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1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 43(3): 242-249, 2024 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38145397

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In June 2022, the mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was recommended for young children. We examined clinical characteristics and factors associated with vaccination status among vaccine-eligible young children hospitalized for acute COVID-19. METHODS: We enrolled inpatients 8 months to <5 years of age with acute community-acquired COVID-19 across 28 US pediatric hospitals from September 20, 2022 to May 31, 2023. We assessed demographic and clinical factors, including the highest level of respiratory support, and vaccination status defined as unvaccinated, incomplete, or complete primary series [at least 2 (Moderna) or 3 (Pfizer-BioNTech) mRNA vaccine doses ≥14 days before hospitalization]. RESULTS: Among 597 children, 174 (29.1%) patients were admitted to the intensive care unit and 75 (12.6%) had a life-threatening illness, including 51 (8.5%) requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Children with underlying respiratory and neurologic/neuromuscular conditions more frequently received higher respiratory support. Only 4.5% of children hospitalized for COVID-19 (n = 27) had completed their primary COVID-19 vaccination series and 7.0% (n = 42) of children initiated but did not complete their primary series. Among 528 unvaccinated children, nearly half (n = 251) were previously healthy, 3 of them required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute COVID-19 and 1 died. CONCLUSIONS: Most young children hospitalized for acute COVID-19, including most children admitted to the intensive care unit and with life-threatening illness, had not initiated COVID-19 vaccination despite being eligible. Nearly half of these children had no underlying conditions. Of the small percentage of children who initiated a COVID-19 primary series, most had not completed it before hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hospitalization , Vaccination
2.
Front Pediatr ; 11: 1260372, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37920792

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify risk factors for persistent impairments after pediatric hospitalization for acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Methods: Across 25 U.S. Overcoming COVID-19 Network hospitals, we conducted a prospective cohort study of patients <21-years-old hospitalized for acute COVID-19 or MIS-C (May 2020 to March 2022) surveyed 2- to 4-months post-admission. Multivariable regression was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Of 232 children with acute COVID-19, 71 (30.6%) had persistent symptoms and 50 (21.6%) had activity impairments at follow-up; for MIS-C (n = 241), 56 (23.2%) had persistent symptoms and 58 (24.1%) had activity impairments. In adjusted analyses of patients with acute COVID-19, receipt of mechanical ventilation was associated with persistent symptoms [aRR 1.83 (95% CI: 1.07, 3.13)] whereas obesity [aRR 2.18 (95% CI: 1.05, 4.51)] and greater organ system involvement [aRR 1.35 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.61)] were associated with activity impairment. For patients with MIS-C, having a pre-existing respiratory condition was associated with persistent symptoms [aRR 3.04 (95% CI: 1.70, 5.41)] whereas obesity [aRR 1.86 (95% CI: 1.09, 3.15)] and greater organ system involvement [aRR 1.26 (1.00, 1.58)] were associated with activity impairments. Discussion: Among patients hospitalized, nearly one in three hospitalized with acute COVID-19 and one in four hospitalized with MIS-C had persistent impairments for ≥2 months post-hospitalization. Persistent impairments were associated with more severe illness and underlying health conditions, identifying populations to target for follow-up.

3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(39): 1057-1064, 2023 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37874864

