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1.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 839090, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753365

ABSTRACT

Background: Myocarditis has been reported following the first two doses of Pfizer-BNT162b2 messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccination. Administration of a third dose (booster) of the vaccine was initiated recently in Israel. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients referred for cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging with myocarditis following the booster. Methods: Patients referred for CMR imaging with a clinical diagnosis of myocarditis within 21 days following the booster, between July 13 and November 11, 2021, were analyzed. Results: Overall, 4 patients were included, 3/4 (75%) were men, and the mean age was 27 ± 10 years. The time from booster administration to the onset of symptoms was 5.75 ± 4.8 days (range 2-14). Obstructive coronary artery disease was excluded in 3 of the patients (75%). CMR was performed 34 ± 15 days (range 8-47 days) following the 3rd vaccination. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 61 ± 7% (range 53-71%), and regional wall motion abnormalities were present in one of the patients. Global T1 was increased in one of the patients, while focal T1 values were increased in 3 of the patients. Global T2 was increased in one of the patients, while focal T2 values were increased in all the patients. Global ECV was increased in 3 of the patients, while focal ECV was increased in all the patients. Median late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was 4 ± 3% (range 1-9%), with the inferolateral segment as the most common location (3 of the 4 patients). All the patients met the Updated Lake Louise Criteria. Conclusions: Patient characteristics and CMR imaging findings of myocarditis following the administration of the booster vaccine are relatively mild and consistent with those observed with the first two doses. Although larger-scale prospective studies are necessary, these initial findings are somewhat reassuring.

3.
Open Heart ; 9(1)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736094

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis and pericarditis are inflammatory conditions of the heart that present a range of symptoms, often including chest pain, fatigue, breathlessness and palpitations that may be irregular due to cardiac rhythm disturbances. Myocarditis has been proposed to account for a fraction of cardiac injury among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and associated systemic inflammation; and it might be one of the reasons for the high mortality seen in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, following vaccination with mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (ie, Comirnaty and Spikevax), myocarditis and pericarditis can develop within a few days of vaccination, particularly following the second dose. Based on recent reviewed data, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) have determined that the risk for both of these conditions is overall 'very rare' (~1 in 10 000 vaccinated people may be clinically affected), with the highest risk among younger males. Both EMA and FDA agree that the benefits of all authorised COVID-19 vaccines continue to outweigh their risks, given the threat of serious COVID-19 illness and related complications. Since myocarditis has a very wide clinical spectrum, ranging from mild to fulminant life-threatening disease, we present in this review a sum of the latest findings and considerations for the proper diagnosis and management of affected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730672

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The immunogenicity of two-dose severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine is lower among heart transplant (HTx) recipients, compared with the general population. Our aim was to assess the immunogenicity of a third-dose vaccine in HTx recipients. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of HTx recipients who received a third dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Immunogenicity was assessed by serum levels of anti-spike immunoglobulin G (S-IgG), taken at baseline and 14-28 days after the third dose. Titres above 50 U/ml were interpreted positive. RESULTS: We Included 42 HTx recipients at a median age of 65 years [interquartile range (IQR) 58-70]. At baseline, the median of 27 days (IQR 13-42) before the third dose and the median titre of the whole group was 18 U/ml (IQR 4-130). Only 14 patients (33%) were S-IgG seropositive. After the third dose, the proportion of seropositive patients increased significantly to 57% (P = 0.05) and the median titre increased significantly to 633 U/ml (IQR 7-6104, P < 0.0001). Younger age at HTx (OR per 1-year decrease 1.07, P = 0.05), low tacrolimus serum level (OR per 1-unit decrease 2.28, P = 0.02), mammalian target of rapamycin use (OR 13.3, P = 0.003), lack of oral steroids use (OR 4.17, P = 0.04) and lack of calcineurin inhibitor use (71% of responders vs 100% non-responders received calcineurin inhibitors, P = 0.01) were predictors of seropositive result after the third dose. However, no significant association was detected following adjustment for baseline S-IgG titre. CONCLUSIONS: Third-dose booster of BNT162b2 vaccine significantly increased immunogenicity among HTx recipients who previously received a two-dose vaccine.

