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1.
GCC Hydrocarbon Economies and COVID: Old Trends, New Realities ; : 1-316, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20238144

ABSTRACT

The book considers the impact of COVID-19 on the GCC member states through the prism of challenges faced by their hydrocarbon sector. Yet, the publication's discourse is not solely focused on the problems experienced by the oil and gas industries of the GCC member states after the beginning of the COVID pandemic. Instead, the contributors will analyze how these challenges and subsequent response to them affected other aspects of the GCC socio-economic and political development, from direct impact of the COVID on the energy sector of the GCC to socio-economic consequences of the oil market crisis for the region and its potential fallouts for the international relations of the Gulf. © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2023, corrected publication 2023.

2.
GCC Hydrocarbon Economies and COVID: Old Trends, New Realities ; : 1-11, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20238143

ABSTRACT

The negative impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the hydrocarbon producers of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is raising serious questions about the need to change the focus of Gulf energy security from the necessity to protect the interests of Gulf oil consumers to the need to ensure the interests of oil producers themselves. © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2023, corrected publication 2023.

3.
GCC Hydrocarbon Economies and COVID: Old Trends, New Realities ; : 201-224, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20238142

ABSTRACT

During 2019-2020, neither the outbreak of coronavirus nor growing domestic issues were able to prevent the US and Iran from continuing their confrontation. While being nothing of a new, these tensions unintentionally demonstrated a very important change in the notion of the energy security of the Gulf. In the past, the intense exchange of mutual threats between the US and Iran-especially if followed by the actual aggressive actions-would inevitably increase the concerns of oil consumers and affect oil prices. However, none of these happened. Nowadays, the US-Iranian tensions, in the first turn, affect the interests of regional hydrocarbon producers who are much more than consumers worried about their sustainable access to the external markets and security of export flows, highlighting serious shift in the concept of the Gulf energy security towards the security of demand rather than supply. © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2023, corrected publication 2023.

4.
GCC Hydrocarbon Economies and COVID: Old Trends, New Realities ; : 13-29, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20231715

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the Covid-19 epidemic and the resulting economic downturn have undermined the already weakened position of the global oil and gas industry. Since the transportation sector depends on 60 percent of energy from oil consumption, movement constraints are quickly interpreted into reduced oil demand. Consequently, various crude oil indices reached their lowest level by mid-2020, when the daily global oil consumption declined to less than 75 million barrels, compared to some 100 million barrels earlier that year, before recovering afterward. © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2023, corrected publication 2023.

5.
Ideology and Politics Journal ; - (3-19):109-124, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2218160

ABSTRACT

Using the elements of the ‘small state' theory, the article examines interconnections between Qatar's foreign policy priorities and existing challenges to Doha's presence at the natural gas markets caused by the impact of the US shale revolution, beginning of the global energy transition, and COVID-19 pandemic. The study argues that Qatar's previous efforts aimed at the development of its export-oriented LNG industry allowed the Emirate to fund and pursue a foreign policy strategy that was uncommon for a small state. Since the late-1990es, Qatar's diplomacy was based on the principles of complexed risks hedging that allowed maintaining the substantial degree of independence rather than more typical "bandwagoning” or "balancing” used by other "small states”. During the last two decades, Doha was also more oriented towards interaction with players outside of the Gulf Cooperation Council. At the same time, the ongoing transformations of the hydrocarbon markets created a threat to the sustainability of the main financial source that is finding the current model of Qatar's foreign policy behavior—LNG exports. Under these circumstances, the country must fight for its place in the market, ensuring sustainable demand for its main export product. This, in turn, forces Doha to re-adjust its relations with both LNG consumers and its main market rivals to maintain the sufficient inflow of financial revenues from energy exports that helps Qatar to pursue a more active and independent foreign policy than the so-called "small states” can traditionally afford. However, it was the same experience of the risk hedging strategy traditionally applied by the Qatari leadership that allowed Doha to develop the set of response measures to emerging challenges. © 2021 Foundation for Good Politics

6.
Mirovaya Ekonomika I Mezhdunarodnye Otnosheniya ; 65(9):108-117, 2021.
Article in Russian | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1551988

ABSTRACT

Using elements of the 'small state' theory, the article examines relations between Qatar's foreign policy priorities and existing challenges to Doha's presence at the natural gas markets caused by the impact of the US shale revolution, beginning of the global energy transition, and COVID-19 pandemic. These factors shifted the critical emphasis in the concept of the Persian Gulf energy security. The oversupply of gas that has been existing in the markets since 2019 and the emergence of new leaders in the list of leading LNG exporting countries in recent years significantly changed the situation in the markets in favor of consumers, who can now diversify their sources of supply. Under these circumstances, the sustainability of gas exports from the Gulf countries is no longer a factor of supply security, but an element of demand security: while LNG consumers have access to alternative suppliers, it is Qatar that has to fight for its place in the market, ensuring a stable demand for its main export product. This, in turn, forces Doha to re-adjust its relations with both the consumer countries and main rivals at the LNG market. Under the new circumstances, Qatar's main challenge remains unchanged: it has to maintain sufficient financial revenues received from the LNG exports to ensure its more active and independent foreign policy that differs it from other so-called "small states". Yet, to achieve this, Qatar is following the traditional strategy of small states: it hedges its risks through forming multilevel coalitions and alliances with both consumers and exporters of natural gas.

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