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1.
J Innate Immun ; : 1-11, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Macrophage activation-like syndrome (MALS) and complex immune dysregulation (CID) often underlie acute respiratory distress (ARDS) in COVID-19. We aimed to investigate the effect of personalized immunotherapy on clinical improvement of critical COVID-19. METHODS: In this open-label prospective trial, 102 patients with ARDS by SARS-CoV-2 were screened for MALS (ferritin >4,420 ng/mL) and CID (ferritin ≤4,420 ng/mL and low human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression on CD14-monocytes). Patients with MALS or CID with increased aminotransferases received intravenous anakinra; those with CID and normal aminotransferases received tocilizumab. The primary outcome was ≥25% decrease in the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and/or 50% increase in the respiratory ratio by day 8; 28-day mortality, change of SOFA score by day 28, serum biomarkers, and cytokine production by mononuclear cells were secondary endpoints. RESULTS: The primary study endpoint was met in 58.3% of anakinra-treated patients and in 33.3% of tocilizumab-treated patients (p: 0.01). Most patients in both groups received dexamethasone as standard of care. No differences were found in secondary outcomes, mortality, and SOFA score changes. Ferritin decreased among anakinra-treated patients; interleukin-6, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, and HLA-DR expression increased among tocilizumab-treated patients. Survivors by day 28 who received anakinra were distributed to lower severity levels of the WHO clinical progression scale. Greater incidence of secondary infections was found with tocilizumab treatment. CONCLUSION: Immune assessment resulted in favorable anakinra responses among critically ill patients with COVID-19 and features of MALS.

2.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 9(1): 31, 2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether or not to administer antibiotics is a common and challenging clinical decision in patients with suspected infections presenting to the emergency department (ED). We prospectively validate InSep, a 29-mRNA blood-based host response test for the prediction of bacterial and viral infections. METHODS: The PROMPT trial is a prospective, non-interventional, multi-center clinical study that enrolled 397 adult patients presenting to the ED with signs of acute infection and at least one vital sign change. The infection status was adjudicated using chart review (including a syndromic molecular respiratory panel, procalcitonin and C-reactive protein) by three infectious disease physicians blinded to InSep results. InSep (version BVN-2) was performed using PAXgene Blood RNA processed and quantified on NanoString nCounter SPRINT. InSep results (likelihood of bacterial and viral infection) were compared to the adjudicated infection status. RESULTS: Subject mean age was 64 years, comorbidities were significant for diabetes (17.1%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (13.6%), and severe neurological disease (6.8%); 16.9% of subjects were immunocompromised. Infections were adjudicated as bacterial (14.1%), viral (11.3%) and noninfected (0.25%): 74.1% of subjects were adjudicated as indeterminate. InSep distinguished bacterial vs. viral/noninfected patients and viral vs. bacterial/noninfected patients using consensus adjudication with AUROCs of 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.99) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.96), respectively. AUROCs for bacterial vs. viral/noninfected patients were 0.88 (95% CI 0.79-0.96) for PCT, 0.80 (95% CI 0.72-89) for CRP and 0.78 (95% CI 0.69-0.87) for white blood cell counts (of note, the latter biomarkers were provided as part of clinical adjudication). To enable clinical actionability, InSep incorporates score cutoffs to allocate patients into interpretation bands. The Very Likely (rule in) InSep bacterial band showed a specificity of 98% compared to 94% for the corresponding PCT band (> 0.5 µg/L); the Very Unlikely (rule-out) band showed a sensitivity of 95% for InSep compared to 86% for PCT. For the detection of viral infections, InSep demonstrated a specificity of 93% for the Very Likely band (rule in) and a sensitivity of 96% for the Very Unlikely band (rule out). CONCLUSIONS: InSep demonstrated high accuracy for predicting the presence of both bacterial and viral infections in ED patients with suspected acute infections or suspected sepsis. When translated into a rapid, point-of-care test, InSep will provide ED physicians with actionable results supporting early informed treatment decisions to improve patient outcomes while upholding antimicrobial stewardship. Registration number at Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03295825.

3.
Crit Care Med ; 49(2): e170-e178, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-930107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Complex critical syndromes like sepsis and coronavirus disease 2019 may be composed of underling "endotypes," which may respond differently to treatment. The aim of this study was to test whether a previously defined bacterial sepsis endotypes classifier recapitulates the same clinical and immunological endotypes in coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Prospective single-center observational cohort study. SETTING: Patients were enrolled in Athens, Greece, and blood was shipped to Inflammatix (Burlingame, CA) for analysis. PATIENTS: Adult patients within 24 hours of hospital admission with coronavirus disease 2019 confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and chest radiography. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We studied 97 patients with coronavirus disease 2019, of which 50 went on to severe respiratory failure (SRF) and 16 died. We applied a previously defined 33-messenger RNA classifier to assign endotype (Inflammopathic, Adaptive, or Coagulopathic) to each patient. We tested endotype status against other clinical parameters including laboratory values, severity scores, and outcomes. Patients were assigned as Inflammopathic (29%), Adaptive (44%), or Coagulopathic (27%), similar to our prior study in bacterial sepsis. Adaptive patients had lower rates of SRF and no deaths. Coagulopathic and Inflammopathic endotypes had 42% and 18% mortality rates, respectively. The Coagulopathic group showed highest d-dimers, and the Inflammopathic group showed highest C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our predefined 33-messenger RNA endotypes classifier recapitulated immune phenotypes in viral sepsis (coronavirus disease 2019) despite its prior training and validation only in bacterial sepsis. Further work should focus on continued validation of the endotypes and their interaction with immunomodulatory therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sepsis/classification , Sepsis/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Cell ; 183(2): 315-323.e9, 2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738067

ABSTRACT

BCG vaccination in children protects against heterologous infections and improves survival independently of tuberculosis prevention. The phase III ACTIVATE trial assessed whether BCG has similar effects in the elderly. In this double-blind, randomized trial, elderly patients (n = 198) received BCG or placebo vaccine at hospital discharge and were followed for 12 months for new infections. At interim analysis, BCG vaccination significantly increased the time to first infection (median 16 weeks compared to 11 weeks after placebo). The incidence of new infections was 42.3% (95% CIs 31.9%-53.4%) after placebo vaccination and 25.0% (95% CIs 16.4%-36.1%) after BCG vaccination; most of the protection was against respiratory tract infections of probable viral origin (hazard ratio 0.21, p = 0.013). No difference in the frequency of adverse effects was found. Data show that BCG vaccination is safe and can protect the elderly against infections. Larger studies are needed to assess protection against respiratory infections, including COVID-19 (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03296423).


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/adverse effects , BCG Vaccine/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
5.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 992-1000.e3, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-735030

ABSTRACT

Proper management of COVID-19 mandates better understanding of disease pathogenesis. The sudden clinical deterioration 7-8 days after initial symptom onset suggests that severe respiratory failure (SRF) in COVID-19 is driven by a unique pattern of immune dysfunction. We studied immune responses of 54 COVID-19 patients, 28 of whom had SRF. All patients with SRF displayed either macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) or very low human leukocyte antigen D related (HLA-DR) expression accompanied by profound depletion of CD4 lymphocytes, CD19 lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by circulating monocytes was sustained, a pattern distinct from bacterial sepsis or influenza. SARS-CoV-2 patient plasma inhibited HLA-DR expression, and this was partially restored by the IL-6 blocker Tocilizumab; off-label Tocilizumab treatment of patients was accompanied by increase in circulating lymphocytes. Thus, the unique pattern of immune dysregulation in severe COVID-19 is characterized by IL-6-mediated low HLA-DR expression and lymphopenia, associated with sustained cytokine production and hyper-inflammation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Female , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Macrophage Activation , Male , Monocytes/pathology , Pandemics
6.
Cell Press ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-47314

ABSTRACT

Proper management of COVID-19 mandates better understanding of disease pathogenesis. The sudden clinical deterioration 7-8 days after initial symptom onset suggests that severe respiratory failure (SRF) in COVID-19 is driven by a unique pattern of immune dysfunction. We studied immune responses of 54 COVID-19 patients, 28 of whom had SRF. All SRF patients displayed either macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) or very low human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression accompanied by profound depletion of CD4-lymphocytes, CD19- lymphocytes and natural killer cells. TNFα and IL-6 production by circulating monocytes was sustained, a pattern distinct from bacterial sepsis or influenza. SARS-CoV-2 patient plasma inhibited HLA-DR expression, and this was partially restored by the IL-6 blocker Tocilizumab;off-label Tocilizumab treatment of patients was accompanied by increase in circulating lymphocytes. Thus, the unique pattern of immune dysregulation in severe COVID-19 is characterized by IL-6-mediated low HLA-DR expression and lymphopenia, associated with sustained cytokine production and hyper-inflammation.

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