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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(7): 979-987, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fifteen percent of patients with cancer experience symptomatic sequelae, which impair post-COVID-19 outcomes. In this study, we investigated whether a proinflammatory status is associated with the development of COVID-19 sequelae. METHODS: OnCovid recruited 2795 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 infection between February 27, 2020, and February 14, 2021. This analysis focused on COVID-19 survivors who underwent a clinical reassessment after the exclusion of patients with hematological malignancies. We evaluated the association of inflammatory markers collected at COVID-19 diagnosis with sequelae, considering the impact of previous systemic anticancer therapy. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Of 1339 eligible patients, 203 experienced at least 1 sequela (15.2%). Median baseline C-reactive protein (CRP; 77.5 mg/L vs 22.2 mg/L, P < .001), lactate dehydrogenase (310 UI/L vs 274 UI/L, P = .03), and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR; 6.0 vs 4.3, P = .001) were statistically significantly higher among patients who experienced sequelae, whereas no association was reported for the platelet to lymphocyte ratio and the OnCovid Inflammatory Score, which includes albumin and lymphocytes. The widest area under the ROC curve (AUC) was reported for baseline CRP (AUC = 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63 to 0.69), followed by the NLR (AUC = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.61) and lactate dehydrogenase (AUC = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.52 to 0.61). Using a fixed categorical multivariable analysis, high CRP (odds ratio [OR] = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.67 to 3.91) and NLR (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.10) were confirmed to be statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of sequelae. Exposure to chemotherapy was associated with a decreased risk of sequelae (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.91), whereas no associations with immune checkpoint inhibitors, endocrine therapy, and other types of systemic anticancer therapy were found. CONCLUSIONS: Although the association between inflammatory status, recent chemotherapy and sequelae warrants further investigation, our findings suggest that a deranged proinflammatory reaction at COVID-19 diagnosis may predict for sequelae development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Disease Progression , Humans , Lactate Dehydrogenases , Lymphocytes/chemistry , Neutrophils/chemistry , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Registries , Retrospective Studies
2.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(3): 746-753, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263169

ABSTRACT

Patients with Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) have haemostatic dysfunction and are at higher risk of thrombotic complications. Although age is a major risk factor for outcome impairment in COVID-19, its impact on coagulative patterns here is still unclear. We investigated the association of Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) with thrombotic and haemorrhagic events according to different ages in patients admitted for COVID-19. A total of 27 patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia, without need for intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation at hospital presentation, and 24 controls with non-COVID-19 pneumonia were prospectively included. ETP levels were measured on admission. Patients were evaluated for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, venous thromboembolism) and bleeding complications [according to Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) definition] during in-hospital stay. COVID-19 patients had similar ETP levels compared to controls (AUC 93 ± 24% vs 99 ± 21%, p = 0.339). In the COVID-19 cohort, patients with in-hospital MACE showed lower ETP levels on admission vs those without (AUC 86 ± 14% vs 95 ± 27%, p = 0.041), whereas ETP values were comparable in patients with or without bleeding (AUC 82 ± 16% vs 95 ± 26%, p = 0.337). An interaction between age and ETP levels for both MACE and bleeding complications was observed, where a younger age was associated with an inverse relationship between ETP values and adverse event risk (pint 0.018 for MACE and 0.050 for bleeding). Patients with COVID-19 have similar thrombin potential on admission compared to those with non-COVID-19 pneumonia. In younger COVID-19 patients, lower ETP levels were associated with a higher risk of both MACE and bleeding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hemostasis , Hospitalization , Thrombin/metabolism , Thrombosis/etiology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/mortality , Thrombosis/therapy , Time Factors
3.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(3): 782-790, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111318

ABSTRACT

A pro-thrombotic milieu and a higher risk of thrombotic events were observed in patients with CoronaVirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Accordingly, recent data suggested a beneficial role of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), but the optimal dosage of this treatment is unknown. We evaluated the association between prophylactic vs. intermediate-to-fully anticoagulant doses of enoxaparin and in-hospital adverse events in patients with COVID-19. We retrospectively included 436 consecutive patients admitted in three Italian hospitals. Outcome according to the use of prophylactic (4000 IU) vs. higher (> 4000 IU) daily dosage of enoxaparin was evaluated. The primary end-point was in-hospital death. Secondary outcome measures were in-hospital cardiovascular death, venous thromboembolism, new-onset acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and mechanical ventilation. A total of 287 patients (65.8%) were treated with the prophylactic enoxaparin regimen and 149 (34.2%) with a higher dosing regimen. The use of prophylactic enoxaparin dose was associated with a similar incidence of all-cause mortality (25.4% vs. 26.9% with the higher dose; OR at multivariable analysis, including the propensity score: 0.847, 95% CI 0.400-0.1.792; p = 0.664). In the prophylactic dose group, a significantly lower incidence of cardiovascular death (OR 0.165), venous thromboembolism (OR 0.067), new-onset ARDS (OR 0.454) and mechanical intubation (OR 0.150) was observed. In patients hospitalized for COVID-19, the use of a prophylactic dosage of enoxaparin appears to be associated with similar in-hospital overall mortality compared to higher doses. These findings require confirmation in a randomized, controlled study.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Hospitalization , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
Transl Cancer Res ; 9(12): 7662-7668, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005269

