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1.
Primary Care Diabetes ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1804969

ABSTRACT

Aims Aim of the study was to investigate the change of insulin doses in Germany between 2017 and 2021. Methods This retrospective study used data from the longitudinal prescription (LRx) database (IQVIA) and included all patients with at least two insulin prescriptions per year in 2017-2021. Calculated daily dose (CDD) was assessed in 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, and 2021, separately. Results The number of patients was comprised between 1,120,276 in 2017 and 1,079,894 in 2021. Median (interquartile range) CDD of basal insulin was relatively stable across the years and ranged between 27.9 (18.5-38.8) in 2021 and 28.3 (18.7-39.5) in 2020. In terms of short-acting insulin, median (interquartile range) CDD slightly decreased from 40.1 (28.2-54.3) in 2017 to 38.1 (27.2-52.2) in 2021. A slight decrease was also observed for mix insulin, from 39.4 (27.5-55.3) in 2017 to 37.9 (26.5-54.2) in 2021. These results were corroborated in most age and sex subgroups. Conclusions COVID-19 had no substantial effects on insulin doses in Germany. Further data are warranted to corroborate or refute these findings in other settings and countries.

2.
Diabet Med ; : e14852, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794713

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To examine whether the incidence rates of diagnosed depression, anxiety disorders, and stress reactions, as well as prescription rates of antidepressants and anxiolytics were higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than before in persons with type 2 diabetes in Germany. Contrary to earlier studies, clinical diagnoses of psychiatric disorders (ICD classification) were used. METHODS: The German Disease Analyzer (DA) database is an outpatient database containing routine data on patients´ diseases and treatments provided by a representative panel of physician practices selected from across Germany. We assessed incidence rates of depressive disorders (ICD-10: F32, F33), anxiety disorders (F41) and stress reactions (F43) in quarters from January 2019 to March 2021 in 95,765 people with type 2 diabetes included in the DA in 2019 (mean age 68.9 years, 58% men). Prescription rates of antidepressants and anxiolytics in quarters from January 2020 to March 2021 were compared to prescription rates from one year earlier. RESULTS: During the study period, the incidence rate of newly diagnosed depressive disorders in persons with type 2 diabetes declined slightly, while the incidence rates of anxiety and stress disorders remained largely constant. The rates of new prescriptions for antidepressants and anxiolytics were lower in all quarters of 2020 and in the first quarter of 2021 than in the quarters one year earlier. Diabetes-related complications were more prevalent in persons with incident psychiatric disorders than in those without. CONCLUSIONS: No increase in the incidence rates of clinically diagnosed psychiatric disorders was observed during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany in persons with type 2 diabetes.

3.
Vaccines ; 10(4):566, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1776382

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 significantly reduces the transmissibility of the virus and the likelihood of a severe course of COVID-19, and is thus a critical component in overcoming the current pandemic. The factors associated with adverse reactions after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 have not yet been sufficiently evaluated. Methods: We used the Disease Analyzer database (IQVIA) to identify 531,468 individuals who received a total of 908,869 SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in 827 general practices in Germany between April and September 2021. Cox regression models were used to analyze the frequency of vaccination-related side effects reported within 14 days after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, as well as subjects' demographic characteristics and comorbidities. Results: The total number of side effects documented was 28,287 (3.1% of all vaccinations). Pain in the limb (24.3%), fatigue (21.0%), dizziness (17.9%), joint pain (15.7%), fever (9.5%), nausea (7.5%), and myalgia (6.4%) were the most common side effects documented among the 12,575 vaccinations with definite side effects. In the multivariate regression analysis, young age was associated with much higher odds of reported side effects (OR18–30 years: 4.45, OR31–40 years: 3.50, OR41–50 years: 2.89). In addition, pre-existing comorbidities such as dementia (OR: 1.54), somatoform disorder (OR: 1.53), anxiety disorder (OR: 1.43), depression (OR: 1.37), chronic respiratory tract disease (OR: 1.27), hypertension (OR: 1.20), and obesity (1.14) significantly increased the odds of side effects. Finally, the male sex was associated with increased odds of reported side effects (OR: 1.17). Conclusion: Our study, based on a large outpatient database from Germany, identified young age, male sex, and pre-existing comorbidities such as dementia, somatoform disorders, anxiety disorders, and depression as factors associated with vaccine-related adverse events diagnosed in GP practices. These data could help to identify subgroups needing particular advice and care in the context of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations.

