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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2314838, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244794

ABSTRACT

Importance: Despite the COVID-19 pandemic's effect on daily life, limited research exists on the prevalence and risk factors of suicidality and sadness among South Korean adolescents. Objectives: To examine whether the observed sadness and suicidality in the early to middle periods of the COVID-19 pandemic differed from the expected level and to investigate changes in risk factors for sadness and suicidality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide serial cross-sectional survey study used data on 1 109 776 Korean adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey from 2005 to 2021. Exposure: The COVID-19 pandemic. Main Outcomes and Measures: The pattern of changes in the percentage or proportion of sadness or suicidality, as well as the risk factors for sadness or suicidality. The transitional effect of the COVID-19 pandemic was assessed using weighted odds ratios (wORs) or weighted beta coefficients with 95% CIs. Results: Between 2005 and 2021, 1 109 776 adolescents (mean [SD] age, 15.0 [1.7] years; 51.5% male adolescents; and 51.7% in grades 7-9 and 48.3% in grades 10-12) were included in the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. The slope of the long-term trends in sadness and suicidality decreased in the prepandemic period (sadness: from 37.8% [95% CI, 37.4%-38.2%] in 2005-2007 to 26.1% [95% CI, 25.9%-26.4%] in 2016-2019; suicidality: from 23.0% [95% CI, 22.7%-23.3%] in 2005-2007 to 12.3% [95% CI, 12.1%-12.5%] in 2016-2019), whereas the slope increased during the COVID-19 pandemic (sadness: from 25.0% [95% CI, 24.5%-25.6%] in 2020 to 26.6% [95% CI, 26.1%-27.1%] in 2021; trend difference in ß, 0.249 [95% CI, 0.236-0.262]; suicidality: from 10.7% [95% CI, 10.3%-11.1%] in 2020 to 12.5% [95% CI, 12.1%-12.9%] in 2021; trend difference in ß, 0.328 [95% CI, 0.312-0.344]). The trends presented a similar tendency in the subgroups according to sex, school grade, residential area, smoking status, and current alcohol use. Compared with the prepandemic period, the risk factors associated with sadness during the pandemic were younger age (wOR, 0.907; 95% CI, 0.881-0.933), female sex (wOR, 1.031; 95% CI, 1.001-1.062), urban residence (wOR, 1.120; 95% CI, 1.087-1.153), current smoking status (wOR, 1.134; 95% CI, 1.059-1.216), and current alcohol use (wOR, 1.051; 95% CI, 1.002-1.102). Female sex (wOR, 1.064; 95% CI, 1.021-1.109), urban residence (wOR, 1.117; 95% CI, 1.074-1.162), and low economic status (wOR, 1.286; 95% CI, 1.180-1.403) were the risk factors significantly associated with suicidality after the COVID-19 pandemic began. Conclusions and Relevance: In this nationwide serial cross-sectional survey study of South Korean adolescents, the slope of the prevalence of sadness and suicidality increased during the COVID-19 pandemic after a decrease prior to the pandemic. The findings suggest that public health measures are needed to recognize vulnerable groups with risk factors and to prevent an increase in sadness and suicidality among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sadness , Risk Factors , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
2.
J Med Virol ; 95(6): e28833, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241689

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children and adolescents may increase risk for a variety of post-acute sequelae including new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Therefore, this meta-analysis aims to estimate the risk of developing new-onset type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents as post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and EMBASE were systematically searched up to March 20, 2023. A systematic review and subsequent meta-analyses were performed to calculate the pooled effect size, expressed as risk ratio (RR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) of each outcome based on a one-stage approach and the random-effects estimate of the pooled effect sizes of each outcome were generated with the use of the DerSimonian-Laird method. Eight reports from seven studies involving 11 220 530 participants (2 140 897 patients with a history of diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection and 9 079 633 participants in the respective control groups) were included. The included studies reported data from four U.S. medical claims databases covering more than 503 million patients (IQVIA, HealthVerity, TriNetX, and Cerner Real-World Data), and three national health registries for all children and adolescents in Norway, Scotland, and Denmark. It was shown that the risk of new-onset T1DM following SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents was 42% (95% CI 13%-77%, p = 0.002) higher compared with non-COVID-19 control groups. The risk of developing new-onset T1DM following SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly higher (67%, 95% CI 32 %-112%, p = 0.0001) in children and adolescents between 0 and 11 years, but not in those between 12 and 17 years (RR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.54-2.23, p = 0.79). We also found that the higher risk for developing new-onset T1DM following SARS-CoV-2 infection only exists in studies from the United States (RR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.37-2.11, p = 0.00001) but not Europe (RR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.67-1.55, p = 0.93). Furthermore, we found that SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with an elevation in the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children and adolescents compared with non-COVID-19 control groups (RR = 2.56, 95% CI 1.07-6.11, p = 0.03). Our findings mainly obtained from US medical claims databases, suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with higher risk of developing new-onset T1DM and diabetic ketoacidosis in children and adolescents. These findings highlight the need for targeted measures to raise public health practitioners and physician awareness to provide intervention strategies to reduce the risk of developing T1DM in children and adolescents who have had COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Child , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Cohort Studies
3.
J Med Virol ; 95(6): e28852, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241688

ABSTRACT

Long-term sequelae conditions of COVID-19 at least 2-year following SARS-CoV-2 infection are unclear and little is known about their prevalence, longitudinal trajectory, and potential risk factors. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of survivors' health-related consequences and sequelae at 2-year following SARS-CoV-2 infection. PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and EMBASE were systematically searched up to February 10, 2023. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to calculate the pooled effect size, expressed as event rate (ER) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) of each outcome. Twelve studies involving 1 289 044 participants from 11 countries were included. A total of 41.7% of COVID-19 survivors experienced at least one unresolved symptom and 14.1% were unable to return to work at 2-year after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The most frequent symptoms and investigated findings at 2-year after SARS-CoV-2 infection were fatigue (27.4%; 95% CI 17%-40.9%), sleep difficulties (25.1%; 95% CI 22.4%-27.9%), impaired diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (24.6%; 95% CI 10.8%-46.9%), hair loss (10.2%; 95% CI 7.3%-14.2%), and dyspnea (10.1%; 95% CI 4.3%-21.9%). Individuals with severe infection suffered more from anxiety (OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.17-2.44) and had more impairments in forced vital capacity (OR = 9.70, 95% CI 1.94-48.41), total lung capacity (OR = 3.51, 95% CI 1.77-6.99), and residual volume (OR = 3.35, 95% CI 1.85-6.07) after recovery. Existing evidence suggest that participants with a higher risk of long-term sequelae were older, mostly female, had pre-existing medical comorbidities, with more severe status, underwent corticosteroid therapy, and higher inflammation at acute infection. Our findings suggest that 2-year after recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection, 41.7% of survivors still suffer from either neurological, physical, and psychological sequela. These findings indicate that there is an urgent need to preclude persistent or emerging long-term sequelae and provide intervention strategies to reduce the risk of long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Male , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Carbon Monoxide , Disease Progression
4.
Heliyon ; 9(6): e16171, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230838

ABSTRACT

Objective: Famotidine has been proposed as a promising candidate for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there is limited research on the association of famotidine with the poor prognosis of COVID-19. Methods: The Korean nationwide cohort included 6,556 patients who tested positive on RT-PCR for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The poor COVID-19-related outcomes were defined on the basis of having encountered the composite outcome of high oxygen therapy, intensive care unit admission, administration of mechanical ventilation, or death. In addition, we performed exposure-driven propensity score matching for no H2-blocker use versus current famotidine use, and other H2-blocker use versus current famotidine use. Results: 4,785 (73.0%) patients did not use a H2-blocker, 393 (6.0%) patients were currently used famotidine, and 1,292 (19.7%) patients currently used H2-blocker other than famotidine. In multivariable analysis after matching (no H2-blocker use versus current famotidine use), there was no significant association between current famotidine use and composite outcomes (adjusted odd ratios [aOR]: 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-3.06). On the other hand, another matched cohort (other H2-blocker use versus current famotidine use), demonstrated a positive association between current famotidine use and composite outcomes (aOR: 3.56, 95% CI: 1.03-12.28). Conclusions: Our study results did not support the potential of famotidine as a therapeutic agent for COVID-19. A rather unexpected result could be observed in the comparisons between current famotidine use and other H2-blocker use; it was observed that current famotidine use increased the risk of poor COVID-19 related outcomes. Further studies are needed to clearly prove the causal relationship with several H2-blockers, including famotidine.

5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 93(3): 1033-1040, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is giving rise to seemingly unrelated clinical conditions long after the infection has resolved. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine whether COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of dementia including Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study is based on longitudinal data from the IQVIATM Disease Analyzer database and included patients aged≥65 with an initial diagnosis of COVID-19 or acute upper respiratory infection (AURI) from 1,293 general practitioner practices between January 2020 and November 2021. AURI patients were matched 1 : 1 with COVID-19 patients using propensity scores based on sex, age, index quarter, health insurance type, the number of doctor visits, and comorbidities associated with dementia risk. Incidence rates of newly-diagnosed dementia were calculated using the person-years method. Poisson regression models were used to compute the incidence rate ratios (IRR). RESULTS: The present study included 8,129 matched pairs (mean age 75.1 years, 58.9% females). After 12 months of follow-up, 1.84% of the COVID-19 patients and 1.78% of the AURI patients had been diagnosed with dementia. The Poisson regression model resulted in an IRR of 1.05 (95% CI: 0.85-1.29). CONCLUSION: This study did not find any association between COVID-19 infection and one-year dementia incidence after controlling for all common risk factors for dementia. Because dementia is a progressive disease, which can be difficult to diagnose, a longer follow-up period might offer a better insight into a possible association between COVID-19 infection and an increased incidence of dementia cases in the future.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Dementia , Female , Humans , Aged , Male , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/etiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Risk Factors
6.
Rev Med Virol ; : e2408, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316512

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta variant (B.1.617.2) was the predominant variant behind the surges of COVID-19 in the United States, Europe, and India in the second half of 2021. The information available regarding the defining mutations and their effects on the structure, transmission, and vaccine efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 is constantly evolving. With waning vaccine immunity and relaxation of social distancing policies across the globe driving the increased spread of the Delta variant, there is a great need for a resource aggregating the most recent information for clinicians and researchers concerning the Delta variant. Accordingly, this narrative review comprehensively reviews the genetics, structure, epidemiology, clinical course, and vaccine efficacy of the Delta variant. Comparison with the omicron variant is also discussed. The Delta variant is defined by 15 mutations in the Spike protein, most of which increase affinity for the ACE-2 receptor or enhance immune escape. The Delta variant causes similar symptoms to prototypical COVID-19, but it is more likely to be severe, with a greater inflammatory phenotype and viral load. The reproduction number is estimated to be approximately twice the prototypical strains present during the early pandemic, and numerous breakthrough infections have been reported. Despite studies demonstrating breakthrough infection and reduced antibody neutralisation, full vaccination effectively reduces the likelihood of severe illness and hospitalisation.

7.
Neuroepidemiology ; 2023 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301508

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a global pandemic, has infected approximately 10% of the world's population. This comprehensive review aims to determine the prevalence of various neurological disorders in COVID-19 without overlapping meta-analysis errors. METHODS: We searched for meta-analyses on neurologic disorders following COVID-19 published up to March 14, 2023. We obtained 1,184 studies, of which 44 meta-analyses involving 9,228,588 COVID-19 patients were finally included. After confirming the forest plot of each study and removing overlapping individual studies, a re-meta-analysis was performed using the random effect model. RESULTS: The summarized combined prevalence of each neurological disorder is as follows: stroke 3.39%(95% confidence interval, 1.50-5.27), dementia 6.41%(1.36-11.46), multiple sclerosis 4.00%(2.50-5.00), epilepsy 5.36%(-0.60-11.32), Parkinson's disease 0.67%(-1.11-2.45), encephalitis 0.66%(-0.44-1.77) and Guillain-Barré syndrome 3.83%(-0.13-7.80). In addition, the mortality risk of patients with co-morbidities of COVID-19 is as follows: stroke OR 1.63(1.23-2.03), epilepsy OR 1.71(1.00-2.42), dementia OR 1.90(1.31-2.48), Parkinson's disease OR 3.94(-2.12-10.01). CONCLUSION: Our results show that the prevalence and mortality risk may increase in some neurological diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. Future studies should elucidate the precise mechanisms for the link between COVID-19 and neurological diseases, determine which patient characteristics predispose them to neurological diseases, and consider potential global patient management.

