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1.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(5): 580-589, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797659

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We assessed long-term outcomes of dexamethasone 12 mg versus 6 mg given daily for up to 10 days in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe hypoxaemia. METHODS: We assessed 180-day mortality and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using EuroQoL (EQ)-5D-5L index values and EQ visual analogue scale (VAS) in the international, stratified, blinded COVID STEROID 2 trial, which randomised 1000 adults with confirmed COVID-19 receiving at least 10 L/min of oxygen or mechanical ventilation in 26 hospitals in Europe and India. In the HRQoL analyses, higher values indicated better outcomes, and deceased patients were given a score of zero. RESULTS: We obtained vital status at 180 days for 963 of 982 patients (98.1%) in the intention-to-treat population, EQ-5D-5L index value data for 922 (93.9%) and EQ VAS data for 924 (94.1%). At 180 days, 164 of 486 patients (33.7%) had died in the 12 mg group versus 184 of 477 (38.6%) in the 6 mg group [adjusted risk difference - 4.3%; 99% confidence interval (CI) - 11.7-3.0; relative risk 0.89; 0.72-1.09; P = 0.13]. The adjusted mean differences between the 12 mg and the 6 mg groups in EQ-5D-5L index values were 0.06 (99% CI - 0.01 to 0.12; P = 0.10) and in EQ VAS scores 4 (- 3 to 10; P = 0.22). CONCLUSION: Among patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxaemia, dexamethasone 12 mg compared with 6 mg did not result in statistically significant improvements in mortality or HRQoL at 180 days, but the results were most compatible with benefit from the higher dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dexamethasone , Hypoxia , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Patient Acuity , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312471

ABSTRACT

Background: Moderate to severe respiratory distress among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high mortality. Dexamethasone and remdesivir were introduced in the second wave of COVID-19 in Denmark. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with COVID-19 and a supplemental oxygen requirement of ≥15 Liters per minute (L/min). The patients were divided in two groups corresponding to the first- and second wave of COVID-19 and analysed regarding need of ventilator support and mortality dependent on orders to Do Intubate (DI) or Do Not Intubate (DNI), respectively. Results: The study included 178 patients. The mortality was 24% for patients with DI orders (n=115) and 81% for patients with DNI orders (n=63) increasing to 98% (n=46) for patients with DNI orders and very high flow oxygen requirements (≥30 L/min). Use of constant continuous positive airway pressure (cCPAP) increased from 71% in the first wave to 91% in the second wave (p<0.001) whereas the use of mechanical ventilation (MV) decreased from 54% to 28% (p=0.005). Conclusion: The mortality was high for patients with DNI orders and respiratory distress with very high levels in supplemental oxygen in both the first and second wave of COVID-19 despite treatment with dexamethasone and remdesivir and improved prognosis for patients with DI orders. Hence careful evaluation on transition to palliative care must be considered for these patients. Study Registration The study was retrospectively registered and approved by the Danish Patient Safety Authority (record no. 31-1521-309) and the Regional Data Protection Center (record no. WZ20017637-2020-37).

3.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(1): 45-55, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605102

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We compared dexamethasone 12 versus 6 mg daily for up to 10 days in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe hypoxaemia in the international, randomised, blinded COVID STEROID 2 trial. In the primary, conventional analyses, the predefined statistical significance thresholds were not reached. We conducted a pre-planned Bayesian analysis to facilitate probabilistic interpretation. METHODS: We analysed outcome data within 90 days in the intention-to-treat population (data available in 967 to 982 patients) using Bayesian models with various sensitivity analyses. Results are presented as median posterior probabilities with 95% credible intervals (CrIs) and probabilities of different effect sizes with 12 mg dexamethasone. RESULTS: The adjusted mean difference on days alive without life support at day 28 (primary outcome) was 1.3 days (95% CrI -0.3 to 2.9; 94.2% probability of benefit). Adjusted relative risks and probabilities of benefit on serious adverse reactions was 0.85 (0.63 to 1.16; 84.1%) and on mortality 0.87 (0.73 to 1.03; 94.8%) at day 28 and 0.88 (0.75 to 1.02; 95.1%) at day 90. Probabilities of benefit on days alive without life support and days alive out of hospital at day 90 were 85 and 95.7%, respectively. Results were largely consistent across sensitivity analyses, with relatively low probabilities of clinically important harm with 12 mg on all outcomes in all analyses. CONCLUSION: We found high probabilities of benefit and low probabilities of clinically important harm with dexamethasone 12 mg versus 6 mg daily in patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxaemia on all outcomes up to 90 days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone , Humans , Hypoxia , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids
4.
Biomark Insights ; 16: 11772719211034685, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365299

