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1.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 175, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Uncertainty about the optimal respiratory support strategies in critically ill COVID-19 patients is widespread. While the risks and benefits of noninvasive techniques versus early invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) are intensely debated, actual evidence is lacking. We sought to assess the risks and benefits of different respiratory support strategies, employed in intensive care units during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic on intubation and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality rates. METHODS: Subanalysis of a prospective, multinational registry of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Patients were subclassified into standard oxygen therapy ≥10 L/min (SOT), high-flow oxygen therapy (HFNC), noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIV), and early IMV, according to the respiratory support strategy employed at the day of admission to ICU. Propensity score matching was performed to ensure comparability between groups. RESULTS: Initially, 1421 patients were assessed for possible study inclusion. Of these, 351 patients (85 SOT, 87 HFNC, 87 NIV, and 92 IMV) remained eligible for full analysis after propensity score matching. 55% of patients initially receiving noninvasive respiratory support required IMV. The intubation rate was lower in patients initially ventilated with HFNC and NIV compared to those who received SOT (SOT: 64%, HFNC: 52%, NIV: 49%, p = 0.025). Compared to the other respiratory support strategies, NIV was associated with a higher overall ICU mortality (SOT: 18%, HFNC: 20%, NIV: 37%, IMV: 25%, p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: In this cohort of critically ill patients with COVID-19, a trial of HFNC appeared to be the most balanced initial respiratory support strategy, given the reduced intubation rate and comparable ICU mortality rate. Nonetheless, considering the uncertainty and stress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, SOT and early IMV represented safe initial respiratory support strategies. The presented findings, in agreement with classic ARDS literature, suggest that NIV should be avoided whenever possible due to the elevated ICU mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Respiratory Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
2.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 285: 103611, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989142

ABSTRACT

Exacerbation of COVID-19 pandemic may lead to acute shortage of ventilators, which may require shared use of ventilator as a lifesaving concept. Two model lungs were ventilated with one ventilator to i) test the adequacy of individual tidal volumes via capnography, ii) assess cross-breathing between lungs, and iii) offer a simulation-based algorithm for ensuring equal tidal volumes. Ventilation asymmetry was induced by placing rubber band around one model lung, and the uneven distribution of tidal volumes (VT) was counterbalanced by elevating airflow resistance (HR) contralaterally. VT, end-tidal CO2 concentration (ETCO2), and peak inspiratory pressure (Ppi) were measured. Unilateral LC reduced VT and elevated ETCO2 on the affected side. Under HR, VT and ETCO2 were re-equilibrated. In conclusion, capnography serves as simple, bedside method for controlling the adequacy of split ventilation in each patient. No collateral gas flow was observed between the two lungs with different time constants. Ventilator sharing may play a role in emergency situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Capnography/standards , Lung/physiopathology , Models, Biological , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Respiration, Artificial/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , Computer Simulation , Emergency Medical Services , Humans , Models, Anatomic , Point-of-Care Testing/standards , Respiratory Function Tests
3.
Orv Hetil ; 161(17): 667-671, 2020 04 01.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-216081

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases of unknown origin occured in Wuhan, China. The identified infective agent is a novel corona virus called "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2) and the respiratory disease caused by this agent aquired the name "coronavirus disease 2019" (COVID-19). In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the novel coronavirus outbreak a pandemic. We reviewed the international literature regarding the novel coronavirus outbreak. Here below, we focus mainly on the diagnostic issues of COVID-19 and on the estimation of the prognosis. We detail the relevant anamnestic factors and initial examination results which serve as basics for the clinical suspicion of COVID-19. We also focus on the proper method of microbiological sampling and the relevant informations regarding diagnostic tests like the gold standard real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2. We also cite the current national epidemiologic regulations of testing for novel coronavirus. In the last section, we emphasize the importance and the potential way of early identification of high-risk patients. The COVID-19 pandemic may cause substantial epidemiological and healthcare burden even in Hungary. In addition to the epidemiologic interventions aiming the deceleration of the outbreak, the early identification and the correct hospital treatment remain key issues since these may influence mortality. The chances of the critically ill patients could be improved solely by a high-quality and careful critical care. It is prudent to meet the experiences of colleagues working hard with these patients in the already heavily infected countries. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(17): 667­671.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Risk Assessment , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Critical Illness , Humans , Hungary , Pandemics , Prognosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Orv Hetil ; 161(17): 672-677, 2020 04 01.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-215481

ABSTRACT

Critical-care physicians are facing a challenging process in healthcare due to the overwhelming case number of hypoxic respiratory failure patients. Pneumonia has an utmost importance in the primary pathomechanism of the development of critical illness in the COVID-19 patients. Thus, imaging techniques are situated in the frontline to aim the diagnostic decision-making, to follow up the progress and to evaluate the possible complications. Reviewing the available literature, so far the common chest CT, chest X-ray and chest wall ultrasound features are presented, and recommendations are pronounced for the indications of the different modalities. At the initial phase, the atypical presentations of the virus infection are multiplex, peripheral ground glass opacities situated in the right lower lobe of the lung evolving rapidly into a bilateral involvement of the middle and basal zones. Along with the progression, the ratio of the consolidation is increasing subsequently deteriorating into fibrosis with reticular pattern. Chest ultrasound performed at the bedside has a paramount importance to reduce the possible number of health-care worker contacts in consequence of the strict and special infection control orders established on account of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemia. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(17): 672­677.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Point-of-Care Systems , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Progression , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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