8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 5831, 2023 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306192

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We aimed to investigate the long-term trends in CKD prevalence from South Korea including the early pandemic. We used data from 108,152 Korean adults from 2007 to 2020 obtained from a representative longitudinal serial study. We defined CKD as a condition when the participant's estimated glomerular filtration rate was < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, or one-time spot proteinuria was ≥ 1 +, and then examined the overall trends in the prevalence of CKD. Among the included adults (n = 80,010), the overall national prevalence of CKD was 6.2%. The trend slope gradually increased from 2007 to 2019, however, there was a sudden decrease in 2020 (2007-2010, 5.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.7-5.5]; 2017-2019, 7.1% [95% CI 6.6-7.6]; pandemic period, 6.5% [95% CI 5.7-7.3]; and ßdiff, - 0.19; 95% CI - 0.24 to - 0.13). The prevalence of CKD among younger adults and those with poor medical utilization significantly decreased during the early pandemic. This study was the first large-scale study to investigate the longitudinal prevalence of CKD from 2007 to 2020. Further research is needed to fully understand the exact causes for this decline and to identify healthcare policy strategies for preventing and managing CKD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Adult , Humans , Prevalence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors
9.
Biol Psychiatry Glob Open Sci ; 1(4): 310-316, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical reports from across the world have documented psychosis in the context of COVID-19 infection; however, there has yet to be a large-scale epidemiological study to confirm this association. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Healthy Minds Study (N = 15,935; conducted between September and December 2020), which was administered online to students attending one of 28 colleges in the United States. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the associations between COVID-19 infection/severity and psychotic experiences over the past 12 months, adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and international student status as well as anxiety and depression. RESULTS: More than one fifth of the analytic sample reported COVID-19 infection, and about one in six students with COVID-19 infection reported psychotic experiences over the past 12 months. In weighted multivariable logistic regression models, COVID-19 infection was associated with significantly greater odds of having psychotic experiences (adjusted odds ratio 1.36, 95% CI 1.19-1.48). Compared with being asymptomatic, having moderate (adjusted odds ratio 1.85, 95% CI 1.03-3.31) or severe (adjusted odds ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.11-2.77) symptoms was associated with significantly greater odds of having psychotic experiences. These associations became statistically nonsignificant when adjusting for depression and anxiety. Hospitalization was not significantly associated with psychotic experiences among students with COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Psychotic experiences are associated with COVID-19 infections, though much of the association is attenuated when accounting for anxiety and depression. Findings based on this sample of college students should be replicated outside of the college context to determine whether psychosis is a neuropsychiatric symptom during and after COVID-19 infection.

10.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recently emerged novel coronavirus, "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)", caused a highly contagious disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has severely damaged the world's most developed countries and has turned into a major threat for low- and middle-income countries. Since its emergence in late 2019, medical interventions have been substantial, and most countries relied on public health measures collectively known as nonpharmaceutical interventions. AIMS: To centralize the accumulative knowledge on non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against COVID-19 for each country under one worldwide consortium. METHODS: International COVID-19 Research Network collaborators developed a cross-sectional online-survey to assess the implications of NPIs and sanitary supply on incidence and mortality of COVID-19. Survey was conducted between January 1 and February 1, 2021, and participants from 92 countries/territories completed it. The association between NPIs, sanitation supplies and incidence and mortality were examined by multivariate regression, with log-transformed value of population as an offset value. RESULTS: Majority of countries/territories applied several preventive strategies including social distancing (100.0%), quarantine (100.0%), isolation (98.9%), and school closure (97.8%). Individual-level preventive measures such as personal hygiene (100.0%) and wearing facial mask (94.6% at hospital; 93.5% at mass transportation; 91.3% in mass gathering facilities) were also frequently applied. Quarantine at a designated place was negatively associated with incidence and mortality compared to home quarantine. Isolation at a designated place was also associated with reduced mortality compared to home isolation. Recommendations to use sanitizer for personal hygiene reduced incidence compared to recommendation to use soap did. Deprivation of mask was associated with increased incidence. Higher incidence and mortality were found in countries/territories with higher economic level. Mask deprivation was pervasive regardless of economic level. CONCLUSION: NPIs against COVID-19 such as using sanitizer, quarantine, and isolation can decrease incidence and mortality of COVID-19. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
J Addict Med ; 2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is prevalent among college students in the United States and has been associated with substance use. We sought to provide updated prevalence estimates and associations between food insecurity and a broad range of substances during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from the Health Minds Study (N = 94,722; September 2020-June 2021), we used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between food insecurity and several substances, adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, hours worked, and residence. We then added a block of adjustments consisting of mental health factors (depression, anxiety, loneliness, financial stress). RESULTS: Food insecurity was associated with significantly greater odds of having used most individual substances, including greater odds of binge drinking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.30), cigarette use (aOR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.73-2.10), vaping (aOR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.62-1.87), and a range of illicit or prescription drugs (using any illicit/prescription drug; aOR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.32-1.55) These associations attenuated and many lost significance after adjusting for mental health factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study found evidence to suggest that food insecurity is related to substance use in a large sample of young adult college students in the United States, calling for targeted interventions.