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Elevated soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker associated with adverse outcomes. We aimed to investigate the associations between plasma suPAR levels (testing the cut-offs ⩽4, 4-6, and ⩾6 ng/mL) with risk of 14-day mortality, and with the risk of mechanical ventilation in patients that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Observational cohort study of patients presenting with symptoms of COVID-19 at Department of Emergency Medicine, Amager and Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark from March 19th, 2020 to April 3rd, 2020. Plasma suPAR was measured using suPARnostic technologies. Patients were followed for development of mechanical ventilation and mortality for 14 days. Validation of our findings were carried out in a similar sized COVID-19 patient cohort from Mikkeli Central Hospital, Finland. RESULTS: Among 386 patients with symptoms of COVID-19, the median (interquartile range) age was 64 years (46-77), 57% were women, median suPAR was 4.0 ng/mL (2.7-5.9). In total, 35 patients (9.1%) died during the 14 days follow-up. Patients with suPAR ⩽4 ng/mL (N = 196; 50.8%) had a low risk of mortality (N = 2; 1.0%; negative predictive value of 99.0%, specificity 55.3%, sensitivity 95.2%, positive predictive value 17.4%). Among patients with suPAR ⩾6 ng/mL (N = 92; 23.8%), 16 died (17.4%). About 99 patients (25.6%) tested positive for SARS CoV-2 and of those 12 (12.1%) developed need for mechanical ventilation. None of the SARS-CoV-2 positive patients with suPAR ⩽4 ng/mL (N = 28; 38.8%) needed mechanical ventilation or died. The Mikkeli Central Hospital validation cohort confirmed our findings concerning suPAR cut-offs for risk of development of mechanical ventilation and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with symptoms of COVID-19 and suPAR ⩽4 or ⩾6 ng/mL had low or high risk, respectively, concerning the need for mechanical ventilation or mortality. We suggest cut-offs for identification of risk groups in patients presenting to the ED with symptoms of or confirmed COVID-19.

5.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 65(10): 1421-1430, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the early phase of the pandemic, some guidelines recommended the use of corticosteroids for critically ill patients with COVID-19, whereas others recommended against the use despite lack of firm evidence of either benefit or harm. In the COVID STEROID trial, we aimed to assess the effects of low-dose hydrocortisone on patient-centred outcomes in adults with COVID-19 and severe hypoxia. METHODS: In this multicentre, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, blinded, centrally randomised, stratified clinical trial, we randomly assigned adults with confirmed COVID-19 and severe hypoxia (use of mechanical ventilation or supplementary oxygen with a flow of at least 10 L/min) to either hydrocortisone (200 mg/d) vs a matching placebo for 7 days or until hospital discharge. The primary outcome was the number of days alive without life support at day 28 after randomisation. RESULTS: The trial was terminated early when 30 out of 1000 participants had been enrolled because of external evidence indicating benefit from corticosteroids in severe COVID-19. At day 28, the median number of days alive without life support in the hydrocortisone vs placebo group were 7 vs 10 (adjusted mean difference: -1.1 days, 95% CI -9.5 to 7.3, P = .79); mortality was 6/16 vs 2/14; and the number of serious adverse reactions 1/16 vs 0/14. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial of adults with COVID-19 and severe hypoxia, we were unable to provide precise estimates of the benefits and harms of hydrocortisone as compared with placebo as only 3% of the planned sample size were enrolled. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04348305. European Union Drug Regulation Authorities Clinical Trials (EudraCT) Database: 2020-001395-15.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydrocortisone , Adult , Humans , Hypoxia , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 65(5): 702-710, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081822

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to severe hypoxic respiratory failure and death. Corticosteroids decrease mortality in severely or critically ill patients with COVID-19. However, the optimal dose remains unresolved. The ongoing randomised COVID STEROID 2 trial investigates the effects of higher vs lower doses of dexamethasone (12 vs 6 mg intravenously daily for up to 10 days) in 1,000 adult patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxia. METHODS: This protocol outlines the rationale and statistical methods for a secondary, pre-planned Bayesian analysis of the primary outcome (days alive without life support at day 28) and all secondary outcomes registered up to day 90. We will use hurdle-negative binomial models to estimate the mean number of days alive without life support in each group and present results as mean differences and incidence rate ratios with 95% credibility intervals (CrIs). Additional count outcomes will be analysed similarly and binary outcomes will be analysed using logistic regression models with results presented as probabilities, relative risks and risk differences with 95% CrIs. We will present probabilities of any benefit/harm, clinically important benefit/harm and probabilities of effects smaller than pre-defined clinically minimally important differences for all outcomes analysed. Analyses will be adjusted for stratification variables and conducted using weakly informative priors supplemented by sensitivity analyses using sceptic priors. DISCUSSION: This secondary, pre-planned Bayesian analysis will supplement the primary, conventional analysis and may help clinicians, researchers and policymakers interpret the results of the COVID STEROID 2 trial while avoiding arbitrarily dichotomised interpretations of the results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04509973; EudraCT: 2020-003363-25.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Bayes Theorem , Humans
7.
Trials ; 21(1): 746, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-731235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of continuous infusion of the potential endothelial cytoprotective agent prostacyclin (Iloprost) 1 ng/kg/min vs. placebo for 72 hours on pulmonary endotheliopathy in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. TRIAL DESIGN: A multicenter, randomized (1:1, active: placebo), blinded, parallel group exploratory trial PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion criteria are: Adult patients (>18 years); Confirmed COVID-19 infection; Need for mechanical interventions; Endothelial biomarker soluble thrombomodulin >4ng/ml. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Withdrawal from active therapy; Pregnancy (non-pregnancy confirmed by patient being postmenopausal (age 60 or above) or having a negative urine- or plasma-hCG); Known hypersensitivity to iloprost or to any of the other ingredients; Previously included in this trial or a prostacyclin trial within 30 days; Consent cannot be obtained; Life-threatening bleeding defined by the treating physician; Known severe heart failure (NYHA class IV); Suspected acute coronary syndrome The study is conducted at five intensive care units in the Capital Region of Denmark at Rigshospitalet, Herlev Hospital, Hvidovre Hospital, