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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(5)2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875702

ABSTRACT

Measles is an RNA virus infectious disease mainly seen in children. Despite the availability of an effective vaccine against measles, it remains a health issue in children. Although it is a self-limiting disease, it becomes severe in undernourished and immune-compromised individuals. Measles infection is associated with secondary infections by opportunistic bacteria due to the immunosuppressive effects of the measles virus. Recent reports highlight that measles infection erases the already existing immune memory of various pathogens. This review covers the incidence, pathogenesis, measles variants, clinical presentations, secondary infections, elimination of measles virus on a global scale, and especially the immune responses related to measles infection.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Measles , Child , Humans , Incidence , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control
2.
Infection ; 50(3): 583-596, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872771

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 vaccines have been developed to compact the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and have been administered to people all over the world. These vaccines have been quite effective in reducing the possibility of severe illness, hospitalization and death. However, the recent emergence of Variants of Concern specifically the delta variant, B.1.617.2, had resulted in additional waves of the pandemic. METHODS: We aim to review the literature to understand the transmission and disease severity, and determine the efficacy of the current COVID-19 vaccines. We searched Pubmed, Scopus, and Embase till August 4th 2021, and used the search terms "delta variant", "vaccinations"," breakthrough infections", and "neutralizing antibody". For the meta-analysis, 21 studies were screened in particular and five articles (148,071 cases) were included in the study, and only four were analyzed in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: In this review, both in vitro and in vivo studies showed significant reductions in neutralization rates against delta variants for vaccinated individuals and convalescent patients with prior history of COVID-19. However, There was a lower incidence of infection with SARS-CoV-2 due to Delta variant was found after the second dose of Pfizer-BioNTech, Oxford-AstraZeneca and Moderna vaccines. CONCLUSION: In fully vaccinated individuals, symptomatic infection with the delta variant was significantly reduced, and therefore, vaccinations play an important role to assist the fight against delta variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccine Efficacy
3.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24133, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847677

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is claiming millions of lives and creating an additional burden on health care, which is already affected by the rise of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The scientific community, on the other side, is enormously engaged with studies to best identify the characteristics of the virus and minimize its effect while supporting the fight to contain NCDs, mainly cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which are contributing hugely to the global death toll. Hence, the roles of vitamin D in COVID-19 immunity and cardiovascular health are gaining traction recently.  This literature review will mainly focus on summarizing pertinent studies and scientific publications which highlight the association of vitamin D levels with the various outcomes of COVID-19 and CVDs. It will also address how low vitamin D correlates with the epidemiology of CVDs and the inflammatory mechanisms attributed to COVID-19 severity. We believe that our review may open up hindsight perspectives and further discussions among the physicians in tapping the potential of vitamin D supplementation to tackle the morbidity, mortality, and health care cost of the two deadly diseases, COVID-19 and CVDs.

4.
Infez Med ; 30(1): 51-58, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772289

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has markedly affected the health care of patients in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), but no systematic study to corroborate this effect has been undertaken. In addition, the survival outcomes of patients with COVID-19 who received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) have not been well established. We pooled evidence from all available studies and did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess and compare mortality outcomes between LMICs and high-income countries (HICs). We searched MEDLINE and the University of Michigan Library according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines from December 1, 2019, to July 15, 2021, for case-control studies, cohort studies, and brief reports that discussed mortality ratios and survival outcomes among patients with SARS-CoV-2 who received IMV. We excluded studies and case reports without comparison groups, narrative reviews, and preprints. A random-effects estimate of the arcsine square root transformation (PAS) of each outcome was generated with the DerSimonian-Laird method. Seven eligible studies, consisting of 243,835 patients with COVID-19, were included. We identified a significantly higher mortality rate (i.e., a larger PAS) among the patients receiving IMV in LMICs (PAS, 0.754; 95% CI, 0.569-0.900; P<.001) compared to patients in HICs (PAS, 0.588; 95% CI, 0.263-0.876; P<.001). Considerable heterogeneity was present within the individual subgroups possibly because of the extent of the included studies, which had data from specific countries and states but not from individual hospitals or health care centers. Moreover, the sample population in each study was diverse. Meta-regression showed that a higher mortality rate among patients with COVID-19 who received IMV in both HICs (P<.001) and LMICs (P=.04) was associated with chronic pulmonary disease. Our study suggests that chronic pulmonary diseases and poor demographics lead to a worse prognosis among patients with COVID-19 who received IMV. Moreover, the survival outcome is worse in LMICs, where health care systems are usually understaffed and poorly financed.