ABSTRACT

Infants aged <6 months are not eligible for COVID-19 vaccination. Vaccination during pregnancy has been associated with protection against infant COVID-19-related hospitalization. The Overcoming COVID-19 Network conducted a case-control study during March 9, 2022-May 31, 2023, to evaluate the effectiveness of maternal receipt of a COVID-19 vaccine dose (vaccine effectiveness [VE]) during pregnancy against COVID-19-related hospitalization in infants aged <6 months and a subset of infants aged <3 months. VE was calculated as (1 - adjusted odds ratio) x 100% among all infants aged <6 months and <3 months. Case-patients (infants hospitalized for COVID-19 outside of birth hospitalization and who had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result) and control patients (infants hospitalized for COVID-19-like illness with a negative SARS-CoV-2 test result) were compared. Odds ratios were determined using multivariable logistic regression, comparing the odds of receipt of a maternal COVID-19 vaccine dose (completion of a 2-dose vaccination series or a third or higher dose) during pregnancy with maternal nonvaccination between case- and control patients. VE of maternal vaccination during pregnancy against COVID-19-related hospitalization was 35% (95% CI = 15%-51%) among infants aged <6 months and 54% (95% CI = 32%-68%) among infants aged <3 months. Intensive care unit admissions occurred in 23% of all case-patients, and invasive mechanical ventilation was more common among infants of unvaccinated (9%) compared with vaccinated mothers (1%) (p = 0.02). Maternal vaccination during pregnancy provides some protection against COVID-19-related hospitalizations among infants, particularly those aged <3 months. Expectant mothers should remain current with COVID-19 vaccination to protect themselves and their infants from hospitalization and severe outcomes associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Pregnancy , Infant , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , RNA, Messenger, Stored , Case-Control Studies , Hospitalization , Mothers , Vaccination
4.
Pediatr Res ; 2023 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37700162
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(8): e2328950, 2023 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37581884

ABSTRACT

Importance: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) and infant hospitalization worldwide. Objective: To evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of RSV-related critical illness in US infants during peak 2022 RSV transmission. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used a public health prospective surveillance registry in 39 pediatric hospitals across 27 US states. Participants were infants admitted for 24 or more hours between October 17 and December 16, 2022, to a unit providing intensive care due to laboratory-confirmed RSV infection. Exposure: Respiratory syncytial virus. Main Outcomes and Measures: Data were captured on demographics, clinical characteristics, signs and symptoms, laboratory values, severity measures, and clinical outcomes, including receipt of noninvasive respiratory support, invasive mechanical ventilation, vasopressors or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and death. Mixed-effects multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to assess associations between intubation status and demographic factors, gestational age, and underlying conditions, including hospital as a random effect to account for between-site heterogeneity. Results: The first 15 to 20 consecutive eligible infants from each site were included for a target sample size of 600. Among the 600 infants, the median (IQR) age was 2.6 (1.4-6.0) months; 361 (60.2%) were male, 169 (28.9%) were born prematurely, and 487 (81.2%) had no underlying medical conditions. Primary reasons for admission included LRTI (594 infants [99.0%]) and apnea or bradycardia (77 infants [12.8%]). Overall, 143 infants (23.8%) received invasive mechanical ventilation (median [IQR], 6.0 [4.0-10.0] days). The highest level of respiratory support for nonintubated infants was high-flow nasal cannula (243 infants [40.5%]), followed by bilevel positive airway pressure (150 infants [25.0%]) and continuous positive airway pressure (52 infants [8.7%]). Infants younger than 3 months, those born prematurely (gestational age <37 weeks), or those publicly insured were at higher risk for intubation. Four infants (0.7%) received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and 2 died. The median (IQR) length of hospitalization for survivors was 5 (4-10) days. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, most US infants who required intensive care for RSV LRTIs were young, healthy, and born at term. These findings highlight the need for RSV preventive interventions targeting all infants to reduce the burden of severe RSV illness.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Infant , Humans , Male , Female , Prospective Studies , Seasons , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Intensive Care Units
6.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 24(12): 998-1009, 2023 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37539964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To develop, evaluate, and explore the use of a pediatric ordinal score as a potential clinical trial outcome metric in children hospitalized with acute hypoxic respiratory failure caused by viral respiratory infections. DESIGN: We modified the World Health Organization Clinical Progression Scale for pediatric patients (CPS-Ped) and assigned CPS-Ped at admission, days 2-4, 7, and 14. We identified predictors of clinical improvement (day 14 CPS-Ped ≤ 2 or a three-point decrease) using competing risks regression and compared clinical improvement to hospital length of stay (LOS) and ventilator-free days. We estimated sample sizes (80% power) to detect a 15% clinical improvement. SETTING: North American pediatric hospitals. PATIENTS: Three cohorts of pediatric patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure receiving intensive care: two influenza (pediatric intensive care influenza [PICFLU], n = 263, 31 sites; PICFLU vaccine effectiveness [PICFLU-VE], n = 143, 17 sites) and one COVID-19 ( n = 237, 47 sites). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Invasive mechanical ventilation rates were 71.4%, 32.9%, and 37.1% for PICFLU, PICFLU-VE, and COVID-19 with less than 5% mortality for all three cohorts. Maximum CPS-Ped (0 = home at respiratory baseline to 8 = death) was positively associated with hospital LOS ( p < 0.001, all cohorts). Across the three cohorts, many patients' CPS-Ped worsened after admission (39%, 18%, and 49%), with some patients progressing to invasive mechanical ventilation or death (19%, 11%, and 17%). Despite this, greater than 76% of patients across cohorts clinically improved by day 14. Estimated sample sizes per group using CPS-Ped to detect a percentage increase in clinical improvement were feasible (influenza 15%, n = 142; 10%, n = 225; COVID-19, 15% n = 208) compared with mortality ( n > 21,000, all), and ventilator-free days (influenza 15%, n = 167). CONCLUSIONS: The CPS-Ped can be used to describe the time course of illness and threshold for clinical improvement in hospitalized children and adolescents with acute respiratory failure from viral infections. This outcome measure could feasibly be used in clinical trials to evaluate in-hospital recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adolescent , Humans , Child , SARS-CoV-2 , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Disease Progression
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(7): e2324369, 2023 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37466939

