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EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334417


We sought to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 was present, and to perform full-length genomic sequencing, in a 5-year-old male crossbreed dog that presented with flu-like symptoms (including a dry hacking cough and mild dyspnea) and resided in a household with 3 adults that were diagnosed with SARS CoV-2 infection. Next generation sequencing based on MinION technology was performed on amplicons that were generated using a reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) of confirmed positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal and buccal swabs, as well as a bronchoalveolar lavage with mean qCt value of 36 based on the Nucleocapsid gene. Descriptive comparisons to known sequences in Botswana and internationally were made using mutation profiling analysis and phylogenetic inferences based on maximum likelihood. Samples from the dog’s owners were not available. A near-full length SARS-CoV-2 genome (~90% coverage) was successfully genotyped and classified under clade 20 O and Pango-Lineage AY.43 (Pango v.4.0.6 PLEARN-v1.3;2022-04-21), which is a sub-lineage of the Delta variant of concern (VOC) (formerly called B.1.617.2, first detected in India). We did not identify novel mutations that may be used to distinguish SARS-CoV-2 isolates from the dog and humans. In addition to S region mutation profiling, we performed phylogenetic analysis using Delta sequences from Botswana (n=1303);expectedly, the sequence isolated from the dog was closely related to the Delta sequences, particularly the AY.43, AY.116, and B.1.617.2 sub-lineages that were reported in Botswana within the same time frame. This is the first documented report of human-associated SARS-CoV-2 infection in a dog in Botswana. Although the direction of transmission remains unknown, this study further affirms the need for monitoring pets during different COVID-19 waves for possible clinically relevant SARS-CoV-2 transmissions between species.

Nature ; 603(7902): 679-686, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638766


The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in southern Africa has been characterized by three distinct waves. The first was associated with a mix of SARS-CoV-2 lineages, while the second and third waves were driven by the Beta (B.1.351) and Delta (B.1.617.2) variants, respectively1-3. In November 2021, genomic surveillance teams in South Africa and Botswana detected a new SARS-CoV-2 variant associated with a rapid resurgence of infections in Gauteng province, South Africa. Within three days of the first genome being uploaded, it was designated a variant of concern (Omicron, B.1.1.529) by the World Health Organization and, within three weeks, had been identified in 87 countries. The Omicron variant is exceptional for carrying over 30 mutations in the spike glycoprotein, which are predicted to influence antibody neutralization and spike function4. Here we describe the genomic profile and early transmission dynamics of Omicron, highlighting the rapid spread in regions with high levels of population immunity.

COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Botswana/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Phylogeny , Recombination, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , South Africa/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology