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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0118121, 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632412

ABSTRACT

To fight severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), mass vaccination has begun in many countries. To investigate the usefulness of a serological assay to predict vaccine efficacy, we analyzed the levels of IgG, IgM, and IgA against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 in the sera from BNT162b2 vaccinated individuals in Japan. This study included 219 individuals who received two doses of BNT162b2. The levels of IgG, IgM, and IgA against RBD were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after the first and second vaccination, respectively. The relationship between antibody levels and several factors, including age, gender, and hypertension were analyzed. Virus-neutralizing activity in sera was measured to determine the correlation with the levels of antibodies. A chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) method to measure IgG against RBD was developed and validated for the clinical setting. The levels of all antibody isotypes were increased after vaccination. Among them, RBD-IgG was dramatically increased after the second vaccination. The IgG levels in females were significantly higher than in males. There was a negative correlation between age and IgG levels in males. The IgG levels significantly correlated with the neutralizing activity. The CLEIA assay measuring IgG against RBD showed a reliable performance and a high correlation with neutralizing activity. Monitoring of IgG against RBD is a powerful tool to predict the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and provides useful information in considering a personalized vaccination strategy for COVID-19. IMPORTANCE Mass vaccination campaigns using mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have begun in many countries. Serological assays to detect antibody production may be a useful tool to monitor the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in individuals. Here, we reported the induction of antibody isotype responses after the first and second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine in a well-defined cohort of employees in Japan. We also reported that age, gender, and hypertension are associated with differences in antibody response after vaccination. This study not only provides valuable information with respect to antibody responses after BNT162b2 vaccination in the Japanese population but also the usefulness of serological assays for monitoring vaccine efficacy in clinical laboratories to determine a personalized vaccination strategy for COVID-19.

2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 115: 218-223, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560942

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Favipiravir is an antiviral that is being evaluated for the treatment of COVID-19. Use of favipiravir is associated with elevation of serum uric acid levels. Risk factors for the occurrence of hyperuricemia are unclear. METHODS: Specimens from COVID-19 patients who received 10 days of favipiravir in a previous clinical trial (jRCTs041190120) were used. Serum favipiravir concentrations were measured by LC-MS. Factors associated with the development of hyperuricemia were investigated using logistic regression analysis. Optimal cut-off values for the baseline serum uric acid levels and steady-state serum favipiravir concentrations in predicting the occurrence of hyperuricemia were determined by ROC curve analysis. RESULTS: Among the 66 COVID-19 patients who were treated with favipiravir for 10 days, the steady-state serum favipiravir concentrations were significantly correlated with serum uric acid levels. High baseline serum uric acid levels and steady-state serum favipiravir concentrations during therapy were factors associated with the development of hyperuricemia. The cut­off baseline serum uric acid level and steady-state serum favipiravir concentration during favipiravir administration determined to predict hyperuricemia were 3.7 mg/dL and 46.14 µg/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high baseline serum uric acid levels or who achieved high steady-state serum favipiravir concentrations during therapy were susceptible to hyperuricemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperuricemia , Amides , Humans , Hyperuricemia/drug therapy , Pyrazines , SARS-CoV-2 , Uric Acid
3.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(12)2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939841

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is an oral broad-spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that is approved for treatment of influenza in Japan. We conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial of favipiravir for the treatment of COVID-19 at 25 hospitals across Japan. Eligible patients were adolescents and adults admitted with COVID-19 who were asymptomatic or mildly ill and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1. Patients were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to early or late favipiravir therapy (in the latter case, the same regimen starting on day 6 instead of day 1). The primary endpoint was viral clearance by day 6. The secondary endpoint was change in viral load by day 6. Exploratory endpoints included time to defervescence and resolution of symptoms. Eighty-nine patients were enrolled, of whom 69 were virologically evaluable. Viral clearance occurred within 6 days in 66.7% and 56.1% of the early and late treatment groups (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.76 to 2.62). Of 30 patients who had a fever (≥37.5°C) on day 1, times to defervescence were 2.1 days and 3.2 days in the early and late treatment groups (aHR, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.81 to 4.35). During therapy, 84.1% developed transient hyperuricemia. Favipiravir did not significantly improve viral clearance as measured by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) by day 6 but was associated with numerical reduction in time to defervescence. Neither disease progression nor death occurred in any of the patients in either treatment group during the 28-day participation. (This study has been registered with the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials under number jRCTs041190120.).


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Load/drug effects , Adolescent , Adult , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperuricemia/chemically induced , Hyperuricemia/diagnosis , Hyperuricemia/physiopathology , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Random Allocation , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Secondary Prevention/organization & administration , Severity of Illness Index , Time-to-Treatment/organization & administration , Treatment Outcome
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