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1.
Health Place ; 74: 102772, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701406

ABSTRACT

During a pandemic, it is important to know whether social capital can mitigate the risk of mental disorders, given the restrictions on social interactions. However, evidence using longitudinal data is scarce. This study examined the association between pre-pandemic social capital and depressive symptoms during COVID-19 among older adults. We used longitudinal data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), including 8291 participants aged 65 or older who were physically and cognitively independent and not depressed at baseline. We conducted baseline and follow-up mail surveys in ten municipalities in Japan from November 2019 to January 2020 (pre-pandemic period) and from November 2020 to February 2021 (pandemic period), respectively. We measured depressive symptoms using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Social capital was measured with three validated subscales, namely, civic participation, social cohesion, and reciprocity. We performed a multilevel logistic regression analysis to examine the association. A total of 1089 (13.1%) participants newly developed depressive symptoms during the pandemic. The logistic regression showed that pre-pandemic individual-level social cohesion (odds ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 0.86) and reciprocity (0.89, 0.82 to 0.96) and community-level reciprocity (0.93, 0.88 to 0.98) were negatively associated with the odds of depressive symptoms. Even after adjusting for declines in social capital during the pandemic, the observed associations of pre-pandemic social capital remained. Fostering social cohesion and reciprocity may increase resilience to mental disorders during a pandemic of infectious disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Capital , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Social Participation
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320826

ABSTRACT

Background: During the corona-virus disease 2019 pandemic, many people refrained from going out, started working from home (WFH), and suspended work or lost their jobs, and these lifestyle changes could affect their mental health. This study examines how such pandemic-related lifestyle changes were associated with the risk of depression.Methods: An online survey among participants who use a health app called CALO mama was conducted from April 30 to May 8, 2020 in Japan. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the two-question screen. Participants consisted of 1,238 men (mean age = 51.0) and 2,086 women (mean age = 43.2), and their number of daily steps from January 1 to May 13, recorded by an accelerometer in their mobile devices, was linked to their responses.Results: On average, participants took 900 fewer weekday steps during the governmental declaration of a state of emergency. Depressive symptoms were more prevalent among women than men (45.9% vs. 32.4%). Among women, a decrease in walking and increased time spent on childcare were associated with an increased risk of depression. Conversely, starting WFH was negatively associated with risk for women. Among men, more weekday steps in the pre-declaration period were protective against depression. Men who worked longer during the declaration period, however, had an increased risk for depression, but WFH mitigated their risk.Conclusions: Prevention of social isolation and physical inactivity due to home-bound lifestyles, the promotion of WFH, and gender-specific measures such as prevention of longer working hours and more support for home childcare are needed.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320825

ABSTRACT

It is plausible that the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and related lifestyle changes affected dietary patterns, but existing studies have limitations owing to a cross-sectional design. Using longitudinal data, we examined dietary changes in people due to the pandemic and related lifestyles. We conducted an online survey on lifestyle changes during the pandemic from April 30 to May 8, 2020, among users of a health app called CALO mama provided in Japan. We retrieved and linked the dietary data for 5,929 participants from January 1 to May 13, 2020. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the frequencies of food intake associated with the pandemic and lifestyles. During the governmental declaration of a state of emergency, the frequency of intake of self-made meals (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.05), vegetables (IRR = 1.06), and snacks increased (IRR = 1.04). Similarly, working from home was associated with increased rates of intake of self-made meals (IRR = 1.02), vegetables (IRR = 1.02), fruits (IRR = 1.06), and snacks (IRR = 1.04). In contrast, working hours (self-made meals: IRR = 0.997, fruits: IRR = 0.99, snacks: IRR = 0.99 [per hour]), time spent on childcare (self-made meals: IRR = 0.99, vegetables: IRR = 0.99, fruits: IRR = 0.98 [per hour]), and depressive symptoms (self-made meals: IRR = 0.93, vegetables: IRR = 0.92, fruits: IRR = 0.90) tended to be negatively associated with the frequency of food intake. This study showed that the pandemic affected dietary patterns in various ways. It is important to record and notice such changes and modify them to the recommended balance during a prolonged pandemic to ensure healthy eating habits.

4.
Iryo Yakugaku (Japanese Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences) ; 46(12):722-731, 2020.
Article in Japanese | J-Stage | ID: covidwho-1572886
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295641

ABSTRACT

Background: There is continuing uncertainty about the effectiveness of testing, tracing, isolation, and quarantine (TTIQ) policies during the pandemic.<br><br>Methods: We developed proxy indicators of the implementation of TTIQ policies at subnational and national (Republic of Korea), and international level (111 countries) from the beginning of 2020 to September 2021. These were: proportion of quarantined population (“Q-proportion”) among newly diagnosed COVID-19 cases/week, ratio of quarantined people to cases, and ratio of negative tests to new cases, with higher values suggesting more complete TTIQ. We used linear regression to analyze the association between TTIQ indicators and 1-week lagged cases and cumulative deaths, separating periods before and after vaccines becoming available.<br><br>Findings: We found consistently inverse associations between TTIQ indicators and COVID-19 outcomes, with gradual attenuation as vaccination coverage rose. Q-proportion overall (β= -0·091;p -value < 0·001) and log-transformed quarantined population per case (β ranges from -0·626;p < 0.001 to -0·288;p = 0·023) in each of 9 provinces were negatively associated with log-transformed 1-week lagged incidence in Korea overall. The strength of association decreased with greater vaccination coverage. The ratio of negative test results/new case was also inversely associated with incidence (β= -1·19;p -value < 0·001) in Korea. Globally, increasing negative test ratio was significantly associated with lower cumulative cases and deaths per capita, more so earlier in the pandemic. Jurisdictions with lower vaccination coverage showed the strongest association.<br><br>Interpretation: A real-world evaluation demonstrates an association between performance of testing, contact tracing, isolation, and quarantine and better disease outcomes.<br><br>Funding Information: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Korea. <br><br>Declaration of Interests: None to declare.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13717, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294481