12.
Rev Med Virol ; 33(3): e2434, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277488

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, but no systematic synthesis of evidence on COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy against these outcomes has been undertaken. Thus, we aimed to assess the collective evidence on the effects of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes. PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and EMBASE were systematically searched for articles published up to 1 November 2022. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to calculate pooled effects size and 95% confidence interval (CI). We evaluated 30 studies involving 862,272 individuals (308,428 vaccinated and 553,844 unvaccinated). Overall pooled analyses in pregnant women during pregnancy showed reduced risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection by 60% (41%-73%), COVID-19 hospitalisation during pregnancy by 53% (31%-69%), and COVID-19 intensive care unit (ICU) admission by 82% (12%-99%). Neonates of vaccinated women were 1.78 folds more likely to acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first 2, 4 and 6 months of life during the Omicron period. The risk of stillbirth was reduced by 45% (17%-63%) in association with vaccination (vs. no vaccination) in pregnancy. A decrease of 15% (3%-25%), 33% (14%-48%), and 33% (17%-46%) in the odds of preterm births before 37, 32 and 28 weeks' gestation were associated with vaccination (vs. no vaccination) in pregnancy, respectively. The risk of neonatal ICU admission was significantly lower by 20% following COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy (16%-24%). There was no evidence of a higher risk of adverse outcomes including miscarriage, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, cardiac problems, oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios, unassisted vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery, postpartum haemorrhage, gestational age at delivery, placental abruption, Apgar score at 5 min below 7, low birthweight (<2500 g), very low birthweight (<1500 g), small for gestational age, and neonatal foetal abnormalities. COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy is safe and highly effective in preventing maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, without increasing the risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, and is associated with a reduction in stillbirth, preterm births, and neonatal ICU admission. Importantly, maternal vaccination did not reduce the risk of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first 6 months of life during the Omicron period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome
13.
World J Pediatr ; 2023 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have provided data on early pandemic periods of alcohol and substance use in adolescents, more adequate studies are needed to predict the trends of alcohol and substance use during recent periods, including the mid-pandemic period. This study investigated the changes in alcohol and substance use, except tobacco use, throughout the pre-, early-, and mid-pandemic periods in adolescents using a nationwide serial cross-sectional survey from South Korea. METHODS: Data on 1,109,776 Korean adolescents aged 13-18 years from 2005 to 2021 were obtained in a survey operated by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. We evaluated adolescents' alcohol and substance consumption prevalence and compared the slope of alcohol and substance prevalence before and during the COVID-19 pandemic to see the trend changes. We define the pre-COVID-19 period as consisting of four groups of consecutive years (2005-2008, 2009-2012, 2013-2015, and 2016-2019). The COVID-19 pandemic period is composed of 2020 (early-pandemic era) and 2021 (mid-pandemic era). RESULTS: More than a million adolescents successfully met the inclusion criteria. The weighted prevalence of current alcohol use was 26.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 26.4-27.1] from 2005 to 2008 and 10.5% (95% CI 10.1-11.0) in 2020 and 2021. The weighted prevalence of substance use was 1.1% (95% CI 1.1-1.2) from 2005 to 2008 and 0.7% (95% CI 0.6-0.7) between 2020 and 2021. From 2005 to 2021, the overall trend of use of both alcohol and drugs was found to decrease, but the decline has slowed since COVID-19 epidemic (current alcohol use: ßdiff 0.167; 95% CI 0.150-0.184; substance use: ßdiff 0.152; 95% CI 0.110-0.194). The changes in the slope of current alcohol and substance use showed a consistent slowdown with regard to sex, grade, residence area, and smoking status from 2005 to 2021. CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of alcohol consumption and substance use among over one million Korean adolescents from the early and mid-stage (2020-2021) of the COVID-19 pandemic showed a slower decline than expected given the increase during the prepandemic period (2005-2019).

