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1.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625044

ABSTRACT

The rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines was the result of decades of research to establish flexible vaccine platforms and understand pathogens with pandemic potential, as well as several novel changes to the vaccine discovery and development processes that partnered industry and governments. And while vaccines offer the potential to drastically improve global health, low-and-middle-income countries around the world often experience reduced access to vaccines and reduced vaccine efficacy. Addressing these issues will require novel vaccine approaches and platforms, deeper insight how vaccines mediate protection, and innovative trial designs and models. On June 28-30, 2021, experts in vaccine research, development, manufacturing, and deployment met virtually for the Keystone eSymposium "Innovative Vaccine Approaches" to discuss advances in vaccine research and development.

2.
Nature ; 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616995

ABSTRACT

The Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was initially identified in November of 2021 in South Africa and Botswana as well as in a sample from a traveler from South Africa in Hong Kong1,2. Since then, B.1.1.529 has been detected globally. This variant seems to be at least equally infectious than B.1.617.2 (Delta), has already caused super spreader events3 and has outcompeted Delta within weeks in several countries and metropolitan areas. B.1.1.529 hosts an unprecedented number of mutations in its spike gene and early reports have provided evidence for extensive immune escape and reduced vaccine effectiveness2,4-6. Here, we investigated the neutralizing and binding activity of sera from convalescent, mRNA double vaccinated, mRNA boosted, convalescent double vaccinated, and convalescent boosted individuals against wild type, B.1.351 and B.1.1.529 SARS-CoV-2 isolates. Neutralizing activity of sera from convalescent and double vaccinated participants was undetectable to very low against B.1.1.529 while neutralizing activity of sera from individuals who had been exposed to spike three or four times was maintained, albeit at significantly reduced levels. Binding to the B.1.1.529 receptor binding domain (RBD) and N-terminal domain (NTD) was reduced in convalescent not vaccinated individuals, but was mostly retained in vaccinated individuals.

3.
Immunity ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1611777

ABSTRACT

Summary: SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines confer robust protection against COVID-19, but the emergence of variants has generated concerns regarding the protective efficacy of currently approved vaccines, which lose neutralizing potency against some variants. Emerging data suggest that antibody functions beyond neutralization may contribute to protection from disease, but little is known about SARS-CoV-2 antibody effector functions. Here we profiled the binding and functional capacity of convalescent antibodies and Moderna mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibodies across SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). While neutralizing responses to VOCs decreased in both groups, Fc-mediated responses were distinct. In convalescent individuals, while antibodies exhibited robust binding to VOCs, they showed compromised interactions with Fc-receptors. Conversely, vaccine-induced antibodies also bound robustly to VOCs but continued interacting with Fc-receptors and mediated antibody effector functions. These data point to a resilience in the mRNA vaccine-induced humoral immune response that may continue to protect from SARS-CoV-2 VOCs independent of neutralization.

4.
Preprint | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296962

ABSTRACT

Mucosal immune responses are critical to prevent respiratory infections but it is unclear to what extent antigen specific mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies are induced by mRNA vaccination in humans. We analyzed, therefore, paired serum and saliva samples from study participants with and without COVID-19 at multiple timepoints before and after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA vaccination. Our results suggest that the level of mucosal SIgA responses induced by mRNA vaccination depend on pre-existing immunity. Indeed, vaccination induced only a weak mucosal SIgA response in individuals without pre-existing mucosal antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 while SIgA induction after vaccination was efficient in COVID-19 survivors. Our data indicate that vaccinated seropositive individuals were able to swiftly induce relatively high anti-spike SIgA responses by boosting pre-existing mucosal immunity. In contrast, seronegative individuals did not have pre-existing anti-SARS-CoV-2 or cross-reacting anti-HCoV SIgA antibodies prior to vaccination, and, thus, little or no anti-SARS-CoV-2 SIgA antibodies were induced by vaccination in these individuals.

5.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575441

ABSTRACT

Patients with lung cancer are especially vulnerable to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a greater than sevenfold higher rate of becoming infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) COVID-19, a greater than threefold higher hospitalization rate with high complication rates, and an estimated case fatality rate of more than 30%. The reasons for the increased vulnerability are not known. In addition, beyond the direct impact of the pandemic on morbidity and mortality among patients with lung cancer, COVID-19, with its disruption of patient care, has also resulted in substantial impact on lung cancer screening and treatment/management.COVID-19 vaccines are safe and effective in people with lung cancer. On the basis of the available data, patients with lung cancer should continue their course of cancer treatment and get vaccinated against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. For unknown reasons, some patients with lung cancer mount poor antibody responses to vaccination. Thus, boosting vaccination seems urgently indicated in this subgroup of vulnerable patients with lung cancer. Nevertheless, many unanswered questions regarding vaccination in this population remain, including the magnitude, quality, and duration of antibody response and the role of innate and acquired cellular immunities for clinical protection. Additional important knowledge gaps also remain, including the following: how can we best protect patients with lung cancer from developing COVID-19, including managing care in patient with lung cancer and the home environment of patients with lung cancer; are there clinical/treatment demographics and tumor molecular demographics that affect severity of COVID-19 disease in patients with lung cancer; does anticancer treatment affect antibody production and protection; does SARS-CoV-2 infection affect the development/progression of lung cancer; and are special measures and vaccine strategies needed for patients with lung cancer as viral variants of concern emerge.

6.
PLoS Biol ; 19(12): e3001384, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573706

ABSTRACT

Vaccines against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been highly efficient in protecting against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the emergence of viral variants that are more transmissible and, in some cases, escape from neutralizing antibody responses has raised concerns. Here, we evaluated recombinant protein spike antigens derived from wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and from variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1 for their immunogenicity and protective effect in vivo against challenge with wild-type SARS-CoV-2 in the mouse model. All proteins induced high neutralizing antibodies against the respective viruses but also induced high cross-neutralizing antibody responses. The decline in neutralizing titers between variants was moderate, with B.1.1.7-vaccinated animals having a maximum fold reduction of 4.8 against B.1.351 virus. P.1 induced the most cross-reactive antibody responses but was also the least immunogenic in terms of homologous neutralization titers. However, all antigens protected from challenge with wild-type SARS-CoV-2 in a mouse model.

7.
Med (N Y) ; 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568933

ABSTRACT

Background: Although vaccines effectively prevent COVID-19 in healthy individuals, they appear less immunogenic in individuals with chronic inflammatory diseases (CID) or receiving chronic immunosuppression therapy. Methods: Here, we assessed a cohort of 77 CID patients treated as monotherapy with chronic immunosuppressive drugs for antibody responses in serum against historical and variant SARS-CoV-2 viruses after immunization with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Findings: Longitudinal analysis showed the greatest reductions in neutralizing antibodies and Fc effector functions capacity in individuals treated with TNF-α inhibitors (TNFi), and this pattern appeared worse against B.1.617.2 Delta virus. Within five months of vaccination, serum neutralizing titers of all TNFi-treated patients tested fell below the presumed threshold correlate for antibody-mediated protection. However, TNFi-treated patients receiving a third mRNA vaccine dose boosted their serum neutralizing antibody titers by more than 16-fold. Conclusions: Thus, vaccine boosting or administration of long-acting prophylaxis (e.g., monoclonal antibodies) likely will be required to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in this susceptible population. Funding: This study was supported by grants and contracts from NIH (R01 AI157155, R01AI151178, HHSN75N93019C00074, NIAID Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Response (CEIRR) contracts HHSN272201400008C and 75N93021C00014, and the Collaborative Influenza Vaccine Innovation Centers (CIVIC) contract 75N93019C00051).

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination there is significant variability between individuals in protective antibody levels against SARS-CoV-2, and within individuals against different virus variants. However, host demographic or clinical characteristics that predict variability in cross-reactive antibody levels are not well-described. These data could inform clinicians, researchers, and policy makers on the populations most likely to require vaccine booster shots. METHODS: In an institutional review board-approved prospective observational cohort study of staff at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, we identified participants with plasma samples collected after SARS-CoV-2 infection, after mRNA vaccination, and after vaccination following infection, and quantitated IgG levels by ELISA to the spike receptor binding domain (RBD) from five important SARS-CoV-2 variants (Wuhan Hu-1, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1 and B.1.617.2). We used regression models to identify factors that contributed to cross-reactive IgG against one or multiple viral variants. RESULTS: Following infection, a minority of the cohort generated cross-reactive antibodies, IgG antibodies that bound all tested variants. Those that did had increased disease severity, poor metabolic health, and were of a particular ancestry. Vaccination increased the levels of cross-reactive IgG levels in all populations including immunocompromised, elderly and persons with poor metabolic health. Younger people with a healthy weight mounted the highest responses. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide important new information on individual antibody responses to infection/vaccination that could inform clinicians on the populations that may require follow-on immunization.

9.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560762

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in fully vaccinated individuals are receiving intense scrutiny because of their importance in determining how long restrictions to control virus transmission will need to remain in place in highly vaccinated populations as well as in determining the need for additional vaccine doses or changes to the vaccine formulations and/or dosing intervals. Measurement of breakthrough infections is challenging outside of randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind field trials. However, laboratory and observational studies are necessary to understand the impact of waning immunity, viral variants and other determinants of changing vaccine effectiveness against various levels of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity. Here, we describe the approaches being used to measure vaccine effectiveness and provide a synthesis of the burgeoning literature on the determinants of vaccine effectiveness and breakthrough rates. We argue that, rather than trying to tease apart the contributions of factors such as age, viral variants and time since vaccination, the rates of breakthrough infection are best seen as a consequence of the level of immunity at any moment in an individual, the variant to which that individual is exposed and the severity of disease being considered. We also address key open questions concerning the transition to endemicity, the potential need for altered vaccine formulations to track viral variants, the need to identify immune correlates of protection, and the public health challenges of using various tools to counter breakthrough infections, including boosters in an era of global vaccine shortages.

10.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295859

ABSTRACT

Children are at lower risk of developing severe COVID-19, yet the underlying immune mechanisms are understudied. While children’s innate immunity can drive rapid resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the establishment of SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell and B-cell memory in COVID-19 children remains unexplored. We recruited a household cohort to understand SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell immune responses at one month after mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in PCR-positive children in comparison to those found in their mothers. We analysed SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses, together with B-cells, directly ex vivo using six HLA class-I tetramers and one class-II tetramer presenting SARS57 CoV-2 T-cell epitopes (A1/ORF1a1637, A2/S269, A3/N361, A24/S1208, B7/N105, B40/N322 and DPB4/S167), and Spike- and Receptor Binding Domain (RBD)-specific B-cell probes. Our in depth profiling of epitope-specific T-cell responses at quantitative, phenotypic and clonal levels found that only children who seroconverted had prominent memory T-cell and B-cell profiles. These children had a high magnitude of SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cells displaying memory phenotypes and prevalent T-cell receptor motifs, which were not observed in PCR+ RBD but IgG-negative children. This suggests that seroconversion but not PCR-positivity defines establishment of adaptive SARS-CoV-2-specific immunological memory in children. Our study suggests that COVID-19 vaccination of children could be a major advantage in terms of establishing T-cell and B-cell immunological memory, especially in children who did not seroconvert after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

11.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294450

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Although vaccines effectively prevent COVID-19 in healthy individuals, they appear less immunogenic in individuals with chronic inflammatory diseases (CID) and/or under chronic immunosuppression, and there is uncertainty of their activity against emerging variants of concern in this population. Here, we assessed a cohort of 74 CID patients treated as monotherapy with chronic immunosuppressive drugs for functional antibody responses in serum against historical and variant SARS-CoV-2 viruses after immunization with Pfizer mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine. Longitudinal analysis showed the greatest reductions in neutralizing antibodies and Fc effector function capacity in individuals treated with TNF-α inhibitors, and this pattern appeared worse against the B.1.617.2 Delta virus. Within five months of vaccination, serum neutralizing titers of the majority of CID patients fell below the presumed threshold correlate for antibody-mediated protection. Thus, further vaccine boosting or administration of long-acting prophylaxis ( e . g ., monoclonal antibodies) likely will be required to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in this susceptible population.

12.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294083

ABSTRACT

Summary In this study we profiled vaccine-induced polyclonal antibodies as well as plasmablast derived mAbs from individuals who received SARS-CoV-2 spike mRNA vaccine. Polyclonal antibody responses in vaccinees were robust and comparable to or exceeded those seen after natural infection. However, the ratio of binding to neutralizing antibodies after vaccination was greater than that after natural infection and, at the monoclonal level, we found that the majority of vaccine-induced antibodies did not have neutralizing activity. We also found a co-dominance of mAbs targeting the NTD and RBD of SARS-CoV-2 spike and an original antigenic-sin like backboost to seasonal human coronaviruses OC43 and HKU1. Neutralizing activity of NTD mAbs but not RBD mAbs against a clinical viral isolate carrying E484K as well as extensive changes in the NTD was abolished, suggesting that a proportion of vaccine induced RBD binding antibodies may provide substantial protection against viral variants carrying single E484K RBD mutations.

13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 791764, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556181

ABSTRACT

Despite global vaccination efforts, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to evolve and spread globally. Relatively high vaccination rates have been achieved in most regions of the United States and several countries worldwide. However, access to vaccines in low- and mid-income countries (LMICs) is still suboptimal. Second generation vaccines that are universally affordable and induce systemic and mucosal immunity are needed. Here we performed an extended safety and immunogenicity analysis of a second-generation SARS-CoV-2 vaccine consisting of a live Newcastle disease virus vector expressing a pre-fusion stabilized version of the spike protein (NDV-HXP-S) administered intranasally (IN), intramuscularly (IM), or IN followed by IM in Sprague Dawley rats. Local reactogenicity, systemic toxicity, and post-mortem histopathology were assessed after the vaccine administration, with no indication of severe local or systemic reactions. Immunogenicity studies showed that the three vaccination regimens tested elicited high antibody titers against the wild type SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the NDV vector. Moreover, high antibody titers were induced against the spike of B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta) and B.1.617.2 (delta) variants of concern (VOCs). Importantly, robust levels of serum antibodies with neutralizing activity against the authentic SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020 isolate were detected after the boost. Overall, our study expands the pre-clinical safety and immunogenicity characterization of NDV-HXP-S and reinforces previous findings in other animal models about its high immunogenicity. Clinical testing of this vaccination approach is ongoing in different countries including Thailand, Vietnam, Brazil and Mexico.

14.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global health threat, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Questions remain about how SARS-CoV-2 impacts pregnant individuals and their children. OBJECTIVE: To expand our understanding of the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes, regardless of symptomatology, by using serological tests to measure IgG antibody levels. METHODS: The Generation C Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study conducted at the Mount Sinai Health System. All pregnant individuals receiving obstetrical care at the Mount Sinai Healthcare System from 20 April 2020 onwards are eligible for participation. For the current analysis, we included participants who had given birth to a liveborn singleton infant on or before 22 September 2020. For each woman, we tested the latest prenatal blood sample available to establish seropositivity using a SARS-CoV-2 serologic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, RT-PCR testing was performed on a nasopharyngeal swab taken during labour. Pregnancy outcomes of interest (i.e., gestational age at delivery, preterm birth, small for gestational age, Apgar scores, maternal and neonatal intensive care unit admission, and length of neonatal hospital stay) and covariates were extracted from medical records. Excluding individuals who tested RT-PCR positive at delivery, we conducted crude and adjusted regression models to compare antibody positive with antibody negative individuals at delivery. We stratified analyses by race/ethnicity to examine potential effect modification. RESULTS: The SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence based on IgG measurement was 16.4% (95% confidence interval 13.7, 19.3; n=116). Twelve individuals (1.7%) were SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive at delivery. Seropositive individuals were generally younger, more often Black or Hispanic, and more often had public insurance and higher pre-pregnancy BMI compared with seronegative individuals. None of the examined pregnancy outcomes differed by seropositivity, overall or stratified by race/ethnicity. CONCLUSION: Seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2 without RT-PCR positivity at delivery (suggesting that infection occurred earlier during pregnancy) was not associated with selected adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes among live births in a cohort sample from New York City.

