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1.
Virol J ; 20(1): 106, 2023 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pathogenicity and virulence of the Omicron strain have weakened significantly pathogenesis of Omicron variants. Accumulating data indicated accessory proteins play crucial roles in host immune evasion and virus pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, the impact of simultaneous deletion of accessory protein ORF7a, ORF7b and ORF8 on the clinical characteristics and specific immunity in Omicron breakthrough infected patients (BIPs) need to be verified. METHODS: Herein, plasma cytokines were identified using a commercial Multi-cytokine detection kit. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and pseudovirus neutralization assays were utilized to determine the titers of SARS-CoV-2 specific binding antibodies and neutralizing antibodies, respectively. In addition, an enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to quantify SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells and memory B cells. RESULTS: A local COVID-19 outbreak was caused by the Omicron BA.2 variant, which featured a deletion of 871 base pairs (∆871 BA.2), resulting in the removal of ORF7a, ORF7b, and ORF8. We found that hospitalized patients with ∆871 BA.2 had significantly shorter hospital stays than those with wild-type (WT) BA.2. Plasma cytokine levels in both ∆871 BA.2 and WT BA.2 patients were within the normal range of reference, and there was no notable difference in the titers of SARS-CoV-2 ancestor or Omicron-specific binding IgG antibodies, neutralizing antibody titers, effector T cells, and memory B cells frequencies between ∆871 BA.2 and WT BA.2 infected adult patients. However, antibody titers in ∆871 BA.2 infected adolescents were higher than in adults. CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous deletion of ORF7a, ORF7b, and ORF8 facilitates the rapid clearance of the BA.2 variant, without impacting cytokine levels or affecting SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral and cellular immunity in Omicron-infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay
2.
Chem Eng J ; 468: 143616, 2023 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327405

ABSTRACT

Förster or fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) enables to probe biomolecular interactions, thus playing a vital role in bioassays. However, conventional FRET platforms suffer from limited sensitivity due to the low FRET efficiency and poor anti-interference of existing FRET pairs. Here we report a NIR-II (1000-1700 nm) FRET platform with extremely high FRET efficiency and exceptional anti-interference capability. This NIR-II FRET platform is established based on a pair of lanthanides downshifting nanoparticles (DSNPs) by employing Nd3+ doped DSNPs as an energy donor and Yb3+ doped DSNPs as an energy acceptor. The maximum FRET efficiency of this well-engineered NIR-II FRET platform reaches up to 92.2%, which is much higher than most commonly used ones. Owing to the all-NIR advantage (λex = 808 nm, λem = 1064 nm), this highly efficient NIR-II FRET platform exhibits extraordinary anti-interference in whole blood, and thus enabling background-free homogeneous detection of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in clinical whole blood sample with high sensitivity (limit of detection = 0.5 µg/mL) and specificity. This work opens up new opportunities for realizing highly sensitive detection of various biomarkers in biological samples with severe background interference.

3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 7263, 2023 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320843

ABSTRACT

The immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is poor in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). The factors related to poor immunogenicity to vaccination in KTRs are not well defined. Here, observational study demonstrated no severe adverse effects were observed in KTRs and healthy participants (HPs) after first or second dose of SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine. Different from HPs with excellent immunity against SARS-CoV-2, IgG antibodies against S1 subunit of spike protein, receptor-binding domain, and nucleocapsid protein were not effectively induced in a majority of KTRs after the second dose of inactivated vaccine. Specific T cell immunity response was detectable in 40% KTRs after the second dose of inactivated vaccine. KTRs who developed specific T cell immunity were more likely to be female, and have lower levels of total bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin, and blood tacrolimus concentrations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that blood unconjugated bilirubin and tacrolimus concentration were significantly negatively associated with SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immunity response in KTRs. Altogether, these data suggest compared to humoral immunity, SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immunity response are more likely to be induced in KTRs after administration of inactivated vaccine. Reduction of unconjugated bilirubin and tacrolimus concentration might benefit specific cellular immunity response in KTRs following vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Female , Humans , Male , Tacrolimus , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunity, Cellular , Bilirubin , Immunity, Humoral , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral
4.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232033

ABSTRACT

Little information is available for antibody levels against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern induced by Omicron breakthrough infection and a third booster with an inactivated vaccine (InV) or Ad5-nCoV in people with completion of two InV doses. Plasma was collected from InV pre-vaccinated Omicron-infected patients (OIPs), unvaccinated OIPs between 0 and 22 days, and healthy donors (HDs) 14 days or 6 months after the second doses of an InV and 14 days after a homogenous booster or heterologous booster of Ad5-nCoV. Anti-Wuhan-, Anti-Delta-, and Anti-Omicron-receptor binding domain (RBD)-IgG titers were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. InV pre-vaccinated OIPs had higher anti-Wuhan-, anti-Delta-, and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG titers compared to unvaccinated OIPs. Anti-Wuhan-RBD-IgG titers sharply increased in InV pre-vaccinated OIPs 0-5 days postinfection (DPI), while the geometric mean titers (GMTs) of anti-Delta- and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG were 3.3-fold and 12.0-fold lower. Then, the GMT of anti-Delta- and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG increased to 35 112 and 28 186 during 11-22 DPI, about 2.6-fold and 3.2-fold lower, respectively, than the anti-Wuhan-RBD-IgG titer. The anti-Wuhan-, anti-Delta-, and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG titers declined over time in HDs after two doses of an InV, with 25.2-fold, 5.6-fold, and 4.5-fold declination, respectively, at 6 months relative to the titers at 14 days after the second vaccination. Anti-Wuhan-, anti-Delta-, and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG titers elicited by a heterologous Ad5-nCoV booster were significantly higher than those elicited by an InV booster, comparable to those in InV pre-vaccinated OIPs. InV and Ad5-nCoV boosters could improve humoral immunity against Omicron variants. Of these, the Ad5-nCoV booster is a better alternative.

5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1042784, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237497

ABSTRACT

Background: A third mRNA vaccine booster is recommended to improve immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). However, the immunity against SARS-CoV-2 Ancestral strain and Delta and Omicron variants elicited by the third dose of inactivated booster vaccine in KTRs remains unknown. Methods: The blood parameters related to blood cells count, hepatic function, kidney function, heart injury and immunity were explored clinically from laboratory examinations. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody IgG titer was detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cellular immunity was analyzed using interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Results: The results showed that there were no severe adverse effects and apparent changes of clinical laboratory biomarkers in KTRs and healthy volunteers (HVs) after homologous inactivated vaccine booster. A third dose of inactivated vaccine booster significantly increased anti-Ancestral-spike-trimer-IgG and anti-Ancestral-receptor binding domain (RBD)-IgG titers in KTRs and HVs compared with the second vaccination. However, the anti-Delta-RBD-IgG and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG titers were significantly lower than anti-Ancestral-RBD-IgG titer in KTRs and HVs after the third dose. Notably, only 25.6% (10/39) and 10.3% (4/39) of KTRs had seropositivity for anti-Delta-RBD-IgG and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG after booster, which were significantly lower than HVs (anti-Delta-RBD-IgG: 100%, anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG: 77.8%). Ancestral strain nucleocapsid protein and spike specific T cell frequency after booster was not significantly increased in KTRs compared with the second dose, significantly lower than that in HVs. Moreover, 33.3% (12/36), 14.3% (3/21) and 14.3% (3/21) of KTRs were positive for the Ancestral strain and Delta and Omicron spike-specific T cells, which were significantly lower than HVs (Ancestral: 80.8%, Delta: 53.8%, and Omicron: 57.7%). Conclusions: A third dose of inactivated booster vaccine may significantly increase humoral immunity against the Ancestral strain in KTRs, while humoral and cellular immunity against the Delta and Omicron variants were still poor in KTRs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunization, Secondary , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology
6.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2208113

ABSTRACT

Background A third mRNA vaccine booster is recommended to improve immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). However, the immunity against SARS-CoV-2 Ancestral strain and Delta and Omicron variants elicited by the third dose of inactivated booster vaccine in KTRs remains unknown. Methods The blood parameters related to blood cells count, hepatic function, kidney function, heart injury and immunity were explored clinically from laboratory examinations. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody IgG titer was detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cellular immunity was analyzed using interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Results The results showed that there were no severe adverse effects and apparent changes of clinical laboratory biomarkers in KTRs and healthy volunteers (HVs) after homologous inactivated vaccine booster. A third dose of inactivated vaccine booster significantly increased anti-Ancestral-spike-trimer-IgG and anti-Ancestral-receptor binding domain (RBD)-IgG titers in KTRs and HVs compared with the second vaccination. However, the anti-Delta-RBD-IgG and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG titers were significantly lower than anti-Ancestral-RBD-IgG titer in KTRs and HVs after the third dose. Notably, only 25.6% (10/39) and 10.3% (4/39) of KTRs had seropositivity for anti-Delta-RBD-IgG and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG after booster, which were significantly lower than HVs (anti-Delta-RBD-IgG: 100%, anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG: 77.8%). Ancestral strain nucleocapsid protein and spike specific T cell frequency after booster was not significantly increased in KTRs compared with the second dose, significantly lower than that in HVs. Moreover, 33.3% (12/36), 14.3% (3/21) and 14.3% (3/21) of KTRs were positive for the Ancestral strain and Delta and Omicron spike-specific T cells, which were significantly lower than HVs (Ancestral: 80.8%, Delta: 53.8%, and Omicron: 57.7%). Conclusions A third dose of inactivated booster vaccine may significantly increase humoral immunity against the Ancestral strain in KTRs, while humoral and cellular immunity against the Delta and Omicron variants were still poor in KTRs.

7.
Virol Sin ; 38(2): 233-243, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165946

ABSTRACT

Homologous booster, heterologous booster, and Omicron variants breakthrough infection (OBI) could improve the humoral immunity against Omicron variants. Questions concerning about memory B cells (MBCs) and T cells immunity against Omicron variants, features of long-term immunity, after booster and OBI, needs to be explored. Here, comparative analysis demonstrate antibody and T cell immunity against ancestral strain, Delta and Omicron variants in Omicron breakthrough infected patients (OBIPs) are comparable to that in Ad5-nCoV boosted healthy volunteers (HVs), higher than that in inactivated vaccine (InV) boosted HVs. However, memory B cells (MBCs) immunity against Omicron variants was highest in OBIPs, followed by Ad5-nCoV boosted and InV boosted HVs. OBIPs and Ad5-nCoV boosted HVs have higher classical MBCs and activated MBCs, and lower naïve MBCs and atypical MBCs relative to both vaccine boosted HVs. Collectively, these data indicate Omicron breakthrough infection elicit higher MBCs and T cells against SARS-CoV-2 especially Omicron variants relative to homologous InV booster and heterologous Ad5-nCoV booster.


Subject(s)
Breakthrough Infections , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
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