14.
Rev Med Virol ; 33(2): e2414, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268304

ABSTRACT

The susceptibility, risk factors, and prognosis of COVID-19 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remain unknown. Thus, our study aims to assess the prevalence and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in IBD. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and medRxiv from 2019 to 1 June 2022 for cohort and case-control studies comparing the prevalence and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with IBD and in the general population. We also compared the outcomes of patients receiving and not receiving 5-aminosalicylates (ASA), tumour necrosis factor antagonists, biologics, systemic corticosteroids, or immunomodulators for IBD. Thirty five studies were eligible for our analysis. Pooled odds ratio of COVID-19-related hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or death in IBD compared to in non-IBD were 0.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.28-1.18), 1.09 (95% CI = 0.27-4.47), and 0.67 (95% CI = 0.32-1.42), respectively. Inflammatory bowel disease was not associated with increased hospitalisation, ICU admission, or death. Susceptibility to COVID-19 did not increase with any drugs for IBD. Hospitalisation, ICU admission, and death were more likely with 5-ASA and corticosteroid use. COVID-19-related hospitalisation (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.53; 95% CI = 0.38-0.74) and death (OR: 0.13; 95% CI = 0.13-0.70) were less likely with Crohn's disease than ulcerative colitis (UC). In conclusion, IBD does not increase the mortality and morbidity of COVID-19. However, physicians should be aware that additional monitoring is needed in UC patients or in patients taking 5-ASA or systemic corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/chemically induced , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/pathology , Colitis, Ulcerative/chemically induced , Crohn Disease/chemically induced , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Mesalamine
15.
Psychosom Med ; 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240817

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Older adults may be at lower risk of common mental disorders than younger adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous researchers have shown differences by age in psychosocial well-being during the pandemic and have highlighted the moderating effect of pre-pandemic mental disorders on that association. In this line, we examined the association of age with self-reported symptoms of loneliness, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress, as well as potential roles of loneliness symptoms and pre-pandemic mental disorders on the association between age and mental disorder symptoms. METHODS: Cross-sectional data of 2,000 Spanish adults interviewed by phone during the COVID-19 pandemic (February-March, 2021) were analyzed. Depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress were measured with the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire, the 7-item GAD, and the 4-item checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), respectively. Loneliness was measured with the 3-item UCLA loneliness scale. Several regression models were constructed to assess factors related to loneliness and mental disorders. RESULTS: According to cut-off points used, 12.4% of participants revealed depression, 11.9% anxiety, and 11.6% posttraumatic stress. Age was negatively related with mental disorder symptoms and loneliness. Loneliness was associated with higher levels of mental disorder symptoms. This association was stronger in younger adults without pre-pandemic mental disorders and in older adults without them. The association between age and loneliness was stronger in those with pre-pandemic mental disorders. Loneliness mediated the association of age with mental disorder symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions focused on loneliness could alleviate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health.

16.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234685

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The longitudinal trajectories of cardiac structure and function following SARS-CoV-2 infection are unclear. Therefore, this meta-analysis aims to elucidate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cardiac function in COVID-19 survivors after recovery. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and EMBASE were systematically searched for articles published up to 1st August 2022. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to calculate the pooled effects size and 95% confidence interval (CI) of each outcome. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies including 2394 individuals (1436 post-COVID-19 cases and 958 controls) were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled analyses compared with control groups showed a significant association between post-COVID-19 and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LV EF), LV end-diastolic volume (LV EDV), LV stroke volume (LV SV), mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE), global longitudinal strain (GLS), right ventricular EF (RV EF), RV EDV, RV ESV, RV SV, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), and increased LV mass. Subgroup analysis based on the severity of COVID-19 in the acute phase and subsequent chronic outcomes revealed that LV EF, MAPSE, RV EF, and RV ESV only decreased in studies including patients with a history of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. CONCLUSION: Cardiac impairment after SARS-CoV-2 infection persisted in recovered COVID-19 patients even after one year. Future studies are warranted to determine the biological mechanisms underlying the long-term cardiovascular consequences of COVID-19. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