ABSTRACT

In COVID-19 pandemic, cancer patients may be vulnerable for their immunological status and need of immunosuppressive anti-neoplastic treatments. Choosing the best treatment option in COVID-19 positive cancer patients is still a challenging issue. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman diagnosed with multiple myeloma and affected by COVID-19. After the diagnosis of multiple myeloma in January 2019, the patient underwent first line therapy followed by bone marrow autologous stem cell transplantation, achieving a complete response in September 2019. In March 2020, the patient showed intrathoracic progression of the disease, resulting in a severe dysphagia and concomitant positivity to SARS-CoV-2 swab test, cough, fever, and dyspnea related to the involvement of the lung parenchyma as shown by CT-scan. After her admittance to a COVID-19 dedicated inward, she was administered oral hydroxychloroquine and darunavir-cobicistat for 7 days with stabilization of her general clinical conditions. For the worsening of dysphagia, after multidisciplinary discussion, it was decided to deliver radiotherapy to the mediastinal and paravertebral mass with 8 Gy single fraction. After 5 days, her clinical conditions improved, with reduction of dysphagia. The CT confirmed a partial response with reduction of the mass of about 50%. Viral clearance was confirmed by triple negative search for SARS-CoV-2 on nasopharyngeal swabs, one month after first documentation of positivity. Unfortunately, the patient died three months later due to a pulmonary mycotic infection causing respiratory failure. To our knowledge, this case report describes the first experience of mediastinal radiotherapy in a COVID-19 patient affected by myeloma reported in the literature. In case of clinical indication, even in presence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, radiotherapy can be safely delivered and might be considered a treatment option as shown by our experience in this challenging case of intrathoracic myeloma.

6.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 5(Suppl 1): 3-6, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910256

ABSTRACT

Starting from Wuhan, China, SARS-CoV-2 has been a catastrophic epidemic involving many countries worldwide. After China, Italy has been heavily affected, and severe measures to limit the spread of the virus have been taken in the last weeks. Radiation oncology departments must guarantee optimal cancer treatments even in such a challenging scenario of an ongoing aggressive epidemic. Adopted preventive measures and recommendations are highlighted for patients, professionals, and clinical operations to minimize the risk of infection while safely treating patients with cancer.

7.
Eur J Cancer ; 135: 130-146, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614146

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a new virus that has never been identified in humans before. COVID-19 caused at the time of writing of this article, 2.5 million cases of infections in 193 countries with 165,000 deaths, including two-third in Europe. In this context, Oncology Departments of the affected countries had to adapt quickly their health system care and establish new organizations and priorities. Thus, numerous recommendations and therapeutic options have been reported to optimize therapy delivery to patients with chronic disease and cancer. Obviously, while these cancer care recommendations are immediately applicable in Europe, they may not be applicable in certain emerging and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this review, we aimed to summarize these international guidelines in accordance with cancer types, making a synthesis for daily practice to protect patients, staff and tailor anti-cancer therapy delivery taking into account patients/tumour criteria and tools availability. Thus, we will discuss their applicability in the LMICs with different organizations, limited means and different constraints.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Developing Countries/economics , Global Burden of Disease , Humans , Infection Control/economics , Infection Control/standards , Medical Oncology/economics , Medical Oncology/standards , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 10(8): 963-967, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-141521

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is highly contagious with devastating impacts for healthcare systems worldwide. Medical staff are at high risk of viral contamination and it is imperative to know what personal protective equipment (PPE) is appropriate for each situation. Furthermore, elective clinics and operations have been reduced in order to mobilize manpower to the acute specialties combating the outbreak; appropriate differentiation between patients who require immediate care and those who can receive telephone consultation or whose treatment might viably be postponed is therefore crucial. Italy was 1 of the earliest and hardest-hit European countries and therefore the Italian Skull Base Society board has promulgated specific recommendations based on consensus best practices and the literature, where available. Only urgent surgical operations are recommended and all patients should be tested at least twice (on days 4 and 2 prior to surgery). For positive patients, procedures should be postponed until after swab test negativization. If the procedure is vital to the survival of the patient, filtering facepiece 3 (FFP3) and/or powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) devices, goggles, full-face visor, double gloves, water-resistant gowns, and protective caps are mandatory. For negative patients, use of at least an FFP2 mask is recommended. In all cases the use of drills, which promote the aerosolization of potentially infected mucous particles, should be avoided. Given the potential neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2, dura handling should be minimized. It is only through widely-agreed protocols and teamwork that we will be able to deal with the evolving and complex implications of this new pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Infection Control , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Skull Base/surgery , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Italy , Nasal Surgical Procedures/methods , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 5(4): 527-530, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-71088

ABSTRACT

Starting from Wuhan, China, SARS-CoV-2 has been a catastrophic epidemic involving many countries worldwide. After China, Italy has been heavily affected, and severe measures to limit the spread of the virus have been taken in the last weeks. Radiation oncology departments must guarantee optimal cancer treatments even in such a challenging scenario of an ongoing aggressive epidemic. Adopted preventive measures and recommendations are highlighted for patients, professionals, and clinical operations to minimize the risk of infection while safely treating patients with cancer.

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