ABSTRACT

Most countries have implemented restrictions on mobility to prevent the spread of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), entailing considerable societal costs but, at least initially, based on limited evidence of effectiveness. We asked whether mobility restrictions were associated with changes in the occurrence of COVID-19 in 34 OECD countries plus Singapore and Taiwan. Our data sources were the Google Global Mobility Data Source, which reports different types of mobility, and COVID-19 cases retrieved from the dataset curated by Our World in Data. Beginning at each country's 100th case, and incorporating a 14-day lag to account for the delay between exposure and illness, we examined the association between changes in mobility (with January 3 to February 6, 2020 as baseline) and the ratio of the number of newly confirmed cases on a given day to the total number of cases over the past 14 days from the index day (the potentially infective 'pool' in that population), per million population, using LOESS regression and logit regression. In two-thirds of examined countries, reductions of up to 40% in commuting mobility (to workplaces, transit stations, retailers, and recreation) were associated with decreased cases, especially early in the pandemic. Once both mobility and incidence had been brought down, further restrictions provided little additional benefit. These findings point to the importance of acting early and decisively in a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics/prevention & control , Transportation , Travel , Travel-Related Illness , Workplace
7.
Appetite ; 165: 105323, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230353

ABSTRACT

It is plausible that the coronavirus disease pandemic and related changes in work and life patterns affected dietary patterns, but existing studies have limitations owing to a cross-sectional design. Using longitudinal data, we examined dietary changes in people due to the pandemic and work and life patterns. We conducted an online survey on changes in work and life patterns during the pandemic from April 30, 2020, to May 8, 2020, among users of a health app called CALO mama provided in Japan. We retrieved and linked the dietary data for 5929 participants from January 1, 2020, to May 13, 2020. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the frequencies of food intake associated with the pandemic and work and life patterns. During the state of emergency, the frequency of intake of vegetables, beans, seaweeds, fish, meats, dairy products, and snacks increased, whereas alcohol intake decreased. Working from home was associated with increased intake of vegetables, fruits, dairy products, and snacks but decreased intake of seaweeds, meats, and alcohol. Time spent on childcare was associated with decreased intake of vegetables and fruits but increased intake of meats. Probable depressive symptoms were negatively associated with the frequency of food intake other than snacks and alcohol. We conclude that diet quality improved during the pandemic in general, but attention must be paid to overconsumption of snacks and negative factors such as increased burden of childcare and depression for healthy eating.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Fruit , Humans , Japan , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vegetables
8.
Occup Environ Med ; 78(9): 632-637, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097025

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many people refrained from going out, started working from home (WFH), and suspended work or lost their jobs. This study examines how such pandemic-related changes in work and life patterns were associated with depressive symptoms. METHODS: An online survey among participants who use a health app called CALO mama was conducted from 30 April to 8 May 2020 in Japan. Participants consisted of 2846 users (1150 men (mean age=50.3) and 1696 women (mean age=43.0)) who were working prior to the government declaration of a state of emergency (7 April 2020). Their daily steps from 1 January to 13 May 2020 recorded by an accelerometer in their mobile devices were linked to their responses. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Two-Question Screen. RESULTS: On average, participants took 1143.8 (95% CI -1557.3 to -730.2) fewer weekday steps during the declaration period (from 7 April to 13 May). Depressive symptoms were positively associated with female gender (OR=1.58, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.87), decreased weekday steps (OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.45) and increased working hours (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.26). Conversely, starting WFH was negatively associated with depressive symptoms (OR=0.83, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Decreased weekday steps during the declaration period were associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms, but WFH may mitigate the risk in the short term. Further studies on the longitudinal effects of WFH on health are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Life Change Events , Work-Life Balance/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Employment , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Walking/physiology , Young Adult
9.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing the coverage of vaccinations recommended by the World Health Organization in the older adult population is an urgent issue, especially in the context of avoiding co-epidemics during the current coronavirus disease 2019 crisis. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with the quality of perceived patient-physician communication and whether this variable was associated with increased odds of vaccination. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study conducted from October 2016 to January 2017. The participants were 22,253 physically and cognitively independent individuals aged 65 or older living in 39 municipalities in Japan. Multilevel logit models were used to estimate the odds of vaccination. RESULTS: Among the participants, 40.0% and 58.8% had received pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations as per the recommended schedule, respectively. People with low educational levels were more likely to have a family physician but rate their experience in asking questions lower than those with higher educational levels. Having a family physician and high rating for physicians' listening attitude were positively associated with increased odds of pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations. High rating for patients' questioning attitude and shared decision-making, compared to an ambiguous attitude toward medical decision-making, were positively associated with increased odds of pneumococcal vaccination. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that promotion of having a family physician, better patient-physician communication, and shared decision-making may encourage older adults to undergo recommended vaccinations.

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