17.
J Med Virol ; : e28298, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234684

ABSTRACT

Dietary quality and patterns may influence SARS-CoV-2 infection and outcomes, but scientific data and evidence to support such a role are lacking. Therefore, this meta-analysis aims to elucidate the effect of prepandemic diet quality on the risk of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization. PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Scopus, and EMBASE were systematically searched for articles published up to September 1, 2022. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to calculate each outcome's risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Five studies including 4 023 663 individuals (3 149 784 high-quality diet individuals and 873 881 controls) were included in the present meta-analysis. The effectiveness of high-quality dietary pattern against SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalization was 28% (95% CI 19%-36%) and 62% (95% CI 25%-80%); respectively. Subgroup analysis based on different levels of diet quality showed no difference between middle and high levels of diet quality in reducing the risk of COVID-19 infection. Interestingly, subgroup analysis based on the different types of high-quality diets and the risk of COVID-19 infection revealed that the effectiveness of plant-based diet against SARS-CoV-2 infection was 50% (95% CI 30%-65%); while the effectiveness of Mediterranean diet against SARS-CoV-2 infection was 22% (95% CI 12%-31%). Adherence to a high-quality dietary pattern is associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization. More studies are required to confirm these findings, and future studies should determine the biological mechanisms underlying the association between diet quality and risk of COVID-19 infection.

18.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dementia has been identified as a major predictor of mortality associated with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between dementia and mortality in COVID-19 inpatients in Germany across a longer interval during the pandemic. METHODS: This retrospective study was based on anonymized data from 50 hospitals in Germany and included patients with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis hospitalized between March 11, 2020 and July, 20, 2022. The main outcome of the study was the association of mortality during inpatient stays with dementia diagnosis, which was studied using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities as well as univariate logistic regression for matched pairs. RESULTS: Of 28,311 patients diagnosed with COVID-19, 11.3% had a diagnosis of dementia. Prior to matching, 26.5% of dementia patients and 11.5% of non-dementia patients died; the difference decreased to 26.5% of dementia versus 21.7% of non-dementia patients within the matched pairs (n = 3,317). This corresponded to an increase in the risk of death associated with dementia (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.16-1.46) in the univariate regression conducted for matched pairs. CONCLUSION: Although dementia was associated with COVID-19 mortality, the association was weaker than in previously published studies. Further studies are needed to better understand whether and how pre-existing neuropsychiatric conditions such as dementia may impact the course and outcome of COVID-19.

19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(4)2023 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that changes in social support and loneliness have affected mental disorder symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there are a lack of studies comparing the robustness of these associations. AIMS: The aims were to estimate the strength of the associations of loneliness and social support with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2022) in the general population. METHOD: The method entailed a systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis of quantitative studies. RESULTS: Seventy-three studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled correlations of the effect size of the association of loneliness with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress were 0.49, 0.40, and 0.38, respectively. The corresponding figures for social support were 0.29, 0.19, and 0.18, respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that the strength of some associations could be influenced by the sociodemographic characteristics of the study samples, such as age, gender, region, and COVID-19 stringency index, and by methodological moderators, such as sample size, collection date, methodological quality, and the measurement scales. CONCLUSIONS: Social support had a weak association with mental disorder symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic while the association with loneliness was moderate. Strategies to address loneliness could be highly effective in reducing the impact of the pandemic on social relationships and mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Pandemics , Loneliness , Depression , Anxiety , Social Support
20.
J Med Virol ; 95(2): e28522, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2209123

ABSTRACT

As coronavirus variants are constantly occurring, we tried to understand more about the omicron and delta variants that have hit the world. We provided dynamic information on the case fatality rate (CFR) of the Omicron variant over time and to compare it with that of the Delta variant through meta-analysis. Twenty-four countries were selected by submission counts, submission dates, and confirmed cases. We defined the Delta or the Omicron epidemic period for individual countries as when each variant is over 90%. We further analyzed the Omicron period by dividing it into the initial plateau, increasing, and decreasing phases according to the number of newly confirmed daily cases. Finally, the meta-analysis examined the summary and between-study heterogeneity. The CFR of COVID-19 during the Omicron epidemic was lower than that during the Delta epidemic (odds ratio [OR]: 0.252, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.205-0.309). The CFR of COVID-19 during the initial plateau phase of Omicron was higher than during other phases. (OR: 1.962, 95% CI 1.607-2.397). The CFR of COVID-19 during the increasing phase was lower than during the decreasing phases (OR: 0.412, 95% CI 0.342-0.498). The Omicron variant had lower CFR compared to the Delta variant, and the initial plateau phase had higher CFR compared to the noninitial phases. These results can help establish global health policies for COVID-19 in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Policy
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