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1.
Euro Surveill ; 27(31)2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987414

ABSTRACT

In the Netherlands, the avian influenza outbreak in poultry in 2003 and the Q fever outbreak in dairy goats between 2007 and 2010 had severe consequences for public health. These outbreaks led to the establishment of an integrated human-veterinary risk analysis system for zoonoses, the Zoonoses Structure. The aim of the Zoonoses Structure is to signal, assess and control emerging zoonoses that may pose a risk to animal and/or human health in an integrated One Health approach. The Signalling Forum Zoonoses (SO-Z), the first step of the Zoonoses Structure, is a multidisciplinary committee composed of experts from the medical, veterinary, entomology and wildlife domains. The SO-Z shares relevant signals with professionals and has monthly meetings. Over the past 10 years (June 2011 to December 2021), 390 different signals of various zoonotic pathogens in animal reservoirs and humans have been assessed. Here, we describe the Zoonoses Structure with examples from signals and responses for four zoonotic events in the Netherlands (tularaemia, Brucella canis, West Nile virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)). This may serve as an example for other countries on how to collaborate in a One Health approach to signal and control emerging zoonoses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , One Health , Animals , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306935

ABSTRACT

Background: Cases of reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 are reported in increasing numbers. Since the required molecular proof of reinfection is challenging to obtain, we aimed to provide serological evidence of reinfection in a cohort of potential reinfection cases.Methods: The study comprises 38 RT-PCR confirmed reinfection cases, with a COVID-19 symptom-free interval of at least 8 weeks (range 57-133 days) since their first RT-PCR confirmed episode. Specific disease symptoms were retrieved from 22 cases by contact tracing and compared between the two disease episodes. The oropharyngeal specimens from 13 cases enabled adequate genomic sequence comparisons. Seventeen cases provided a serum specimen, of which 12 within 7 days after onset of symptoms. Antibody determinations included SARS-CoV-2-specific total Ig, IgM, IgG, avidity, and virus neutralization. Antibody data were compared to that of a control group of primary cases (n=86) in relation to time since onset of disease symptoms.Findings: Reinfection cases generally experienced fewer or milder symptoms. Five of 8 cases which passed genomic comparison between both disease episodes showed reinfection with a different lineage. From 12 reinfection cases that provided a serum sample within 7 days after onset of symptoms, 11/12 (92%) and 12/12 (100%) showed high levels of specific total Ig and IgG antibodies, respectively, compared to 1/23 (4%) and 2/23 (9%) within the control group. Virus neutralizing antibodies were detected in 9/12 (75%) reinfection cases, 5 of which were above a titer of 30. Serological discrimination diminished after 7 days, except for IgG avidity;all 17 reinfection cases had antibodies of higher avidity when compared to control cases.Interpretation: IgG concentration and avidity can be used as an additional diagnostic marker to confirm reinfection with SARS-Cov-2. Reinfection cases that show a rapid and effective secondary immune response are expected to clear the infection more effectively, thereby reducing contagiousness and clinical severity. Understanding this reinfection response is also important for breakthrough infections following vaccination.Funding Statement: This work was supported by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, The Netherlands.Declaration of Interests: None of the authors have an association that poses a conflict of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: Approved by the Medical-Ethical Review Committee of the University Medical Center Utrecht.

4.
Euro Surveill ; 25(12)2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-19751

ABSTRACT

To rapidly assess possible community transmission in Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands, healthcare workers (HCW) with mild respiratory complaints and without epidemiological link (contact with confirmed case or visited areas with active circulation) were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Within 2 days, 1,097 HCW in nine hospitals were tested; 45 (4.1%) were positive. Of six hospitals with positive HCW, two accounted for 38 positive HCW. The results informed local and national risk management.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Health Personnel , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission
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