4.
Infection ; 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767726

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Metabolic disorders have been identified as major risk factors for severe acute courses of COVID-19. With decreasing numbers of infections in many countries, the long COVID syndrome (LCS) represents the next major challenge in pandemic management, warranting the precise definition of risk factors for LCS development. METHODS: We identified 50,402 COVID-19 patients in the Disease Analyzer database (IQVIA) featuring data from 1056 general practices in Germany. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for the development of LCS. RESULTS: Of the 50,402 COVID-19 patients included into this analysis, 1,708 (3.4%) were diagnosed with LCS. In a multivariate regression analysis, we identified lipid metabolism disorders (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.28-1.65, p < 0.001) and obesity (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08-1.44, p = 0.003) as strong risk factors for the development of LCS. Besides these metabolic factors, patients' age between 46 and 60 years (compared to age ≤ 30, (OR 1.81 95% CI 1.54-2.13, p < 0.001), female sex (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.20-1.47, p < 0.001) as well as pre-existing asthma (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.39-2.00, p < 0.001) and depression (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.09-1.47, p = < 0.002) in women, and cancer (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.09-1.95, p = < 0.012) in men were associated with an increased likelihood of developing LCS. CONCLUSION: Lipid metabolism disorders and obesity represent age-independent risk factors for the development of LCS, suggesting that metabolic alterations determine the risk for unfavorable disease courses along all phases of COVID-19.

5.
Diabetologia ; 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748531

ABSTRACT

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this work was to investigate diabetes incidence after infection with coronavirus disease-2019 (Covid-19). Individuals with acute upper respiratory tract infections (AURI), which are frequently caused by viruses, were selected as a non-exposed control group. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of the Disease Analyzer, which comprises a representative panel of 1171 physicians' practices throughout Germany (March 2020 to January 2021: 8.8 million patients). Newly diagnosed diabetes was defined based on ICD-10 codes (type 2 diabetes: E11; other forms of diabetes: E12-E14) during follow-up until July 2021 (median for Covid-19, 119 days; median for AURI 161 days). Propensity score matching (1:1) for sex, age, health insurance, index month for Covid-19/AURI and comorbidity (obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, myocardial infarction, stroke) was performed. Individuals using corticosteroids within 30 days after the index dates were excluded. Poisson regression models were fitted to obtain incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for diabetes. RESULTS: There were 35,865 individuals with documented Covid-19 in the study period. After propensity score matching, demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in 35,865 AURI controls (mean age 43 years; 46% female). Individuals with Covid-19 showed an increased type 2 diabetes incidence compared with AURI (15.8 vs 12.3 per 1000 person-years). Using marginal models to account for correlation of observations within matched pairs, an IRR for type 2 diabetes of 1.28 (95% CI 1.05, 1.57) was estimated. The IRR was not increased for other forms of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Covid-19 confers an increased risk for type 2 diabetes. If confirmed, these results support the active monitoring of glucose dysregulation after recovery from mild forms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