5.
ESC Heart Fail ; 9(2): 905-911, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605522

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To assess the 6 months immunogenicity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA vaccine in a population of heart transplanted (HTx) recipients and left ventricular assist device (LVAD)-supported patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A prospective single-centre cohort study of HTx recipients and LVAD-supported patients who received a two-dose SARSCoV-2 mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2, Pfizer-BioNTech). Whole blood for anti-spike IgG (S-IgG) antibodies were drawn at 6 months after the first vaccine dose. S-IgG data at 6 weeks were available for a subgroup of HTx recipients. S-IgG ≥ 50 AU/mL were interpreted positive. The cohort included 53 HTx recipients and 18 LVAD-supported patients. The median time from HTx or LVAD implantation to the 1st vaccine dose was 90 (IQR 30, 172) months and 22 (IQR 6, 78) months, respectively. The seropositivity rates of S-IgG antibodies and their titre levels in HTx recipients and LVAD-supported patients were 45% and 83% respectively, (P = 0.006), and 35 (IQR 7, 306) AU/mL and 311 (IQR 86, 774) AU/mL, respectively, (P = 0.006). Reduced SARSCoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity in HTx recipients was associated with older age [odds ratio (OR) 0.917 confidence interval (CI 0.871, 0.966), P = 0.011] and with the use of anti-metabolites-based immunosuppressive regimens [OR 0.224 (CI 0.065, 0.777), P = 0.018]. mTOR inhibitors were associated with higher immunogenicity [OR 3.1 (CI 1.01, 9.65), P = 0.048]. Out of 13 HTx recipients who were S-IgG seropositive at 6 weeks after the first vaccine dose, 85% remained S-IgG seropositive at 6 month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: At 6 months post-vaccination, S-IgG immunogenicity in HTx recipients is low, particularly in older HTx recipients and in those treated with anti-metabolites drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart-Assist Devices , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
6.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 98(7): 1262-1263, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540067
7.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504777

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To describe the cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging findings of patients who developed myocarditis following messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study retrospectively evaluated patients with clinically adjudicated myocarditis within 42 days of the first Pfizer-BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination, between 20 December 2020 and 24 May 2021 who underwent CMR. A total of 15 out 54 patients (28%) with myocarditis underwent a CMR and were included, 100% males, median age of 32 years (interquartile range = 22.5-40). Most patients presented with chest pain (87%) and had an abnormal electrocardiogram (79%). The severity of the disease was mild in 67% and intermediate in 33%. All patients survived and one patient was readmitted during the study period. CMR was performed at a median of 65 days (range 3-130 days) following diagnosis. Median ejection fraction was 58% (range 51-74%) global- and regional wall motion abnormalities were present in one and three patients, respectively. Native T1 was available in 13/15 patients (2/3 in 3 T and 11/12 in the 1.5 T), with increased values among 6/13. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was found among 13/15 patients with a median of 2% (range 0-15%) with inferolateral wall being the most common location (8/13). The patterns of the LGE were: mid-wall in six patients; epicardial in five patients; and mid-wall and epicardial in two patients. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients who were diagnosed with post-vaccination clinical myocarditis, CMR imaging findings are mild and consistent with 'classical myocarditis'. The short-term clinical course and outcomes were favourable.

