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J Epidemiol ; 31(11): 573-580, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477690


BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease is suspected to be triggered by previous infection. The prevention measures for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have reportedly reduced transmission of certain infectious diseases. Under these circumstances, the prevention measures for COVID-19 may reduce the incidence of Kawasaki disease. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using registration datasets of patients with Kawasaki disease who were diagnosed in all 11 inpatient pediatric facilities in Yamanashi Prefecture. The eligible cases were 595 cases that were diagnosed before the COVID-19 pandemic (from January 2015 through February 2020) and 38 cases that were diagnosed during the COVID-19 pandemic (from March through November 2020). Incidence of several infectious disease were evaluated using data from the Infectious Disease Weekly Report conducted by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases. RESULTS: Epidemics of various infectious diseases generally remained at low levels during the first 9 months (March through November 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, the incidence of COVID-19 was 50-80 times lower than the incidence in European countries and the United States. The total number of 38 cases with Kawasaki disease for the 9 months during the COVID-19 pandemic was 46.3% (-3.5 standard deviations [SDs] of the average [82.0; SD, 12.7 cases] for the corresponding 9 months of the previous 5 years. None of the 38 cases was determined to be triggered by COVID-19 based on their medical histories and negative results of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 testing at admission. CONCLUSION: These observations provide a new epidemiological evidence for the notion that Kawasaki disease is triggered by major infectious diseases in children.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(3): 236-239, 2021 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241340


The 2019 novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a global outbreak of infection. In general, children with coronavirus disease-2019 have been reported to show milder respiratory symptoms than adult patients. Here, we have described a case of a SARS-CoV-2-infected infant who presented to our hospital with a severe episode of an apparent life-threatening event (ALTE). An 8-month-old, otherwise healthy female infant presented to our hospital because of a sudden cardiopulmonary arrest. Approximately 1 h before this episode, the patient showed no symptoms, except a worse humor than usual. On arrival at our hospital, the patient had severe acidosis, but there were no clear signs of inflammatory response. Chest computed tomography showed weak consolidations in the upper right lung and atelectasis in the lower left lung. No signs of congenital heart disease or cardiomyopathy were observed on echocardiography, and no significant arrhythmia was observed during the clinical course. However, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in tracheal aspirate and urine samples. Although the assessment of further similar cases is indispensable, this case suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection may be an underlying factor in the pathophysiology of ALTE.

Brief, Resolved, Unexplained Event/etiology , COVID-19/etiology , Brief, Resolved, Unexplained Event/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart Arrest/etiology , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Infant , Tomography, X-Ray Computed