6.
Public Health ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1740128

ABSTRACT

Objectives Vaccination is one of the most effective measures to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. The main reason for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination hesitancy is the potential side effects. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients who received SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Study design Retrospective cohort study. Methods Individuals aged ≥18 years who received an initial vaccination for COVID-19 in one of 1134 general practices in Germany between April and June 2021 were included in the study. Vaccinated patients were matched to unvaccinated individuals by age, sex, index month (April to June 2020 [unvaccinated cohort] or April to June 2021 [vaccinated cohort]) and diagnoses that may be associated with an increased incidence of thrombosis documented within 12 months prior to the index date. The incidences of thrombosis and non-fatal pulmonary embolism as a function of COVID-19 vaccination were analysed. Results The present study included 326,833 individuals who were vaccinated against COVID-19 and 326,833 matched unvaccinated individuals. During the follow-up period, 406 vaccinated patients and 342 individuals in the control group received a diagnosis of thrombosis or non-fatal pulmonary embolism. This resulted in an incidence rate of 11.9 vs. 11.3 cases per 1000 patient years for vaccinated vs. unvaccinated individuals, respectively, and a non-significant overall incidence rate ratio (IRR: 1.06;95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93–1.22). The highest IRR was observed in the 41–60 years age group (IRR: 1.30;95% CI: 0.98–1.73) and the lowest IRR was seen in the 18–40 years age group (IRR: 0.6;95% CI: 0.0–1.05);however, none of the individual age group incidence rates were significant. Conclusions The results indicate that the occurrence of thrombosis or pulmonary embolism after COVID-19 vaccination is a coincidental finding rather than a consequence of vaccination.

7.
Rev Med Virol ; : e2336, 2022 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712178

ABSTRACT

The aim of this systematic review and network meta-analysis is to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of N95, surgical/medical and non-medical facemasks as personal protective equipment against respiratory virus infection. The study incorporated 35 published and unpublished randomized controlled trials and observational studies investigating specific mask effectiveness against influenza virus, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar and medRxiv databases for studies published up to 5 February 2021 (PROSPERO registration: CRD42020214729). The primary outcome of interest was the rate of respiratory viral infection. The quality of evidence was estimated using the GRADE approach. High compliance to mask-wearing conferred a significantly better protection (odds ratio [OR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.82) than low compliance. N95 or equivalent masks were the most effective in providing protection against coronavirus infections (OR, 0.30; CI, 0.20-0.44) consistently across subgroup analyses of causative viruses and clinical settings. Evidence supporting the use of medical or surgical masks against influenza or coronavirus infections (SARS, MERS and COVID-19) was weak. Our study confirmed that the use of facemasks provides protection against respiratory viral infections in general; however, the effectiveness may vary according to the type of facemask used. Our findings encourage the use of N95 respirators or their equivalents (e.g., P2) for best personal protection in healthcare settings until more evidence on surgical and medical masks is accrued. This study highlights a substantial lack of evidence on the comparative effectiveness of mask types in community settings.

8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2670, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704157

ABSTRACT

The prognosis of heart failure (HF) patients is determined to a decisive extent by comorbidities. The present study investigates the association between a broad spectrum of diseases and the occurrence of HF in a large collective of outpatients. This retrospective case control study assessed the prevalence of 37 cardiac and extracardiac diseases in patients with an initial diagnosis of heart failure (ICD-10: I50) in 1,274 general practices in Germany between January 2005 and December 2019. The study is based on the Disease Analyzer database (IQVIA), which contains drug prescriptions, diagnoses, and basic medical and demographic data. Patients with and without heart failure were matched by sex, age, and index year. Hazard regression models were conducted to evaluate the association between different disease entities and heart failure. The present study included 162,246 patients with heart failure and 162,246 patients without heart failure. Mean age [SD] was 73.7 [12.1] years; 52.6% were women. Out of 37 predefined diagnoses, 36 were more prevalent in HF patients. The highest prevalence was primary hypertension (63.4% in HF patients vs. 53.3% in controls, p < 0.001) followed by lipid metabolism disorders (34.6% in HF patients vs. 29.1% in HF patients p < 0.001) and diabetes mellitus type II (32.2% in HF patients vs. 25.2% in controls, p < 0.001). In the regression analysis, 19 diseases were significantly associated with heart failure. Non-cardiovascular diagnoses strongly associated with HF were obesity (HR = 1.46), chronic bronchitis and COPD (HR = 1.41), gout (HR: 1.41), and chronic kidney disease (HR = 1.27). In the present study, we identified a variety of cardiac and extracardiac diseases associated with heart failure. Our data underscore the immense importance of comorbidities, even as early as at the stage of initial diagnosis of heart failure.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Heart Failure , Models, Cardiovascular , Registries , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Germany , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
9.
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics ; 60(2):79, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1668558

