elucidate the underlying histological mechanisms of the aerodigestive disorders caused by SARS-CoV-2, we investigated the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 proteins using immunohistochemistry, in the aerodigestive tracts of the tongue, hard palate with partial nasal tissue, larynx with hypopharynx, trachea, esophagus, and lung of rats. RESULTS: Co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 proteins was observed in the taste buds of the tongue, nasal epithelium, trachea, bronchioles, and alveoli with varying degrees of expression. Remarkably, TMPRSS2 expression was more distinct in the peripheral alveoli than in the central alveoli. These results coincide with the reported clinical symptoms of COVID-19, such as the loss of taste, loss of olfaction, and respiratory dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: A wide range of organs have been speculated to be affected by SARS-CoV-2 depending on the expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Differential distribution of TMPRSS2 in the lung indicated the COVID-19 symptoms to possibly be exacerbated by TMPRSS2 expression. This study might provide potential clues for further investigation of the pathogenesis of COVID-19. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 131:E932-E939, 2021.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/analysis , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Esophagus/metabolism , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Larynx/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Male , Membrane Proteins/analysis , Models, Animal , Palate, Hard/metabolism , Rats , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tongue/metabolism , Trachea/metabolism , Virus Internalization
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