5.
Infez Med ; 30(1): 1-10, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772284

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to unanticipated pressures on all aspects of human life. Multiple approaches to eliciting protective immunity must be rapidly evaluated. Numerous efforts have been made to develop an effective vaccine for this novel coronavirus, resulting in a race for vaccine development. To combat COVID-19, all nations must focus their efforts on widespread vaccination with an effective and safe vaccine. Globally, concerns about potential long-term adverse effects of vaccines have led to some apprehension about vaccine use. A vaccine's adverse effect has an integral role in the public's confidence and vaccine uptake. This article reviews the current primary literature regarding adverse effects associated with different COVID-19 vaccines in use worldwide.

6.
Cureus ; 14(2): e21998, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716121

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic brought about an unprecedented time. Multiple systemic complications have been recognized with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as it can do much more than affect the respiratory system. One of the intriguing neurological complications is Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). We reviewed three cases in which patients presented with GBS following COVID-19 infection. All three cases had positive lumbar puncture results with albumino-cytological dissociation. Each patient was treated with plasmapheresis and improved clinically. Although an exact causal relationship between COVID-19 and GBS cannot be drawn from this case series alone, it signifies the importance of this complication. It warrants further studies to establish the causal relationship. One should have a high suspicion for acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) in patients presenting with acute onset of ascending weakness following COVID-19 infection.

8.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:65-65, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1592804

ABSTRACT

B Introduction/Hypothesis: b As of July 2021, more than 4,000,000 deaths have been attributed to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide. B Conclusions: b Cutaneous manifestation in patients with COVID-19 are rarely reported but the clinical course is little understood. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

9.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:89-89, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1590881

ABSTRACT

Sino-nasal mucormycosis was predominant and affected 24 (61%) patients, 7 (18%) patients had rhino-cerebral Mucormycosis, and 5 (13%) patient had additional peripheral nervous system involvement. B Objective: b Mucormycosis is not a new diagnosis but it has high incidence among COVID-19 patients in India during second wave of pandemic. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

10.
Infez Med ; 29(4): 495-503, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579089

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To date, only corticosteroids and interleukin-6 (IL-6) inhibitors have been shown to reduce mortality of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. In this literature review, we aimed to summarize infection risk of IL inhibitors, with or without the use of corticosteroids, used to treat hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the following evidence-based medicine reviews: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Embase; Ovid Medline; and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process, In-Data-Review & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Daily and Versions 1946 to April 28, 2021. All relevant articles were identified using the search terms COVID-19 or SARS-coronavirus-2, infections, interleukins, inpatients, adults, and i ncidence. RESULTS: We identified 36 studies of which 2 were meta-analyses, 5 were randomized controlled trials, 9 were prospective studies, and 20 were retrospective studies. When anakinra was compared with control, 2 studies reported an increased risk of infection, and 3 studies reported a similar or decreased incidence of infection. Canakinumab had a lower associated incidence of infection compared with placebo in one study. When sarilumab was compared with placebo, one study reported an increased risk of infection. Nine studies comparing tocilizumab with placebo reported decreased or no difference in infection risk (odds ratio [OR] for the studies ranged from 0.39-1.21). Fourteen studies comparing tocilizumab with placebo reported an increased risk of infection, ranging from 9.1% to 63.0% (OR for the studies ranged from 1.85-5.04). Infection most commonly presented as bacteremia. Of the 6 studies comparing tocilizumab and corticosteroid use with placebo, 4 reported a nonsignificant increase toward corticosteroids being associated with bacterial infections (OR ranged from 2.76-3.8), and 2 studies reported no increased association with a higher infection risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our literature review showed mixed results with variable significance for the association of IL-6 inhibitors with risk of infections in patients with COVID-19.