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the representativeness of the German IQVIA Vaccine Analyzer (VA) database with respect to vaccination rates in Germany. Materials and methods: Descriptive statistics for the demographic characteristics of the patients like gender and age distribution and vaccination rates of various types of vaccinations in children, adolescents, and adults were calculated and compared to official data sources in Germany. The vaccination rates were calculated as the ratio between extrapolated vaccinated patient numbers from the database and official population counts from the Federal Statistical Office. Results: The sex distribution for patients attending general practitioners (GPs) and those attending pediatricians was similar to the German population. The age distribution of the adult German population was comparable to that of the GP and gynecologist patients included in our study. There was good agreement between vaccination rates for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and poliomyelitis in this study (79%) and the rates for the general population according to official sources (78%). HPV vaccination rates in boys in 2018/2019 (1.9%) were also close to the German national rate of 1.3% of all boys reported at the end of 2018. This study found slightly higher vaccination rates for influenza in adults aged over 60 (46%) than the national rate (39%). Conclusion: The study indicates good accordance between the VA and official reference data for different vaccination rates, especially for children, and indicates that the VA database is suitable for epidemiological studies on vaccines.

10.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633539

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Little is known on how coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has impacted cancer diagnosis in Germany since the first lockdown in March 2020. Therefore, this retrospective study aimed to compare the number of patients newly diagnosed with cancer in general and specialized practices in Germany between April 2020-March 2021 and April 2019-March 2020. METHODS: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with at least 1 visit to 1 of 1403 general and specialized practices in Germany in April 2020-March 2021 (n = 3,804,596) and April 2019-March 2020 (n = 3,913,386) were included in this retrospective study. Specialized practices were composed of gynecology, dermatology and urology practices. Cancer diagnoses included all types of cancer documented using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10 codes: C00-C97). The number of patients newly diagnosed with cancer per practice was compared between April 2020-March 2021 and April 2019-March 2020 using Wilcoxon tests. RESULTS: There were 126,379 and 138,996 patients diagnosed with cancer in April 2020-March 2021 and April 2019-March 2020, respectively. The number of patients diagnosed with cancer decreased in all types of practice, and this decrease was significant in general practices (- 7.1%, p value = 0.038). In terms of cancer type, this decrease was particularly pronounced for skin cancers (- 12.8%, p value = 0.025). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with a decrease in the number of patients newly diagnosed with cancer in general and specialized practices in Germany. Public health interventions are urgently warranted to mitigate the deleterious effects of this health crisis on cancer diagnosis.

11.
J Psychiatr Res ; 147: 79-84, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611884

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on mental health compared with other respiratory infections. Thus, the aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate whether COVID-19 diagnosis is associated with a significant increase in the incidence of depression and anxiety disorder in patients followed in general practices in Germany compared with acute upper respiratory infection diagnosis. This study included all patients diagnosed with symptomatic or asymptomatic COVID-19 for the first time in 1198 general practices in Germany between March 2020 and May 2021. Patients diagnosed with acute upper respiratory infection were matched to those with COVID-19 using propensity scores based on sex, age, index month, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. The index date corresponded to the date on which either COVID-19 or acute upper respiratory infection was diagnosed. Differences in the incidence of depression and anxiety disorder between the COVID-19 and the acute upper respiratory infection group were studied using conditional Poisson regression models. This study included 56,350 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and 56,350 patients diagnosed with acute upper respiratory infection (52.3% women; mean [SD] age 43.6 [19.2] years). The incidence of depression (IRR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.95-1.10) and anxiety disorder (IRR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.83-1.07) was not significantly higher in the COVID-19 group than in the upper respiratory infection group. Compared with acute upper respiratory infection diagnosis, COVID-19 diagnosis was not associated with a significant increase in the incidence of depression and anxiety disorder in patients treated in general practices in Germany.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536313