ABSTRACT

Importance: Acute neurological involvement occurs in some patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), but few data report neurological and psychological sequelae, and no investigations include direct assessments of cognitive function 6 to 12 months after discharge. Objective: To characterize neurological, psychological, and quality of life sequelae after MIS-C. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional cohort study was conducted in the US and Canada. Participants included children with MIS-C diagnosed from November 2020 through November 2021, 6 to 12 months after hospital discharge, and their sibling or community controls, when available. Data analysis was performed from August 2022 to May 2023. Exposure: Diagnosis of MIS-C. Main Outcomes and Measures: A central study site remotely administered a onetime neurological examination and in-depth neuropsychological assessment including measures of cognition, behavior, quality of life, and daily function. Generalized estimating equations, accounting for matching, assessed for group differences. Results: Sixty-four patients with MIS-C (mean [SD] age, 11.5 [3.9] years; 20 girls [31%]) and 44 control participants (mean [SD] age, 12.6 [3.7] years; 20 girls [45%]) were enrolled. The MIS-C group exhibited abnormalities on neurological examination more frequently than controls (15 of 61 children [25%] vs 3 of 43 children [7%]; odds ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.3-16.7). Although the 2 groups performed similarly on most cognitive measures, the MIS-C group scored lower on the National Institutes of Health Cognition Toolbox List Sort Working Memory Test, a measure of executive functioning (mean [SD] scores, 96.1 [14.3] vs 103.1 [10.5]). Parents reported worse psychological outcomes in cases compared with controls, particularly higher scores for depression symptoms (mean [SD] scores, 52.6 [13.1] vs 47.8 [9.4]) and somatization (mean [SD] scores, 55.5 [15.5] vs 47.0 [7.6]). Self-reported (mean [SD] scores, 79.6 [13.1] vs 85.5 [12.3]) and parent-reported (mean [SD] scores, 80.3 [15.5] vs 88.6 [13.0]) quality of life scores were also lower in cases than controls. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, compared with contemporaneous sibling or community controls, patients with MIS-C had more abnormal neurologic examinations, worse working memory scores, more somatization and depression symptoms, and lower quality of life 6 to 12 months after hospital discharge. Although these findings need to be confirmed in larger studies, enhanced monitoring may be warranted for early identification and treatment of neurological and psychological symptoms.