9.
N Engl J Med ; 385(23): 2132-2139, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reports have suggested an association between the development of myocarditis and the receipt of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), but the frequency and severity of myocarditis after vaccination have not been extensively explored. METHODS: We searched the database of Clalit Health Services, the largest health care organization (HCO) in Israel, for diagnoses of myocarditis in patients who had received at least one dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech). The diagnosis of myocarditis was adjudicated by cardiologists using the case definition used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We abstracted the presentation, clinical course, and outcome from the patient's electronic health record. We performed a Kaplan-Meier analysis of the incidence of myocarditis up to 42 days after the first vaccine dose. RESULTS: Among more than 2.5 million vaccinated HCO members who were 16 years of age or older, 54 cases met the criteria for myocarditis. The estimated incidence per 100,000 persons who had received at least one dose of vaccine was 2.13 cases (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56 to 2.70). The highest incidence of myocarditis (10.69 cases per 100,000 persons; 95% CI, 6.93 to 14.46) was reported in male patients between the ages of 16 and 29 years. A total of 76% of cases of myocarditis were described as mild and 22% as intermediate; 1 case was associated with cardiogenic shock. After a median follow-up of 83 days after the onset of myocarditis, 1 patient had been readmitted to the hospital, and 1 had died of an unknown cause after discharge. Of 14 patients who had left ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography during admission, 10 still had such dysfunction at the time of hospital discharge. Of these patients, 5 underwent subsequent testing that revealed normal heart function. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients in a large Israeli health care system who had received at least one dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, the estimated incidence of myocarditis was 2.13 cases per 100,000 persons; the highest incidence was among male patients between the ages of 16 and 29 years. Most cases of myocarditis were mild or moderate in severity. (Funded by the Ivan and Francesca Berkowitz Family Living Laboratory Collaboration at Harvard Medical School and Clalit Research Institute.).


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care , Echocardiography , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Israel/epidemiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Young Adult
10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(9): 1555-1559, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230199

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To assess the short-term immunogenicity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA vaccine in a population of heart transplant (HTx) recipients. A prospective single-centre cohort study of HTx recipients who received a two-dose SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2, Pfizer-BioNTech). METHODS AND RESULTS: Whole blood for anti-spike IgG (S-IgG) antibodies was drawn at days 21-26 and at days 35-40 after the first vaccine dose. Geometric mean titres (GMT) ≥50 AU/mL were interpreted positive. Included were 42 HTx recipients at a median age of 61 [interquartile range (IQR) 44-69] years. Median time from HTx to the first vaccine dose was 9.1 (IQR 2.6-14) years. Only 15% of HTx recipients demonstrated the presence of positive S-IgG antibody titres in response to the first vaccine dose [GMT 90 (IQR 54-229) AU/mL]. Overall, 49% of HTx recipients induced S-IgG antibodies in response to either the first or the full two-dose vaccine schedule [GMT 426 (IQR 106-884) AU/mL]. Older age [68 (IQR 59-70) years vs. 46 (IQR 34-63) years, P = 0.034] and anti-metabolite-based immunosuppression protocols (89% vs. 44%, P = 0.011) were associated with low immunogenicity. Importantly, 36% of HTx recipients who were non-responders to the first vaccine dose became S-IgG seropositive in response to the second vaccine dose. Approximately a half of HTx recipients did not generate S-IgG antibodies following SARS-CoV-2 two-dose vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The generally achieved protection from SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination should be regarded with caution in the population of HTx recipients. The possible benefit of additive vaccine should be further studied.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Heart Transplantation , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 90, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetic and obese patients are at higher risk of severe disease and cardiac injury in corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 is mainly via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, which is highly expressed in normal hearts. There is a disagreement regarding the effect of factors such as obesity and diabetes on ACE2 expression in the human heart and whether treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors or anti-diabetic medications increases ACE2 expression and subsequently the susceptibility to infection. We designed this study to elucidate factors that control ACE2 expression in human serum, human heart biopsies, and mice. METHODS: Right atrial appendage biopsies were collected from 79 patients that underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We investigated the alteration in ACE2 mRNA and protein expression in heart tissue and serum. ACE2 expression was compared with clinical risk factors: diabetes, obesity and different anti-hypertensive or anti-diabetic therapies. WT or db/db mice were infused with Angiotensin II (ATII), treated with different anti-diabetic drugs (Metformin, GLP1A and SGLT2i) were also tested. RESULTS: ACE2 gene expression was increased in diabetic hearts compared to non-diabetic hearts and was positively correlated with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body mass index (BMI), and activation of the renin angiotensin system (RAS), and negatively correlated with ejection fraction. ACE2 was not differentially expressed in patients who were on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) prior to the operation. We found no correlation between plasma free ACE2 and cardiac tissue ACE2 expression. Transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), metalloprotease ADAM10 and ADAM17 that facilitate viral-ACE2 complex entry and degradation were increased in diabetic hearts. ACE2 expression in mice was increased with ATII infusion and attenuated following anti-diabetic drugs treatment. CONCLUSION: Patients with uncontrolled diabetes or obesity with RAS activation have higher ACE2 expressions therefore are at higher risk for severe infection. Since ACEi or ARBs show no effect on ACE2 expression in the heart further support their safety.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/enzymology , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/enzymology , Myocardium/enzymology , Obesity/enzymology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/enzymology , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/physiopathology , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Up-Regulation
14.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-784243