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic and related restrictions impacted the daily lives of children and youth, partly due to the closure of schools and the absence of outdoor activities. The aim of this study was to investigate, quantify, and critically discuss the effect of the pandemic and related restrictions on consultations pertaining to depression and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. This retrospective cross-sectional study was based on medical record data from the Disease Analyzer database (IQVIA) and included all children and adolescents aged 2-17 years with at least one visit to one of 168 German pediatric practices between April 2019 and December 2019 (n = 454,741) or between April 2020 and December 2020 (n = 417,979). The number of children and adolescents with depression and anxiety disorder diagnoses per practice and the prevalence of these diagnoses were compared for April 2020-December 2020 versus April 2019-December 2019. The number of children and adolescents with depression and anxiety diagnoses per practice increased in April 2020-December 2020 compared to the same period in 2019 (anxiety: + 9%, depression: + 12%). The increase was much greater in girls than in boys (anxiety: + 13% vs. + 5%; depression + 19% vs. + 1%). The prevalence of anxiety disorder increased from 0.31 to 0.59% (p < 0.001), and that of depression from 0.23 to 0.47% (p < 0.001). The biggest increases were observed for girls (anxiety from 0.35 to 0.72% (+ 106%, p < 0.001), depression from 0.28 to 0.72% (+ 132%, p < 0.001). This study shows an increase in the number of pediatric diagnoses of depression and anxiety disorders in the pandemic year 2020 compared to the previous year.

13.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 298-302, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513873

ABSTRACT

For preventing the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, measures like wearing masks, social distancing, and hand hygiene played crucial roles. These measures may also have affected the expansion of other infectious diseases like respiratory tract infections (RTI) and gastro-intestinal infections (GII). Therefore, we aimed to investigate non-COVID-19 related RTI and GII during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients with a diagnosis of an acute RTI (different locations) or acute GII documented anonymously in 994 general practitioner (GP) or 192 pediatrician practices in Germany were included. We compared the prevalence of acute RTI and GII between April 2019-March 2020 and April 2020-March 2021. In GP practices, 715,440 patients were diagnosed with RTI or GII in the nonpandemic period versus 468,753 in the pandemic period; the same trend was observed by pediatricians (275,033 vs. 165,127). By GPs, the strongest decrease was observed for the diagnosis of influenza (-71%, p < 0.001), followed by acute laryngitis (-64%, p < 0.001), acute lower respiratory infections (bronchitis) (-62%, p < 0.001), and intestinal infections (-40%, p < 0.001). In contrast, the relatively rare viral pneumonia strongly increased by 229% (p < 0.001). In pediatrician practices, there was a strong decrease in infection diagnoses, especially influenza (-90%, p < 0.001), pneumonia (-73%, p < 0.001 viral; -76%, p < 0.001 other pneumonias), and acute sinusitis (-66%, p < 0.001). No increase was observed for viral pneumonia in children. The considerable limitations concerning social life implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic to combat the spread of SARS-CoV-2 also resulted in an inadvertent but welcome reduction in other non-Covid-19 respiratory tract and gastro-intestinal infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene/methods , Humans , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Prevalence , Young Adult
14.
Clin Transl Sci ; 15(2): 501-513, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494654

ABSTRACT

On October 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved remdesivir as the first drug for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), increasing remdesivir prescriptions worldwide. However, potential cardiovascular (CV) toxicities associated with remdesivir remain unknown. We aimed to characterize the CV adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with remdesivir using VigiBase, an individual case safety report database of the World Health Organization (WHO). Disproportionality analyses of CV-ADRs associated with remdesivir were performed using reported odds ratios and information components. We conducted in vitro experiments using cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cell cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) to confirm cardiotoxicity of remdesivir. To distinguish drug-induced CV-ADRs from COVID-19 effects, we restricted analyses to patients with COVID-19 and found that, after adjusting for multiple confounders, cardiac arrest (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-3.29), bradycardia (aOR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.24-3.53), and hypotension (aOR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.03-2.73) were associated with remdesivir. In vitro data demonstrated that remdesivir reduced the cell viability of hPSC-CMs in time- and dose-dependent manners. Physicians should be aware of potential CV consequences following remdesivir use and implement adequate CV monitoring to maintain a tolerable safety margin.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Pharmacovigilance , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Alanine/adverse effects , Databases, Factual , Humans , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , World Health Organization
15.
J Psychiatr Res ; 143: 43-49, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446898

ABSTRACT

Several studies revealed that mental disorders' prevalence increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in young and female individuals. Such studies represent individuals' subjective perceptions and not the number of mental health cases treated in primary care. Thus, this study aimed to describe the changes in depression, anxiety, and stress disorder diagnoses in General Practitioner (GP) practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. More than three million patients of 757 German GP practices were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to assess changes in the number of incident depression, anxiety disorders, and reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders documented by GPs in 2020 compared to the average of the years 2017-2019. There was a tremendous decrease in mental health diagnoses during the first lockdown that was only slightly compensated later. Overall populations and the entire year 2020, there was no change in documented depression (0%) and stress disorders (1%), but anxiety disorders were more often documented (+19%), especially for the elderly population (>80 years; +24%). This population group also received more frequently new depression (+12%) and stress disorder diagnoses (23%). The younger population was diagnosed more frequently at the end of 2020, nine months after the first lockdown. Anxiety disorders but not depression and stress diagnoses were elevated, which is not in line with previously published studies. We speculate that the elderly population was affected most by the pandemic immediately after the first lockdown was announced. The younger population has probably become more and more affected the longer the pandemic lasts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 90(1-02): 30-36, 2022 Jan.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, no studies have examined the pandemic-related stress experience of inpatient versus outpatient psychiatrists. Therefore, the aim is to investigate the extent of Covid-19 exposure, anxiety, stress experience, and coping abilities among psychiatrists in private practice compared to physicians in psychiatric and psychosomatic hospitals. METHODS: E-mail-based questionnaires with 13 items were used to assess anxiety and stress experience. A total of 105 practicing psychiatrists, and 73 physicians and psychologists from four clinics (including the Clinic for Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy) were surveyed between early April and mid-May 2020. RESULTS: Compared to hospital psychiatrists, psychiatrists in private practice more often felt severely restricted (52.4 vs. 32.9% p=0.010), at risk of infection (35.2 vs. 13.7%, p<0.001) and financially threatened (24.7 vs. 6.9%, p=0.002). The proportion of well-informed practicing psychiatrists was lower (47.6 vs. 63.0%, p=0.043) and the proportion with lack of protective equipment was higher (27.6 vs. 4.1%, p<0.001). At the same COVID-19 exposure level (8.6 vs. 8.2%), office-based psychiatrists were more likely to report high anxiety, although not significantly, compared to hospital psychiatrists (18.1 vs. 9.6%, p=0.114). Risk factors for experiencing anxiety in both groups were feeling restricted (OR=5.52, p=0.025) and experienced risk of infection (OR=5.74, p=0.005). Exposure level, clinic or practice affiliation, age, gender, and other dimensions of threat experience and coping behavior had no influence. DISCUSSION: Psychiatrists in private practice felt more stressed and threatened by the COVID-19 pandemic compared with hospital-based colleagues. The experience of anxiety was dependent on feeling constrained and at risk of exposure, but not on exposure, protective equipment. Objective indicators seem to play less of an important role in the expression of anxiety than subjective experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychiatry , Anxiety/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 179: 109002, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356193