Subject(s)
Connective Tissue Diseases , Quality of Life , United States , Child , Female , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Disease Progression
8.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(6): e190-e196, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37000922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a 2020 pilot case-control study using medical records, we reported that non-Hispanic Black children were more likely to develop multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and underlying medical conditions. Using structured interviews, we investigated patient, household, and community factors underlying MIS-C likelihood. METHODS: MIS-C case patients hospitalized in 2021 across 14 US pediatric hospitals were matched by age and site to outpatient controls testing positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within 3 months of the admission date. Caregiver interviews queried race/ethnicity, medical history, and household and potential community exposures 1 month before MIS-C hospitalization (case-patients) or after SARS-CoV-2 infection (controls). We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) using mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 275 case patients and 496 controls, race/ethnicity, social vulnerability and patient or family history of autoimmune/rheumatologic disease were not associated with MIS-C. In previously healthy children, MIS-C was associated with a history of hospitalization for an infection [aOR: 4.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-11.0]. Household crowding (aOR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.6), large event attendance (aOR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.1), school attendance with limited masking (aOR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.1-6.6), public transit use (aOR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4) and co-resident testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (aOR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7) were associated with increased MIS-C likelihood, with risk increasing with the number of these factors. CONCLUSIONS: From caregiver interviews, we clarify household and community exposures associated with MIS-C; however, we did not confirm prior associations between sociodemographic factors and MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Case-Control Studies , Crowding , Family Characteristics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Risk Factors
9.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 24(5): 356-371, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36995097

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used successfully to support adults with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related cardiac or respiratory failure refractory to conventional therapies. Comprehensive reports of children and adolescents with SARS-CoV-2-related ECMO support for conditions, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and acute COVID-19, are needed. DESIGN: Case series of patients from the Overcoming COVID-19 public health surveillance registry. SETTING: Sixty-three hospitals in 32 U.S. states reporting to the registry between March 15, 2020, and December 31, 2021. PATIENTS: Patients less than 21 years admitted to the ICU meeting Centers for Disease Control criteria for MIS-C or acute COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The final cohort included 2,733 patients with MIS-C ( n = 1,530; 37 [2.4%] requiring ECMO) or acute COVID-19 ( n = 1,203; 71 [5.9%] requiring ECMO). ECMO patients in both groups were older than those without ECMO support (MIS-C median 15.4 vs 9.9 yr; acute COVID-19 median 15.3 vs 13.6 yr). The body mass index percentile was similar in the MIS-C ECMO versus no ECMO groups (89.9 vs 85.8; p = 0.22) but higher in the COVID-19 ECMO versus no ECMO groups (98.3 vs 96.5; p = 0.03). Patients on ECMO with MIS-C versus COVID-19 were supported more often with venoarterial ECMO (92% vs 41%) for primary cardiac indications (87% vs 23%), had ECMO initiated earlier (median 1 vs 5 d from hospitalization), shorter ECMO courses (median 3.9 vs 14 d), shorter hospital length of stay (median 20 vs 52 d), lower in-hospital mortality (27% vs 37%), and less major morbidity at discharge in survivors (new tracheostomy, oxygen or mechanical ventilation need or neurologic deficit; 0% vs 11%, 0% vs 20%, and 8% vs 15%, respectively). Most patients with MIS-C requiring ECMO support (87%) were admitted during the pre-Delta (variant B.1.617.2) period, while most patients with acute COVID-19 requiring ECMO support (70%) were admitted during the Delta variant period. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO support for SARS-CoV-2-related critical illness was uncommon, but type, initiation, and duration of ECMO use in MIS-C and acute COVID-19 were markedly different. Like pre-pandemic pediatric ECMO cohorts, most patients survived to hospital discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Adult , Humans , Child , Adolescent , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies
10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(3): ofad122, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36968962

