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1.
Struct Chem ; 33(5): 1609-1617, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014345

ABSTRACT

Scientific insights gained from the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks have been assisting scientists and researchers in the quest of antiviral drug discovery process against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Coronaviruses and influenza viruses both rely on the host type 2 transmembrane serine protease, TMPRSS2, for entry and propagation. Recent studies report SARS-CoV-2 also uses TMPRSS2 to enter cells. In the current study, we employed structure-based virtual screening of 1,82,651 natural compounds downloaded from the zin database against the homology model of the TMPRSS2 protein, followed by a molecular dynamics-based simulation to identify potential TMPRSS2 hits. The virtual screening yielded 110 hits with docking scores ranging from -8.654 to -6.775 and glide energies ranging from -55.714 to -29.065 kcal/mol. The binding mode analysis revealed that the hit molecules made H-bond, Pi-Pi stacking and salt bridge contacts with the TMPRSS2 active site residues. MD simulations of the top two hits (ZINC000095912839 and ZINC000085597504) revealed to form a stable complex with TMPRSS2, with a minimal RMSD and RMSF fluctuation. Both the hit structures interacted strongly with the Asp180, Gln183, Gly184, Ser186, Gly207 and Gly209, as predicted by Glide XP docking, and formed a significant H-bond interaction with Ser181 in MD simulation. Among these two, ZINC000095912839 was having the most stable binding interaction with TMPRSS2 of the two molecules. The present study successfully identified TMPRSS2 ligands from a database of zinc natural molecules as potential leads for novel SARs-CoV-2 treatment. Supplementary Inform: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11224-022-01991-3.

2.
Structural Chemistry ; : 1-9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1897991

ABSTRACT

Scientific insights gained from the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks have been assisting scientists and researchers in the quest of antiviral drug discovery process against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Coronaviruses and influenza viruses both rely on the host type 2 transmembrane serine protease, TMPRSS2, for entry and propagation. Recent studies report SARS-CoV-2 also uses TMPRSS2 to enter cells. In the current study, we employed structure-based virtual screening of 1,82,651 natural compounds downloaded from the zin database against the homology model of the TMPRSS2 protein, followed by a molecular dynamics-based simulation to identify potential TMPRSS2 hits. The virtual screening yielded 110 hits with docking scores ranging from −8.654 to −6.775 and glide energies ranging from −55.714 to −29.065 kcal/mol. The binding mode analysis revealed that the hit molecules made H-bond, Pi-Pi stacking and salt bridge contacts with the TMPRSS2 active site residues. MD simulations of the top two hits (ZINC000095912839 and ZINC000085597504) revealed to form a stable complex with TMPRSS2, with a minimal RMSD and RMSF fluctuation. Both the hit structures interacted strongly with the Asp180, Gln183, Gly184, Ser186, Gly207 and Gly209, as predicted by Glide XP docking, and formed a significant H-bond interaction with Ser181 in MD simulation. Among these two, ZINC000095912839 was having the most stable binding interaction with TMPRSS2 of the two molecules. The present study successfully identified TMPRSS2 ligands from a database of zinc natural molecules as potential leads for novel SARs-CoV-2 treatment. Supplementary Inform The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11224-022-01991-3.

3.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 21(8): e160921188929, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967560

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019, a pandemic caused by novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is seriously affecting global health and the economy. As the vaccine development takes time, the current research is focused on repurposing FDA approved drugs against the viral target proteins. This review discusses the current understanding of SARSCoV- 2 virology, its target structural proteins (S-glycoprotein), non-structural proteins (3-chymotrypsin- like protease, papain-like protease, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and helicase) and accessory proteins, drug discovery strategies (drug repurposing, artificial intelligence, and high- -throughput screening), and the current status of antiviral drug development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Artificial Intelligence , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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