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1.
Alcohol ; 103: 1-7, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035682

ABSTRACT

On November 19th, 2021, the annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at Loyola University Chicago Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, Illinois. The 2021 meeting focused on how alcohol misuse is linked to immune system derangements, leading to tissue and organ damage, and how this research can be translated into improving treatment of alcohol-related disease. This meeting was divided into three plenary sessions: the first session focused on how alcohol misuse affects different parts of the immune system, the second session presented research on mechanisms of organ damage from alcohol misuse, and the final session highlighted research on potential therapeutic targets for treating alcohol-mediated tissue damage. Diverse areas of alcohol research were covered during the meeting, from alcohol's effect on pulmonary systems and neuroinflammation to epigenetic changes, senescence markers, and microvesicle particles. These presentations yielded a thoughtful discussion on how the findings can lead to therapeutic treatments for people suffering from alcohol-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Alcoholism/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Ethanol/adverse effects , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Public Opinion
2.
Virology ; 569: 13-28, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740261

ABSTRACT

Emerging mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome pose a challenge for vaccine development and antiviral therapy. The antiviral efficacy of Azadirachta indica bark extract (NBE) was assessed against SARS-CoV-2 and m-CoV-RSA59 infection. Effects of in vivo intranasal or oral NBE administration on viral load, inflammatory response, and histopathological changes were assessed in m-CoV-RSA59-infection. NBE administered inhibits SARS-CoV-2 and m-CoV-RSA59 infection and replication in vitro, reducing Envelope and Nucleocapsid gene expression. NBE ameliorates neuroinflammation and hepatitis in vivo by restricting viral replication and spread. Isolated fractions of NBE enriched in Nimbin isomers shows potent inhibition of m-CoV-RSA59 infection in vitro. In silico studies revealed that NBE could target Spike and RdRp of m-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 with high affinity. NBE has a triterpenoids origin that may allow them to competitively target panoply of viral proteins to inhibit mouse and different strains of human coronavirus infections, suggesting its potential as an antiviral against pan-ß-Coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Azadirachta , COVID-19 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Limonins , Mice , Plant Bark , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0246270, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302006

ABSTRACT

During infectious disease, pathogen load drives inflammation and immune response that together contribute to tissue injury often resulting in organ dysfunction. Pulmonary failure in SARS-CoV2-infected hospitalized COVID-19 patients is one such prominent example. Intervention strategies require characterization of the host-pathogen interaction by accurately assessing all of the above-mentioned disease parameters. To study infection in intact mammals, mice are often used as essential genetic models. Due to humane concerns, there is a constant unmet demand to develop studies that reduce the number of mice utilized while generating objective data. Here, we describe an integrated method of evaluating lung inflammation in mice infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or murine gammaherpesvirus (MHV)-68. This method conserves animal resources while permitting evaluation of disease mechanisms in both infection settings. Lungs from a single euthanized mouse were used for two purposes-biological assays to determine inflammation and infection load, as well as histology to evaluate tissue architecture. For this concurrent assessment of multiple parameters from a single euthanized mouse, we limit in-situ formalin fixation to the right lung of the cadaver. The unfixed left lung is collected immediately and divided into several segments for biological assays including determination of pathogen titer, assessment of infection-driven cytokine levels and appearance of cell death markers. In situ fixed right lung was then processed for histological determination of tissue injury and confirmation of infection-driven cell death patterns. This method reduces overall animal use and minimizes inter-animal variability that results from sacrificing different animals for different types of assays. The technique can be applied to any lung disease study in mice or other mammals.


Subject(s)
Herpesviridae Infections/pathology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pseudomonas Infections/pathology , Animals , Gammaherpesvirinae , Mice , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
4.
J Clin Invest ; 131(1)2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011053

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic has led to millions of cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths. While older adults appear at high risk for severe disease, hospitalizations and deaths due to SARS-CoV-2 among children have been relatively rare. Integrating single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of developing mouse lung with temporally resolved immunofluorescence in mouse and human lung tissue, we found that expression of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein primer TMPRSS2 was highest in ciliated cells and type I alveolar epithelial cells (AT1), and TMPRSS2 expression increased with aging in mice and humans. Analysis of autopsy tissue from fatal COVID-19 cases detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA most frequently in ciliated and secretory cells in airway epithelium and AT1 cells in peripheral lung. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was highly colocalized in cells expressing TMPRSS2. Together, these data demonstrate the cellular spectrum infected by SARS-CoV-2 in lung epithelium and suggest that developmental regulation of TMPRSS2 may underlie the relative protection of infants and children from severe respiratory illness.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/enzymology , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/biosynthesis , Adult , Aging , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Child, Preschool , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mice
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