11.
Cureus ; 13(9): e18317, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497842

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 novel coronavirus has created a global pandemic. Affected patients may develop acute lung injury and its more severe form - acute respiratory distress syndrome. Hypoxia and severe inflammation increase the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which induces vascular endothelial proliferation. Administration of the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab is proposed for usage in moderate to severe pneumonia. We aim to present two cases of COVID-19 induced atypical pneumonia, which were treated with the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab.

12.
Infez Med ; 29(3): 339-344, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469049

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic affected the lives of many with its devastating mortality and morbidity. Acquisition of herd immunity is one way to mitigate the spread of infection. Many factors influence the acceptance of vaccination including the regulatory process of the vaccines. This review article will briefly summarize the Emergency Use Authorization, Full FDA Approval process and highlight how the key factors affecting the vaccination hesitancy, are being influenced by the lack of Full FDA Approval.

13.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270018

ABSTRACT

Real-time RT-PCR is considered the gold standard confirmatory test for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, many scientists disagree, and it is essential to understand that several factors and variables can cause a false-negative test. In this context, cycle threshold (Ct) values are being utilized to diagnose or predict SARS-CoV-2 infection. This practice has a significant clinical utility as Ct values can be correlated with the viral load. In addition, Ct values have a strong correlation with multiple haematological and biochemical markers. However, it is essential to consider that Ct values might be affected by pre-analytic, analytic, and post-analytical variables such as collection technique, specimen type, sampling time, viral kinetics, transport and storage conditions, nucleic acid extraction, viral RNA load, primer designing, real-time PCR efficiency, and Ct value determination method. Therefore, understanding the interpretation of Ct values and other influential factors could play a crucial role in interpreting viral load and disease severity. In several clinical studies consisting of small or large sample sizes, several discrepancies exist regarding a significant positive correlation between the Ct value and disease severity in COVID-19. In this context, a revised review of the literature has been conducted to fill the knowledge gaps regarding the correlations between Ct values and severity/fatality rates of patients with COVID-19. Various databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched up to April 2021 by using keywords including "RT-PCR or viral load", "SARS-CoV-2 and RT-PCR", "Ct value and viral load", "Ct value or COVID-19". Research articles were extracted and selected independently by the authors and included in the present review based on their relevance to the study. The current narrative review explores the correlation of Ct values with mortality, disease progression, severity, and infectivity. We also discuss the factors that can affect these values, such as collection technique, type of swab, sampling method, etc.

14.
Cureus ; 13(2): e13541, 2021 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170566

ABSTRACT

The use of electronic cigarettes among the young adult and adolescent population has increased over the past decade. Vaping is the process of inhaling an aerosol that is produced by heating a liquid or wax containing substances, such as nicotine, cannabinoids (e.g., tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol), flavoring, and additives (e.g., glycerol, propylene glycol) using an e-cigarette. A multistate epidemic associated with vaping prompted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to issue an official health advisory on e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). EVALI is a diagnosis of exclusion with no specific diagnostic test. We present a case of EVALI before the COVID-19 pandemic time in a 23-year-old immunocompetent male student with an eight-year history of vaping. He presented to the emergency department with fever, shortness of breath, tachypnea, nausea, and diarrhea. The patient had no past medical history. The patient denied illicit drug abuse or known drug allergies. The patient was admitted with a diagnosis of sepsis and pneumonia. The patient's urine drug screen was positive for cannabinoids with a history of vaping. Community-acquired pneumonia due to Legionella, Pneumococcal, Mycoplasma bacteria was ruled out. Influenza A/B, Parainfluenza, Rhino, and Adenoviruses were negative. A computed tomographyscan of the chest showed bilateral infiltrates. He was treated with high dose steroids, empiric antibiotics, high flow oxygen and managed in ICU for seven days. The patient was discharged on tapering doses of steroid and counseled to quit vaping. EVALI outbreak is strongly linked to vitamin E acetate in vaping products. EVALI is a diagnosis of exclusion with a history of vaping and responds well to steroids.

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