ABSTRACT

Background: Community-onset bacterial coinfection in adults hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is reportedly uncommon, though empiric antibiotic use has been high. However, data regarding empiric antibiotic use and bacterial coinfection in children with critical illness from COVID-19 are scarce. Methods: We evaluated children and adolescents aged <19 years admitted to a pediatric intensive care or high-acuity unit for COVID-19 between March and December 2020. Based on qualifying microbiology results from the first 3 days of admission, we adjudicated whether patients had community-onset bacterial coinfection. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics of those who did and did not (1) receive antibiotics and (2) have bacterial coinfection early in admission. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed factors associated with these outcomes. Results: Of the 532 patients, 63.3% received empiric antibiotics, but only 7.1% had bacterial coinfection, and only 3.0% had respiratory bacterial coinfection. In multivariable analyses, empiric antibiotics were more likely to be prescribed for immunocompromised patients (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.34 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01-1.79]), those requiring any respiratory support except mechanical ventilation (aRR, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.05-1.90]), or those requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (aRR, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.36-2.47]) (compared with no respiratory support). The presence of a pulmonary comorbidity other than asthma (aRR, 2.31 [95% CI, 1.15-4.62]) was associated with bacterial coinfection. Conclusions: Community-onset bacterial coinfection in children with critical COVID-19 is infrequent, but empiric antibiotics are commonly prescribed. These findings inform antimicrobial use and support rapid de-escalation when evaluation shows coinfection is unlikely.

11.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 75(8): 1466-1476, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36908050

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evidence regarding effectiveness of interleukin-1 receptor antagonism in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is lacking. We characterized variation in initial treatment with anakinra and evaluated cardiovascular outcomes associated with adding anakinra to standard initial therapy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of MIS-C cases in a US surveillance registry from November 2020 to December 2021. Day 0 was the first calendar day of immunomodulatory treatment. Factors associated with initial anakinra use (days 0-1) were identified. We compared cases in patients ages 2-20 years receiving intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and glucocorticoids versus anakinra plus IVIG and/or glucocorticoids on days 0-1, using inverse probability weighting to balance disease severity. Primary outcomes were vasopressor requirement on day 3 and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction on days 3-4. The secondary outcome was 50% reduction in C-reactive protein on day 3. RESULTS: Among 1,516 MIS-C cases at 44 sites, 193 (13%) patients received anakinra alone or with other immunomodulators as initial treatment (range 0-74% by site). Site accounted for 59% of residual variance in anakinra use. After balancing disease severity, initial treatment with anakinra plus IVIG and/or glucocorticoids (n = 121) versus IVIG plus glucocorticoids (n = 389) was not associated with significant differences in vasopressor requirement (25.6% versus 20.1%, respectively; risk ratio [RR] 1.27 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.88-1.84]), ventricular dysfunction (33.7% versus 25.7%, respectively; RR 1.31 [95% CI 0.98-1.75]), or C-reactive protein reduction. CONCLUSION: We identified substantial variation in initial anakinra use in a real-world population of children with MIS-C, but no average short-term improvement in cardiovascular outcomes associated with early addition of anakinra to IVIG and/or glucocorticoids compared to IVIG and glucocorticoids alone.


Subject(s)
Connective Tissue Diseases , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Child , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein , Stroke Volume , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
12.
J Pediatr ; 257: 113372, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36870559

ABSTRACT

Aseptic meningitis is a rare but potentially serious complication of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. In this case series, meningitic symptoms following intravenous immunoglobulin initiation in patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome were rare (7/2,086 [0.3%]). However, they required the need for additional therapy and/or readmission.


Subject(s)
Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Meningitis, Aseptic , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Aseptic/diagnosis , Meningitis, Aseptic/drug therapy , Administration, Intravenous , Disease Progression
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 151(4): 926-930.e2, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509151

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Autoantibodies against type I IFNs occur in approximately 10% of adults with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The frequency of anti-IFN autoantibodies in children with severe sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We quantified anti-type I IFN autoantibodies in a multicenter cohort of children with severe COVID-19, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), and mild SARS-CoV-2 infections. METHODS: Circulating anti-IFN-α2 antibodies were measured by a radioligand binding assay. Whole-exome sequencing, RNA sequencing, and functional studies of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to study any patients with levels of anti-IFN-α2 autoantibodies exceeding the assay's positive control. RESULTS: Among 168 patients with severe COVID-19, 199 with MIS-C, and 45 with mild SARS-CoV-2 infections, only 1 had high levels of anti-IFN-α2 antibodies. Anti-IFN-α2 autoantibodies were not detected in patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulin before sample collection. Whole-exome sequencing identified a missense variant in the ankyrin domain of NFKB2, encoding the p100 subunit of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells, aka NF-κB, essential for noncanonical NF-κB signaling. The patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibited impaired cleavage of p100 characteristic of NFKB2 haploinsufficiency, an inborn error of immunity with a high prevalence of autoimmunity. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of anti-IFN-α2 autoantibodies in children and adolescents with MIS-C, severe COVID-19, and mild SARS-CoV-2 infections are rare but can occur in patients with inborn errors of immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Adult , Humans , Child , Adolescent , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoantibodies , NF-kappa B , Haploinsufficiency , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , NF-kappa B p52 Subunit
14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 11(3): 836-843.e3, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospitalization for severe influenza infection in childhood may result in postdischarge sequelae. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate inpatient management and postdischarge sequelae in children with critical respiratory illness owing to influenza with or without preexisting asthma. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational multicenter study of children (aged 8 months to 17 years) admitted to a pediatric intensive care or high-acuity unit (in November 2019 to April 2020) for influenza. Results were stratified by preexisting asthma. Prehospital status, hospital treatments, and outcomes were collected. Surveys at approximately 90 days after discharge evaluated postdischarge health resource use, functional status, and respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 165 children had influenza: 56 with preexisting asthma (33.9%) and 109 without it (66.1%; 41.1% and 39.4%, respectively, were fully vaccinated against influenza). Fifteen patients with preexisting asthma (26.7%) and 34 without it (31.1%) were intubated. More patients with versus without preexisting asthma received pharmacologic asthma treatments during hospitalization (76.7% vs 28.4%). Of 136 patients with 90-day survey data (82.4%; 46 with preexisting asthma [33.8%] and 90 without it [66.1%]), a similar proportion had an emergency department/urgent care visit (4.3% vs 6.6%) or hospital readmission (8.6% vs 3.3%) for a respiratory condition. Patients with preexisting asthma more frequently experienced asthma symptoms (78.2% vs 3.3%) and had respiratory specialist visits (52% vs 20%) after discharge. Of 109 patients without preexisting asthma, 10 reported receiving a new diagnosis of asthma (11.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory health resource use and symptoms are important postdischarge outcomes after influenza critical illness in children with and without preexisting asthma. Less than half of children were vaccinated for influenza, a tool that could mitigate critical illness and its sequelae.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Influenza, Human , Child , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , Critical Illness , Aftercare , Hospitalization , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/therapy , Disease Progression
15.
JAMA Neurol ; 80(1): 91-98, 2023 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342679

