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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265207, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various forms of contact restrictions have been adopted in response to the Covid-19 pandemic. Around February 2021, rapid testing appeared as a new policy instrument. Some claim it may serve as a substitute for contact restrictions. We study the strength of this argument by evaluating the effects of a unique policy experiment: In March and April 2021, the city of Tübingen set up a testing scheme while relaxing contact restrictions. METHODS: We compare case rates in Tübingen county to an appropriately identified control unit. We employ the synthetic control method. We base interpretations of our findings on an extended SEIR model. FINDINGS: The experiment led to an increase in the reported case rate. This increase is robust across alternative statistical specifications. This is also due to more testing leading initially to more reported cases. An epidemiological model that corrects for 'more cases due to more testing' and 'reduced testing and reporting during the Easter holiday' confirms that the overall effect of the experiment led to more infections. INTERPRETATION: The number of rapid tests were not sufficiently high in this experiment to compensate for more contacts and thereby infections caused by relaxing contact restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Quarantine/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Germany/epidemiology , Humans
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 798859, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581315

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in saliva serve as first line of defense against the virus. They are present in the mucosa, more precisely in saliva, after a recovered infection and also following vaccination. We report here the antibody persistence in plasma and in saliva up to 15 months after mild COVID-19. The IgG antibody response was measured every two months in 72 participants using an established and validated in-house ELISA assay. In addition, the virus inhibitory activity of plasma antibodies was assessed in a surrogate virus neutralization test before and after vaccination. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody concentrations remained stable in plasma and saliva and the response was strongly boosted after one dose COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Saliva/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(3): 329-340, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Additional safe and efficacious vaccines are needed to control the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to analyse the efficacy and safety of the CVnCoV SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine candidate. METHODS: HERALD is a randomised, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 2b/3 clinical trial conducted in 47 centres in ten countries in Europe and Latin America. By use of an interactive web response system and stratification by country and age group (18-60 years and ≥61 years), adults with no history of virologically confirmed COVID-19 were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intramuscularly either two 0·6 mL doses of CVnCoV containing 12 µg of mRNA or two 0·6 mL doses of 0·9% NaCl (placebo) on days 1 and 29. The primary efficacy endpoint was the occurrence of a first episode of virologically confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 of any severity and caused by any strain from 15 days after the second dose. For the primary endpoint, the trial was considered successful if the lower limit of the CI was greater than 30%. Key secondary endpoints were the occurrence of a first episode of virologically confirmed moderate-to-severe COVID-19, severe COVID-19, and COVID-19 of any severity by age group. Primary safety outcomes were solicited local and systemic adverse events within 7 days after each dose and unsolicited adverse events within 28 days after each dose in phase 2b participants, and serious adverse events and adverse events of special interest up to 1 year after the second dose in phase 2b and phase 3 participants. Here, we report data up to June 18, 2021. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04652102, and EudraCT, 2020-003998-22, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Dec 11, 2020, and April 12, 2021, 39 680 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either CVnCoV (n=19 846) or placebo (n=19 834), of whom 19 783 received at least one dose of CVnCoV and 19 746 received at least one dose of placebo. After a mean observation period of 48·2 days (SE 0·2), 83 cases of COVID-19 occurred in the CVnCoV group (n=12 851) in 1735·29 person-years and 145 cases occurred in the placebo group (n=12 211) in 1569·87 person-years, resulting in an overall vaccine efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 of 48·2% (95·826% CI 31·0-61·4; p=0·016). Vaccine efficacy against moderate-to-severe COVID-19 was 70·7% (95% CI 42·5-86·1; CVnCoV 12 cases in 1735·29 person-years, placebo 37 cases in 1569·87 person-years). In participants aged 18-60 years, vaccine efficacy against symptomatic disease was 52·5% (95% CI 36·2-64·8; CVnCoV 71 cases in 1591·47 person-years, placebo, 136 cases in 1449·23 person-years). Too few cases occurred in participants aged 61 years or older (CVnCoV 12, placebo nine) to allow meaningful assessment of vaccine efficacy. Solicited adverse events, which were mostly systemic, were more common in CVnCoV recipients (1933 [96·5%] of 2003) than in placebo recipients (1344 [67·9%] of 1978), with 542 (27·1%) CVnCoV recipients and 61 (3·1%) placebo recipients reporting grade 3 solicited adverse events. The most frequently reported local reaction after any dose in the CVnCoV group was injection-site pain (1678 [83·6%] of 2007), with 22 grade 3 reactions, and the most frequently reported systematic reactions were fatigue (1603 [80·0%] of 2003) and headache (1541 [76·9%] of 2003). 82 (0·4%) of 19 783 CVnCoV recipients reported 100 serious adverse events and 66 (0·3%) of 19 746 placebo recipients reported 76 serious adverse events. Eight serious adverse events in five CVnCoV recipients and two serious adverse events in two placebo recipients were considered vaccination-related. None of the fatal serious adverse events reported (eight in the CVnCoV group and six in the placebo group) were considered to be related to study vaccination. Adverse events of special interest were reported for 38 (0·2%) participants in the CVnCoV group and 31 (0·2%) participants in the placebo group. These events were considered to be related to the trial vaccine for 14 (<0·1%) participants in the CVnCoV group and for five (<0·1%) participants in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION: CVnCoV was efficacious in the prevention of COVID-19 of any severity and had an acceptable safety profile. Taking into account the changing environment, including the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, and timelines for further development, the decision has been made to cease activities on the CVnCoV candidate and to focus efforts on the development of next-generation vaccine candidates. FUNDING: German Federal Ministry of Education and Research and CureVac.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Double-Blind Method , Europe , Female , Humans , Latin America , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 753435, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485058

ABSTRACT

Saliva is a body fluid with hitherto unused potential for the assessment of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Specific antibodies can indicate a past SARS-CoV-2 infection and allow to estimate the proportion of individuals with a potential protective immunity. First, we carefully characterized plasma samples obtained from adult control groups with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection using certified reference ELISAs. Simultaneously collected saliva samples of confirmed convalescent and negative individuals where then used to validate the herein newly developed ELISA for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in saliva. The saliva ELISA was applied to assess SARS-CoV-2 exposure in young children (N = 837) in the age between 1 and 10 years in Tübingen, Germany, towards the end of the first pandemic year 2020. Sensitivity and specificity of the new saliva ELISA was 87% and 100%, respectively. With 12% of all Tübingen children sampled via their respective educational institutions, estimates of SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence was 1.6%. Interestingly, only 0.4% preschool kids were positive compared to 3.0% of primary school children. Less than 20% of positive children self-reported symptoms within two months prior to saliva sampling that could be associated - but not exclusively - with a SARS-CoV-2 infection. The saliva ELISA is a valid and suitable protocol to enable population-based surveys for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Using non-invasive sampling and saliva ELISA testing, we found that prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was significantly lower in young children than in primary school children.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Saliva/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Germany , Humans , Infant , Male , Prospective Studies
6.
EBioMedicine ; 72: 103629, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469839

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses an unprecedented challenge to humanity. SARS-CoV-2 infections range from asymptomatic to severe courses of COVID-19 with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiorgan involvement and death. Risk factors for disease severity include older age, male sex, increased BMI and pre-existing comorbidities. Ethnicity is also relevant to COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. Host genetic predisposition to COVID-19 is now increasingly recognized and whole genome and candidate gene association studies regarding COVID-19 susceptibility have been performed. Several common and rare variants in genes related to inflammation or immune responses have been identified. We summarize research on COVID-19 host genetics and compile genetic variants associated with susceptibility to COVID-19 and disease severity. We discuss candidate genes that should be investigated further to understand such associations and provide insights relevant to pathogenesis, risk classification, therapy response, precision medicine, and drug repurposing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Immunity , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 28-30, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364098

ABSTRACT

With reasonably good specificity and sensitivity, the speed and convenience of COVID-19 antigen tests have led to self-testing in schools, offices, and universities in the European Union (EU). Although self-testing can be beneficial and increase the accessibility to testing, there are potential ways to confound a positive COVID-19 lateral flow test. We observed that all soft drinks, energy drinks, alcoholic beverages (vodka, whiskey, and brandy), commercially bottled mineral water, and carbonated mineral water caused the appearance of a red test line. However, when equal volumes of the buffer and the respective beverages are mixed, there are no false-positive test lines. Deceitful methods may easily lead to misuse of COVID-19 antigen rapid tests and lead to false-positive results; however, this does not prove that these tests are unreliable when performed correctly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19 Testing , Carbonated Beverages , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 133(17-18): 931-941, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We used the RNActive® technology platform (CureVac N.V., Tübingen, Germany) to prepare CVnCoV, a COVID-19 vaccine containing sequence-optimized mRNA coding for a stabilized form of SARS-CoV­2 spike (S) protein encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNP). METHODS: This is an interim analysis of a dosage escalation phase 1 study in healthy 18-60-year-old volunteers in Hannover, Munich and Tübingen, Germany, and Ghent, Belgium. After giving 2 intramuscular doses of CVnCoV or placebo 28 days apart we assessed solicited local and systemic adverse events (AE) for 7 days and unsolicited AEs for 28 days after each vaccination. Immunogenicity was measured as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV­2 S­protein and receptor binding domain (RBD), and SARS-CoV­2 neutralizing titers (MN50). RESULTS: In 245 volunteers who received 2 CVnCoV vaccinations (2 µg, n = 47, 4 µg, n = 48, 6 µg, n = 46, 8 µg, n = 44, 12 µg, n = 28) or placebo (n = 32) there were no vaccine-related serious AEs. Dosage-dependent increases in frequency and severity of solicited systemic AEs, and to a lesser extent local AEs, were mainly mild or moderate and transient in duration. Dosage-dependent increases in IgG antibodies to S­protein and RBD and MN50 were evident in all groups 2 weeks after the second dose when 100% (23/23) seroconverted to S­protein or RBD, and 83% (19/23) seroconverted for MN50 in the 12 µg group. Responses to 12 µg were comparable to those observed in convalescent sera from known COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: In this study 2 CVnCoV doses were safe, with acceptable reactogenicity and 12 µg dosages elicited levels of immune responses that overlapped those observed in convalescent sera.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lipids , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14471, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310815

ABSTRACT

Early detection of severe forms of COVID-19 is absolutely essential for timely triage of patients. We longitudinally followed-up two well-characterized patient groups, hospitalized moderate to severe (n = 26), and ambulatory mild COVID-19 patients (n = 16) at home quarantine. Human D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, cardiac troponin I, interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured on day 1, day 7, day 14 and day 28. All hospitalized patients were SARS-CoV-2 positive on admission, while all ambulatory patients were SARS-CoV-2 positive at recruitment. Hospitalized patients had higher D-dimer, CRP and ferritin, cardiac troponin I and IL-6 levels than ambulatory patients (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.016, p = 0.035, p = 0.002 respectively). Hospitalized patients experienced significant decreases in CRP, ferritin and IL-6 levels from admission to recovery (p < 0.001, p = 0.025, and p = 0.001 respectively). Cardiac troponin I levels were high during the acute phase in both hospitalized and ambulatory patients, indicating a potential myocardial injury. In summary, D-dimer, CRP, ferritin, cardiac troponin I, IL-6 are predictive laboratory markers and can largely determine the clinical course of COVID-19, in particular the prognosis of critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Ambulatory Care , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Early Diagnosis , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Longitudinal Studies , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Precision Medicine , Prognosis , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Troponin I/blood
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 265-268, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279605

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Use of hydroxychloroquine in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was widespread and uncontrolled until recently. Patients vulnerable to severe COVID-19 are at risk of hydroxychloroquine interactions with co-morbidities and co-medications contributing to detrimental, including fatal, adverse treatment effects. METHODS: A retrospective survey was undertaken of health conditions and co-medications of patients with COVID-19 who were pre-screened for enrolment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled hydroxychloroquine multi-centre trial. RESULTS: The survey involved 305 patients [median age 71 (interquartile range 59-81) years]. The majority of patients (n = 279, 92%) considered for inclusion in the clinical trial were not eligible, mainly due to safety concerns caused by health conditions or co-medications. The most common were QT-prolonging drugs (n = 188, 62%) and haematologic/haemato-oncologic diseases (n = 39, 13%) which prohibited the administration of hydroxychloroquine. In addition, 165 (54%) patients had health conditions and 167 (55%) patients were on co-medications that did not prohibit the use of hydroxychloroquine but had a risk of adverse interactions with hydroxychloroquine. The most common were diabetes (n = 86, 28%), renal insufficiency (n = 69, 23%) and heart failure (n = 58, 19%). CONCLUSION: The majority of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 had health conditions or took co-medications precluding safe treatment with hydroxychloroquine. Therefore, hydroxychloroquine should be administered with extreme caution in elderly patients with COVID-19, and only in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Contraindications, Drug , Drug Interactions , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11899, 2021 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260951

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 resulted in increasing demands for diagnostic tests, leading to a shortage of recommended testing materials and reagents. This study reports on the performance of self-sampled alternative swabbing material (ordinary Q-tips tested against flocked swab and rayon swab), of reagents for classical RNA extraction (phenol/guanidine-based protocol against a commercial kit), and of intercalating dye-based one-step quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCRs (RT-qPCR) compared against the gold standard hydrolysis probe-based assays for SARS-CoV-2 detection. The study found sampling with Q-tips, RNA extraction with classical protocol and intercalating dye-based RT-qPCR as a reliable and comparably sensitive strategy for detection of SARS-CoV-2-particularly valuable in the current period with a resurgent and dramatic increase in SARS-CoV-2 infections and growing shortage of diagnostic materials especially for regions limited in resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Specimen Handling , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcription/physiology , Specimen Handling/methods , Time Factors
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 29-32, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258382

ABSTRACT

Indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have the potential to seriously undermine the health system in sub-Saharan Africa with an increase in the incidences of malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV infections. Based on current evidence in the African region the collateral impact of COVID-19 on the "big three diseases" shall be addressed in the following.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Syndemic , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(11): 2035-2041, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249280

ABSTRACT

WHO convened an Advisory Group (AG) to consider the feasibility, potential value, and limitations of establishing a closely-monitored challenge model of experimental severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in healthy adult volunteers. The AG included experts in design, establishment, and performance of challenges. This report summarizes issues that render a COVID-19 model daunting to establish (the potential of SARS-CoV-2 to cause severe/fatal illness, its high transmissibility, and lack of a "rescue treatment" to prevent progression from mild/moderate to severe clinical illness) and it proffers prudent strategies for stepwise model development, challenge virus selection, guidelines for manufacturing challenge doses, and ways to contain SARS-CoV-2 and prevent transmission to household/community contacts. A COVID-19 model could demonstrate protection against virus shedding and/or illness induced by prior SARS-CoV-2 challenge or vaccination. A limitation of the model is that vaccine efficacy in experimentally challenged healthy young adults cannot per se be extrapolated to predict efficacy in elderly/high-risk adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding , World Health Organization , Young Adult
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2349, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189222