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify the effects of the first lockdown in Germany (March to May 2020) on glycemic control, BMI, and cardiovascular risk factors in persons with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The nationwide Disease Analyzer database includes a representative panel of physicians practices in Germany providing anonymized real-world patient data. For metabolic and renal factors, we estimated absolute changes of means comparing outcomes from June to November 2020 to outcomes in the same persons from June to November 2019, and June to November 2018, respectively. RESULTS: In 32,399 patients with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c change between 2019 and 2020 was + 0.04% (95 %CI: 0.03%; 0.05%) compared to -0.02% (95 %CI: -0.03%; -0.01%) between 2018 and 2019. Metabolic risk factors and creatinine changed only little between June to November 2019 and June to November 2020. The proportions of patients with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 were 56%, 55%, and 54% in June to November 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively. The corresponding proportions for HbA1c > 53 mmol/mol Hb (>7.0%) were 39%, 39%, and 40%. CONCLUSIONS: There is little evidence that the first COVID-19 lockdown in Germany had a short-term harmful influence on acute health care outcomes and vascular risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 37-42, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347654

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of and the factors associated with the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in symptomatic patients followed in general practices in Germany between March 2020 and March 2021. METHODS: Symptomatic patients tested for COVID-19 and followed in one of 962 general practices in Germany from March 2020 to March 2021 were included in this study. Covariates included sex, age, and comorbidities present in at least 3% of the population. The association between these factors and the diagnosis of COVID-19 was analyzed using an adjusted logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 301,290 patients tested for COVID-19 were included in this study (54.7% women; mean [SD] age 44.6 [18.5] years). The prevalence of COVID-19 was 13.8% in this sample. Male sex and older age were positively and significantly associated with COVID-19. In terms of comorbidities, the strongest positive associations with COVID-19 were observed for cardiac arrhythmias, depression, and obesity. There was also a negative relationship between the odds of being diagnosed with COVID-19 and several conditions such as chronic sinusitis, asthma, and anxiety disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 14% of symptomatic patients tested for COVID-19 were diagnosed with COVID-19 in German general practices from March 2020 to March 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(9): 1970-1972.e3, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212376

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir has demonstrated clinical benefits in randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1-4 and was first approved for COVID-19 patients.5 However, whether remdesivir causes gastrointestinal adverse drug reaction (GI-ADRs) including hepatotoxicity is less clear.1-4,6 Therefore, we aimed to detect a diverse spectrum of GI-ADRs associated with remdesivir using VigiBase, the World Health Organization's international pharmacovigilance database of individual case safety reports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Databases, Factual , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Humans , Pharmacovigilance , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
20.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 59(8): 572-577, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302711

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the development of drug purchases over the course of the coronavirus crisis in Germany in 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The evaluations in this retrospective cross-sectional study are based on the IMS RPM (Regional Pharmaceutical Market) weekly database, which shows weekly purchases by public pharmacies from full-service wholesalers at the time the pharmacy purchase is made in Germany. The outcome of this investigation was the development of cardiovascular drug sales by packing unit over all 52 weeks of 2020. RESULTS: We found an increase of 68% in week 12 compared to the average sales for weeks 2 - 11, 2020 (vs. -2% in week 12, 2019), while the increase in week 51 was 61%, compared to the average sales for weeks 13 - 50, 2020 (vs. 35% in week 51, 2019). The largest increases in week 12 were for calcium channel blockers (64%), and the largest increases in week 51 were for lipid-lowering drugs (67%). CONCLUSION: The results of this retrospective cross-sectional study suggest that the COVID-19 lockdown in Germany was associated with a significant surge in pharmacy purchases of cardiovascular drugs, indicating panic buying. Although there were no drug shortages during the first lockdown, this panic buying recurred shortly before the second lockdown, albeit to a lesser extent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Agents , Pharmacies , Pharmacy , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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