ABSTRACT

Importance: In 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, neurologic involvement was common in children and adolescents hospitalized in the United States for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related complications. Objective: To provide an update on the spectrum of SARS-CoV-2-related neurologic involvement among children and adolescents in 2021. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series investigation of patients reported to public health surveillance hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2-related illness between December 15, 2020, and December 31, 2021, in 55 US hospitals in 31 states with follow-up at hospital discharge. A total of 2253 patients were enrolled during the investigation period. Patients suspected of having multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) who did not meet criteria (n = 85) were excluded. Patients (<21 years) with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and/or antibody) meeting criteria for MIS-C or acute COVID-19 were included in the analysis. Exposure: SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Patients with neurologic involvement had acute neurologic signs, symptoms, or diseases on presentation or during hospitalization. Life-threatening neurologic involvement was adjudicated by experts based on clinical and/or neuroradiological features. Type and severity of neurologic involvement, laboratory and imaging data, vaccination status, and hospital discharge outcomes (death or survival with new neurologic deficits). Results: Of 2168 patients included (58% male; median age, 10.3 years), 1435 (66%) met criteria for MIS-C, and 476 (22%) had documented neurologic involvement. Patients with neurologic involvement vs without were older (median age, 12 vs 10 years) and more frequently had underlying neurologic disorders (107 of 476 [22%] vs 240 of 1692 [14%]). Among those with neurologic involvement, 42 (9%) developed acute SARS-CoV-2-related life-threatening conditions, including central nervous system infection/demyelination (n = 23; 15 with possible/confirmed encephalitis, 6 meningitis, 1 transverse myelitis, 1 nonhemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy), stroke (n = 11), severe encephalopathy (n = 5), acute fulminant cerebral edema (n = 2), and Guillain-Barré syndrome (n = 1). Ten of 42 (24%) survived with new neurologic deficits at discharge and 8 (19%) died. Among patients with life-threatening neurologic conditions, 15 of 16 vaccine-eligible patients (94%) were unvaccinated. Conclusions and Relevance: SARS-CoV-2-related neurologic involvement persisted in US children and adolescents hospitalized for COVID-19 or MIS-C in 2021 and was again mostly transient. Central nervous system infection/demyelination accounted for a higher proportion of life-threatening conditions, and most vaccine-eligible patients were unvaccinated. COVID-19 vaccination may prevent some SARS-CoV-2-related neurologic complications and merits further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Nervous System Diseases , Stroke , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology , Female , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Inpatients , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology
16.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 12(1): 29-35, 2023 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309873

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine received emergency use authorization for persons ≥ 16 years in December 2020 and for adolescents 12-15 years in May 2021. Despite the clear benefits and favorable safety profile, vaccine uptake in adolescents has been suboptimal. We sought to assess factors associated with COVID-19 non-vaccination in adolescents 12-18 years of age. METHODS: Between June 1, 2021 and April 29, 2022, we assessed factors associated with COVID-19 non-vaccination in hospitalized adolescents ages 12-18 years enrolled in the Overcoming COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness network. Demographic characteristics and clinical information were captured through parent interviews and/or electronic medical record abstraction; COVID-19 vaccination was assessed through documented sources. We assessed associations between receipt of the COVID-19 vaccine and demographic and clinical factors using univariate and multivariable logistic regression and estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for each factor associated with non-vaccination. RESULTS: Among 1665 hospitalized adolescents without COVID-19, 56% were unvaccinated. Unvaccinated adolescents were younger (median age 15.1 years vs. 15.4 years, p < .01) and resided in areas with higher social vulnerability index (SVI) scores (median 0.6 vs 0.5, p < .001) than vaccinated adolescents. Residence in the Midwest [aOR 2.60 (95% CI: 1.80, 3.79)] or South [aOR 2.49 (95% CI: 1.77, 3.54)] US census regions, rarely or never receiving influenza vaccine [aOR 5.31 (95% CI: 3.81, 7.47)], and rarely or never taking precautions against COVID-19 [aOR 3.17 (95% CI: 1.94, 5.31)] were associated with non-vaccination against COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to increase COVID-19 vaccination of adolescents should focus on persons with geographic, socioeconomic, and medical risk factors associated with non-vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , BNT162 Vaccine , Vaccination , Electronic Health Records
17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(20): e025915, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36250670