ABSTRACT

Substantial COVID-19 research investment has been allocated to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, which currently face recruitment challenges or early discontinuation. We aim to estimate the effects of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine on survival in COVID-19 from all currently available RCT evidence, published and unpublished. We present a rapid meta-analysis of ongoing, completed, or discontinued RCTs on hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine treatment for any COVID-19 patients (protocol: https://osf.io/QESV4/ ). We systematically identified unpublished RCTs (ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Cochrane COVID-registry up to June 11, 2020), and published RCTs (PubMed, medRxiv and bioRxiv up to October 16, 2020). All-cause mortality has been extracted (publications/preprints) or requested from investigators and combined in random-effects meta-analyses, calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), separately for hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine. Prespecified subgroup analyses include patient setting, diagnostic confirmation, control type, and publication status. Sixty-three trials were potentially eligible. We included 14 unpublished trials (1308 patients) and 14 publications/preprints (9011 patients). Results for hydroxychloroquine are dominated by RECOVERY and WHO SOLIDARITY, two highly pragmatic trials, which employed relatively high doses and included 4716 and 1853 patients, respectively (67% of the total sample size). The combined OR on all-cause mortality for hydroxychloroquine is 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.20; I² = 0%; 26 trials; 10,012 patients) and for chloroquine 1.77 (95%CI: 0.15, 21.13, I² = 0%; 4 trials; 307 patients). We identified no subgroup effects. We found that treatment with hydroxychloroquine is associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 patients, and there is no benefit of chloroquine. Findings have unclear generalizability to outpatients, children, pregnant women, and people with comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Child , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Combined Modality Therapy/adverse effects , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , International Cooperation , Odds Ratio , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 735-738, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141903

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to carry out whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), using samples collected from Congolese individuals between April and July 2020. METHODS: Ninety-six samples were screened for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR, and 19 samples with Ct values <30 were sequenced using Illumina Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). The genomes were annotated and screened for mutations using the web tool 'coronapp'. Subsequently, different SARS-CoV-2 lineages were assigned using PANGOLIN and Nextclade. RESULTS: Eleven SARS-CoV-2 genomes were successfully sequenced and submitted to the GSAID database. All genomes carried the spike mutation D614G and were classified as part of the GH clade. The Congolese SARS-CoV-2 sequences were shown to belong to lineage B1 and Nextclade 20A and 20C, which split them into distinct clusters, indicating two separate introductions of the virus into the Republic of Congo. CONCLUSION: This first study provides valuable information on SARS CoV-2 transmission in the central African region, contributing to SARS CoV-2 surveillance on a temporal and spatial scale.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Congo , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation , Whole Genome Sequencing
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(3): 1041-1044, 2021 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024748

ABSTRACT

Hypoxemia is readily detectable by assessing SpO2 levels, and these are important in optimizing COVID-19 patient management. Hyperlactatemia is a marker of tissue hypoxia, particularly in patients with increased oxygen requirement and microvascular obstruction. We monitored peripheral venous lactate concentrations in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 (n = 18) and in mild ambulatory COVID-19 patients in home quarantine (n = 16). Whole blood lactate decreased significantly during the clinical course and recovery in hospitalized patients (P = 0.008). The blood lactate levels were significantly higher in hospitalized patients than ambulatory patients (day 1: hospitalized versus ambulatory patients P = 0.002; day 28: hospitalized versus ambulatory patients P = < 0.0001). Elevated lactate levels may be helpful in risk stratification, and serial monitoring of lactate may prove useful in the care of hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Lactic Acid/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Hypoxia/blood , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 100: 112-116, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959823

ABSTRACT

While successful containment measures of COVID-19 in China and many European countries have led to flattened curves, case numbers are rising dramatically in other countries, with the emergence of a second wave expected. Asymptomatic individuals carrying SARS-CoV-2 are hidden drivers of the pandemic, and infectivity studies confirm the existence of transmission by asymptomatic individuals. The data addressed here show that characteristics of asymptomatic and presymptomatic infection are not identical. Younger age correlates strongly with asymptomatic and mild infections and children as hidden drivers. The estimated proportion of asymptomatic infections ranges from 18% to 81%. The current perception of asymptomatic infections does not provide clear guidance for public-health measures. Asymptomatic infections will be a key contributor in the spread of COVID-19. Asymptomatic cases should be reported in official COVID-19 statistics.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
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