16.
Heliyon ; 7(12): e08444, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521002

ABSTRACT

A novel clinical assay for the detection and quantitation of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was adapted from an in-house, research-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Development and validation were performed under regulatory guidelines, and the test obtained emergency use authorization (EUA) from the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Mount Sinai coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) antibody assay is an orthogonal, quantitative direct ELISA test which detects antibodies reactive to the receptor binding domain (RBD) and the spike protein of the novel SARS-CoV-2. The assay is performed on 96-well plates coated with either SARS-CoV-2 recombinant RBD or spike proteins. The test is divided into two stages, a qualitative screening assay against RBD and a quantitative assay against the full-length spike protein. The test uses pooled high titer serum as a reference standard. Negative pre-COVID-19 and positive post-COVID-19, PCR-confirmed specimens were incorporated in each ELISA test run, and the assays were performed independently at two different locations. The Mount Sinai COVID-19 serology performed with high sensitivity and specificity, 92.5% (95% CI: 0.785-0.980) and 100% (CI: 0.939-1.000) respectively. Between-run precision was assessed with a single run repeated over 22 days; and within-run precision was assessed with 10 replicates per day over 22 days. Both were within reported acceptance criteria (CV ≤ 20%). This population-based study reveals the applicability and reliability of this novel orthogonal COVID-19 serology test for the detection and quantitation of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, allowing a broad set of clinical applications, including the broad evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and antibody profiling in different population subsets.

17.
mBio ; : e0297521, 2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518123

ABSTRACT

Several severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have arisen that exhibit increased viral transmissibility and partial evasion of immunity induced by natural infection and vaccination. To address the specific antibody targets that were affected by recent viral variants, we generated 43 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from 10 convalescent donors that bound three distinct domains of the SARS-CoV-2 spike. Viral variants harboring mutations at K417, E484, and N501 could escape most of the highly potent antibodies against the receptor binding domain (RBD). Despite this, we identified 12 neutralizing mAbs against three distinct regions of the spike protein that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern (VOCs), including B.1.1.7 (alpha), P.1 (gamma), and B.1.617.2 (delta). Notably, antibodies targeting distinct epitopes could neutralize discrete variants, suggesting that different variants may have evolved to disrupt the binding of particular neutralizing antibody classes. These results underscore that humans exposed to the first pandemic wave of prototype SARS-CoV-2 possess neutralizing antibodies against current variants and that it is critical to induce antibodies targeting multiple distinct epitopes of the spike that can neutralize emerging variants of concern. IMPORTANCE We describe the binding and neutralization properties of a new set of human monoclonal antibodies derived from memory B cells of 10 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent donors in the first pandemic wave of prototype SARS-CoV-2. There were 12 antibodies targeting distinct epitopes on spike, including two sites on the RBD and one on the N-terminal domain (NTD), that displayed cross-neutralization of VOCs, for which distinct antibody targets could neutralize discrete variants. This work underlines that natural infection by SARS-CoV-2 induces effective cross-neutralization against only some VOCs and supports the need for COVID-19 vaccination for robust induction of neutralizing antibodies targeting multiple epitopes of the spike protein to combat the current SARS-CoV-2 VOCs and any others that might emerge in the future.

20.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750493

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently causing a worldwide pandemic with high morbidity and mortality. Development of animal models that recapitulate important aspects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is critical for the evaluation of vaccines and antivirals, and understanding disease pathogenesis. SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to use the same entry receptor as SARS-CoV-1, human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2)(1-3). Due to amino acid differences between murine and hACE2, inbred mouse strains fail to support high titer viral replication of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Therefore, a number of transgenic and knock-in mouse models, as well as viral vector-mediated hACE2 delivery systems have been developed. Here we compared the K18-hACE2 transgenic model to adenovirus-mediated delivery of hACE2 to the mouse lung. We show that K18-hACE2 mice replicate virus to high titers in both the lung and brain leading to lethality. In contrast, adenovirus-mediated delivery results in viral replication to lower titers limited to the lung, and no clinical signs of infection with a challenge dose of 10 (4) plaque forming units. The K18-hACE2 model provides a stringent model for testing the ability of vaccines and antivirals to protect against disease, whereas the adenovirus delivery system has the flexibility to be used across multiple genetic backgrounds and modified mouse strains.

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