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many patients refrained from inpatient medical care. For those inflicted with heart failure (HF), the risk of repeat hospitalizations is particularly high in case of infection. This presents an important opportunity for remote monitoring of haemodynamic data for these patients, in order to detect and treat accordingly. The aim of the present case is to report of the first measurements of a novel wireless left atrial pressure (LAP) monitoring system, the V-LAP™ (Vectorious Medical Technologies, Ltd), during the COVID-19 pandemic. The V-LAP™ Left Atrium Monitoring systEm for Patients With Chronic sysTOlic & Diastolic Congestive heart Failure (VECTOR-HF) is a first-in-man clinical study assessing the safety and feasibility of the V-LAP™ monitoring system. Our first patient, a 59-year-old man with severe ischaemic cardiomyopathy (left ventricular ejection fraction -30%) was enrolled prior to the COVID-19 outbreak. As per protocol, both the patient and the medical team were blinded to the results in the first 3 months after implantation. We were able to witness the LAP during the pandemic, as the patient remained undertreated, demonstrating a gradual increase from a mean pressure of 6.56 to 19.4 mmHg, as well as prominent V waves, before the data became available to the medical team and the patient was treated accordingly. Thereafter, pressures have returned to low values. This case demonstrated the feasibility of remote monitoring of LAP using the V-LAP™ system, as well as the potential benefit of remote care of HF patients.

15.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(16): 1949-1950, 2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306087

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) period have dictated a different approach to cardiac interventions at our medical institution. We prioritize emergent care geared toward lesser invasive approaches while minimizing hospitalization duration. This reflects upon coronary and structural/valvular cases altogether. Despite potential criticism of this approach, we believe it is the most appropriate therapeutic strategy for this unique period. Further investigation is needed to examine the external validity of our approach in other medical centers worldwide.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/standards , Cardiovascular Diseases/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Disease Management , Guideline Adherence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Acta Haematol ; 143(5): 417-424, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245353

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is responsible for the ongoing 2019-2020 pandemic. Venous thromboembolism (VTE), a frequent cardiovascular and/or respiratory complication among hospitalized patients, is one of the known sequelae of the illness. Hospitalized COVID-19 patients are often elderly, immobile, and show signs of coagulopathy. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume a high incidence of VTE among these patients. Presently, the incidence of VTE is estimated at around 25% of patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit for COVID-19 even under anticoagulant treatment at prophylactic doses. In this review, we discuss present knowledge of the topic, the unique challenges of diagnosis and treatment of VTE, as well as some of the potential mechanisms of increased risk for VTE during the illness. Understanding the true impact of VTE on patients with COVID-19 will potentially improve our ability to reach a timely diagnosis and initiate proper treatment, mitigating the risk for this susceptible population during a complicated disease.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Acute Disease , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Troponin/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
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