ABSTRACT

Background Cardiac complications related to COVID-19 in children and adolescents include ventricular dysfunction, myocarditis, coronary artery aneurysm, and bradyarrhythmias, but tachyarrhythmias are less understood. The goal of this study was to evaluate the frequency, characteristics, and outcomes of children and adolescents experiencing tachyarrhythmias while hospitalized for acute severe COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Methods and Results This study involved a case series of 63 patients with tachyarrhythmias reported in a public health surveillance registry of patients aged <21 years hospitalized from March 15, 2020, to December 31, 2021, at 63 US hospitals. Patients with tachyarrhythmias were compared with patients with severe COVID-19-related complications without tachyarrhythmias. Tachyarrhythmias were reported in 22 of 1257 patients (1.8%) with acute COVID-19 and 41 of 2343 (1.7%) patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. They included supraventricular tachycardia in 28 (44%), accelerated junctional rhythm in 9 (14%), and ventricular tachycardia in 38 (60%); >1 type was reported in 12 (19%). Registry patients with versus without tachyarrhythmia were older (median age, 15.4 [range, 10.4-17.4] versus 10.0 [range, 5.4-14.8] years) and had higher illness severity on hospital admission. Intervention for treatment of tachyarrhythmia was required in 37 (59%) patients and included antiarrhythmic medication (n=31, 49%), electrical cardioversion (n=11, 17%), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n=8, 13%), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=9, 14%). Patients with tachyarrhythmias had longer hospital length of stay than those who did not, and 9 (14%) versus 77 (2%) died. Conclusions Tachyarrhythmias were a rare complication of acute severe COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents and were associated with worse clinical outcomes, highlighting the importance of close monitoring, aggressive treatment, and postdischarge care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tachycardia, Supraventricular , Child , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Aftercare , Patient Discharge , Hospitalization , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy
18.
Neurotrauma Rep ; 3(1): 369-376, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36204387

ABSTRACT

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children despite advances in prevention and mitigation strategies. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound measures cerebral arterial circulation and allows for the calculation of pulsatility indices (PIs), which provides an assessment of cerebral blood flow changes. Yet, the use of PIs in children with TBI is not well understood. In this study, we defined the day-to-day (DTD) PI change of the anterior cerebral circulation and describe its relationship with injury characteristics and neurocognitive outcomes in children with TBI. A prospective observational parent study of 42 children, 2 months to 15 years of age, with mild or moderate-severe TBI who had serial TCDs provided data for this analysis. Both the mean and variation of DTD PI change were evaluated in the context of injury severity, injury sidedness, and neurocognitive outcome. In those with a unilateral injury, a larger mean DTD PI change in both the injured and uninjured side was found in those with a worse Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended Pediatrics score at discharge. A larger variation in PI was associated with a worse neurocognitive outcome, irrespective of injury severity. Therefore, the mean and variation of DTD PI change may serve as a potential cerebral vascular biomarker of ongoing secondary injury. The use of PI measurements in the monitoring of children with TBI may provide clinicians with new diagnostic and prognostic insights to inform therapeutic interventions and recovery strategies. However, a larger prospective study is needed to confirm these findings and elucidate potential mechanistic links between DTD PI and clinical outcome measures. To our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to evaluate the use of PI changes in cerebral vasculature in pediatric TBI patients admitted to the hospital.

19.
J Infect Dis ; 226(11): 2030-2036, 2022 11 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza virus infection causes a range of disease severity, including lower respiratory tract infection with respiratory failure. We evaluated the association of common variants in interferon (IFN) regulatory genes with susceptibility to critical influenza infection in children. METHODS: We performed targeted sequencing of 69 influenza-associated candidate genes in 348 children from 24 US centers admitted to the intensive care unit with influenza infection and lacking risk factors for severe influenza infection (PICFlu cohort, 59.4% male). As controls, whole genome sequencing from 675 children with asthma (CAMP cohort, 62.5% male) was compared. We assessed functional relevance using PICFlu whole blood gene expression levels for the gene and calculated IFN gene signature score. RESULTS: Common variants in DDX58, encoding the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) receptor, demonstrated association above or around the Bonferroni-corrected threshold (synonymous variant rs3205166; intronic variant rs4487862). The intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism rs4487862 minor allele was associated with decreased DDX58 expression and IFN signature (P < .05 and P = .0009, respectively) which provided evidence supporting the genetic variants' impact on RIG-I and IFN immunity. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence associating common gene variants in DDX58 with susceptibility to severe influenza infection in children. RIG-I may be essential for preventing life-threatening influenza-associated disease.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Influenza, Human , Child , Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , Influenza, Human/genetics , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Interferons/genetics
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