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1.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 66(7): 838-846, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784567

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to determine if treatment with senicapoc, improves the PaO2 /FiO2 ratio in patients with COVID-19 and severe respiratory insufficiency. METHODS: Investigator-initiated, randomized, open-label, phase II trial in four intensive care units (ICU) in Denmark. We included patients aged ≥18 years and admitted to an ICU with severe respiratory insufficiency due to COVID-19. The intervention consisted of 50 mg enteral senicapoc administered as soon as possible after randomization and again after 24 h. Patients in the control group received standard care only. The primary outcome was the PaO2 /FiO2 ratio at 72 h. RESULTS: Twenty patients were randomized to senicapoc and 26 patients to standard care. Important differences existed in patient characteristics at baseline, including more patients being on non-invasive/invasive ventilation in the control group (54% vs. 35%). The median senicapoc concentration at 72 h was 62.1 ng/ml (IQR 46.7-71.2). The primary outcome, PaO2 /FiO2 ratio at 72 h, was significantly lower in the senicapoc group (mean 19.5 kPa, SD 6.6) than in the control group (mean 24.4 kPa, SD 9.2) (mean difference -5.1 kPa [95% CI -10.2, -0.04] p = .05). The 28-day mortality in the senicapoc group was 2/20 (10%) compared with 6/26 (23%) in the control group (OR 0.36 95% CI 0.06-2.07, p = .26). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with senicapoc resulted in a significantly lower PaO2 /FiO2 ratio at 72 h with no differences for other outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Acetamides , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Trityl Compounds
2.
J Crit Care ; 69: 154010, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a pilot study, we found a significant reduction in mean daily sequential organ failure assessment score in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 who received prostacyclin, compared to placebo. We here investigate the effect on biomarkers of endothelial activation and damage. METHODS: Post-hoc study of a randomized controlled trial in adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, mechanically ventilated, with soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) plasma levels >4 ng/mL. Patients received prostacyclin infusion (1 ng/kg/min) or placebo. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 24 h. RESULTS: Eighty patients were randomized (41 prostacyclin, 39 placebo). The median changes in syndecan-1 plasma levels at 24 h were -3.95 (IQR: -21.1 to 2.71) ng/mL in the prostacyclin group vs. 3.06 (IQR: -8.73 to 20.5) ng/mL in the placebo group (difference of the medians: -7.01 [95% CI: -22.3 to -0.231] ng/mL, corresponding to -3% [95% CI: -11% to 0%], p = 0.04). Changes in plasma levels of sTM, PECAM-1, p-selectin, and CD40L did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Prostacyclin infusion, compared to placebo, resulted in a measurable decrease in endothelial glycocalyx shedding (syndecan-1) at 24 h, suggesting a protective effect on the endothelium, which may be related to the observed reduction in organ failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epoprostenol , Adult , Biomarkers , Endothelium, Vascular , Epoprostenol/pharmacology , Epoprostenol/therapeutic use , Humans , Pilot Projects , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndecan-1
3.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(3): 324-329, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673593

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The mortality in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who require mechanical ventilation remains high, and endotheliopathy has been implicated. Objectives: To determine the effect of prostacyclin infusion in mechanically ventilated patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 with severe endotheliopathy. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, randomized clinical trial in adults infected with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who required mechanical ventilation and had a plasma level of thrombomodulin >4 ng/ml; patients were randomized to 72-hour infusion of prostacyclin 1 ng/kg/min or placebo. Measurements and Main Results: The main outcome was the number of days alive and without mechanical ventilation within 28 days. Key secondary outcomes were 28-day mortality and serious adverse events within 7 days. Eighty patients were randomized (41 prostacyclin and 39 placebo). The median number of days alive without mechanical ventilation at 28 days was 16.0 days (SD, 12) versus 5.0 days (SD, 10) (difference of the medians, 10.96 days; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5 to 21; P = 0.07) in the prostacyclin and the placebo groups, respectively. The 28-day mortality was 21.9% versus 43.6% in the prostacyclin and the placebo groups, respectively (risk ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.96; P = 0.06). The incidence of serious adverse events within 7 days was 2.4% versus 12.8% (risk ratio, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.001 to 1.11; P = 0.10) in the prostacyclin and the placebo groups, respectively. Conclusions: Prostacyclin was not associated with a significant reduction in the number of days alive and without mechanical ventilation within 28 days. The point estimates, however, favored the prostacyclin group in all analyses, including 28-day mortality, warranting further investigation in larger trials. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04420741); EudraCT Identifier: 2020-001296-33.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Epoprostenol/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Denmark , Female , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Middle Aged , Survival Rate , Thrombomodulin/blood , Treatment Outcome
4.
JAMA ; 326(18): 1807-1817, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527380

ABSTRACT

Importance: A daily dose with 6 mg of dexamethasone is recommended for up to 10 days in patients with severe and critical COVID-19, but a higher dose may benefit those with more severe disease. Objective: To assess the effects of 12 mg/d vs 6 mg/d of dexamethasone in patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxemia. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter, randomized clinical trial was conducted between August 2020 and May 2021 at 26 hospitals in Europe and India and included 1000 adults with confirmed COVID-19 requiring at least 10 L/min of oxygen or mechanical ventilation. End of 90-day follow-up was on August 19, 2021. Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 to 12 mg/d of intravenous dexamethasone (n = 503) or 6 mg/d of intravenous dexamethasone (n = 497) for up to 10 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the number of days alive without life support (invasive mechanical ventilation, circulatory support, or kidney replacement therapy) at 28 days and was adjusted for stratification variables. Of the 8 prespecified secondary outcomes, 5 are included in this analysis (the number of days alive without life support at 90 days, the number of days alive out of the hospital at 90 days, mortality at 28 days and at 90 days, and ≥1 serious adverse reactions at 28 days). Results: Of the 1000 randomized patients, 982 were included (median age, 65 [IQR, 55-73] years; 305 [31%] women) and primary outcome data were available for 971 (491 in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group and 480 in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group). The median number of days alive without life support was 22.0 days (IQR, 6.0-28.0 days) in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group and 20.5 days (IQR, 4.0-28.0 days) in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted mean difference, 1.3 days [95% CI, 0-2.6 days]; P = .07). Mortality at 28 days was 27.1% in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group vs 32.3% in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted relative risk, 0.86 [99% CI, 0.68-1.08]). Mortality at 90 days was 32.0% in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group vs 37.7% in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted relative risk, 0.87 [99% CI, 0.70-1.07]). Serious adverse reactions, including septic shock and invasive fungal infections, occurred in 11.3% in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group vs 13.4% in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted relative risk, 0.83 [99% CI, 0.54-1.29]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxemia, 12 mg/d of dexamethasone compared with 6 mg/d of dexamethasone did not result in statistically significantly more days alive without life support at 28 days. However, the trial may have been underpowered to identify a significant difference. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04509973 and ctri.nic.in Identifier: CTRI/2020/10/028731.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Life Support Care , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Shock, Septic/etiology , Single-Blind Method
5.
JAMA ; 326(18): 1807-1817, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482066

ABSTRACT

Importance: A daily dose with 6 mg of dexamethasone is recommended for up to 10 days in patients with severe and critical COVID-19, but a higher dose may benefit those with more severe disease. Objective: To assess the effects of 12 mg/d vs 6 mg/d of dexamethasone in patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxemia. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter, randomized clinical trial was conducted between August 2020 and May 2021 at 26 hospitals in Europe and India and included 1000 adults with confirmed COVID-19 requiring at least 10 L/min of oxygen or mechanical ventilation. End of 90-day follow-up was on August 19, 2021. Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 to 12 mg/d of intravenous dexamethasone (n = 503) or 6 mg/d of intravenous dexamethasone (n = 497) for up to 10 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the number of days alive without life support (invasive mechanical ventilation, circulatory support, or kidney replacement therapy) at 28 days and was adjusted for stratification variables. Of the 8 prespecified secondary outcomes, 5 are included in this analysis (the number of days alive without life support at 90 days, the number of days alive out of the hospital at 90 days, mortality at 28 days and at 90 days, and ≥1 serious adverse reactions at 28 days). Results: Of the 1000 randomized patients, 982 were included (median age, 65 [IQR, 55-73] years; 305 [31%] women) and primary outcome data were available for 971 (491 in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group and 480 in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group). The median number of days alive without life support was 22.0 days (IQR, 6.0-28.0 days) in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group and 20.5 days (IQR, 4.0-28.0 days) in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted mean difference, 1.3 days [95% CI, 0-2.6 days]; P = .07). Mortality at 28 days was 27.1% in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group vs 32.3% in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted relative risk, 0.86 [99% CI, 0.68-1.08]). Mortality at 90 days was 32.0% in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group vs 37.7% in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted relative risk, 0.87 [99% CI, 0.70-1.07]). Serious adverse reactions, including septic shock and invasive fungal infections, occurred in 11.3% in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group vs 13.4% in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted relative risk, 0.83 [99% CI, 0.54-1.29]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxemia, 12 mg/d of dexamethasone compared with 6 mg/d of dexamethasone did not result in statistically significantly more days alive without life support at 28 days. However, the trial may have been underpowered to identify a significant difference. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04509973 and ctri.nic.in Identifier: CTRI/2020/10/028731.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Life Support Care , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Shock, Septic/etiology , Single-Blind Method
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