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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704765

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers (HCWs) are on the frontline, struggling with the pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To describe recent or past infections, the serological assays enabled the assessment of the immune response developed in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the period when testing was hardly available. In this study, we investigated SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in HCWs in a Polish teaching hospital and the Regional Occupational Medicine Center after both the first and the second waves. ELISA-based tests for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG were used to determine immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in volunteer HCWs who worked in those institutions in May 2020 (208 participants aged 47.1 ± 12.5, 88% women) and in December 2020 (179 participants aged 45.2 ± 12.4, 86% woman). Risk factors for seropositivity were also assessed using a questionnaire filled out by all participants. We reported a significant increase in seroprevalence after the second wave (22.9%) compared with the first outbreak (2.4%) (OR 12.1; 95%CI 4.6-31.3; p < 0.0001). An association between IgG seroprevalence and severity of infections was noted. Furthermore, we demonstrated that amongst medical personnel, nurses exhibited a proportionally higher SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence. Moreover, given the high seroprevalence in non-clinical group of HCWs, we suggest that community transmission can play a superior role to workplace exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320853

ABSTRACT

Sample pooling strategy was intended to determine the optimal parameters for group testing of pooled specimens for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 and process them without significant loss of test usability. Standard molecular diagnostic laboratory equipment and commercially available centrifugal filters, RNA isolation kits and SARS Cov2 PCR tests were used. The basic idea was to combine and concentrate several samples to the maximal volume, which can be extracted with the single extraction column. Out of 16 tested pools 12 were positive with cycle threshold (Ct) values within 0.5 and 3.01 Ct of the original individual specimens. The analysis of 112 specimens determined that 12 pools were positive followed by identification of 6 positive individual specimens among the 112 tested. This testing was accomplished with the use of 16 extractions/PCR tests, resulting in saving of 96 reactions but adding the 40 centrifugal filters. The present study demonstrated that pool testing can detect a single positive sample with Ct value as high as 34. According to the standard protocols, reagents and equipment, this pooling method can be applied easily in current clinical testing laboratories.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526843

ABSTRACT

There is limited data on the effect of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) on pediatric rheumatology. We examined the prevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and a negative history of COVID-19 and the correlation of the presence of these antibodies with disease activity measured by juvenile arthritis disease activity score (JADAS). In total, 62 patients diagnosed with JIA, under treatment with various antirheumatic drugs, and 32 healthy children (control group) were included. Serum samples were analyzed for inflammatory markers and antibodies and their state evaluated with the juvenile arthritis disease activity score (JADAS). JIA patients do not have a higher seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies than healthy subjects. We found anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in JIA patients who did not have a history of COVID-19. The study showed no unequivocal correlation between the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and JIA activity; therefore, this relationship requires further observation. We also identified a possible link between patients' humoral immune response and disease-modifying antirheumatic treatment, which will be confirmed in follow-up studies.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288908

ABSTRACT

The continually evolving severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted in a vast number of either acute or chronic medical impairments of a pathophysiology that is not yet fully understood. SARS-CoV-2 tropism for the organs is associated with bilateral organ cross-talks as well as targeted dysfunctions, among which acute kidney injury (AKI) seems to be highly prevalent in infected patients. The need for efficient management of COVID-related AKI patients is an aspect that is still being investigated by nephrologists; however, another reason for concern is a disturbingly high proportion of various types of kidney dysfunctions in patients who have recovered from COVID-19. Even though the clinical picture of AKI and COVID-related AKI seems to be quite similar, it must be considered that regarding the latter, little is known about both the optimal management and long-term consequences. These discrepancies raise an urgent need for further research aimed at evaluating the molecular mechanisms associated with SARS-CoV-2-induced kidney damage as well as standardized management of COVID-related AKI patients. The following review presents a comprehensive and most-recent insight into the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, recommended patient management, treatment strategies, and post-mortem findings in patients with COVID-related AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(6)2021 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143496

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 responsible for the current human COVID-19 pandemic has shown tropism toward different organs with variable efficiency, eyes included. The purpose of this study has been to investigate the presence of detectable SARS-CoV-2 infection in ocular swabs in patients affected by COVID-19. A consecutive series of 74 COVID-19-positive patients (age 21-89) were enrolled at two Polish COVID-19 hospitals for 4 months and were characterized by PCR for the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 genetic material in nasopharyngeal (NP) and ocular swabs, while their respiratory and ocular symptoms were noted. Almost 50% of them presented with severe/critical respiratory involvement, and some degree of eye disease. No tight correlation was observed between the presence of ocular and respiratory symptoms. Three male patients presenting with severe/critical lung disease tested positive in ocular swab, however with mild/moderate ocular symptoms. In conclusion, our study lends further support to the view that overt ocular infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is not such a frequent occurrence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Poland , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3122, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065961

ABSTRACT

Sample pooling strategy was intended to determine the optimal parameters for group testing of pooled specimens for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 and process them without significant loss of test usability. Standard molecular diagnostic laboratory equipment, and commercially available centrifugal filters, RNA isolation kits and SARS Cov2 PCR tests were used. The basic idea was to combine and concentrate several samples to the maximal volume, which can be extracted with the single extraction column. Out of 16 tested pools, 12 were positive with cycle threshold (Ct) values within 0.5 and 3.01 Ct of the original individual specimens. The analysis of 112 specimens determined that 12 pools were positive, followed by identification of 6 positive individual specimens among the 112 tested. This testing was accomplished with the use of 16 extractions/PCR tests, resulting in saving of 96 reactions but adding the 40 centrifugal filters. The present study demonstrated that pool testing could detect even up to a single positive sample with Ct value as high as 34. According to the standard protocols, reagents and equipment, this pooling method can be applied easily in current clinical testing laboratories.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
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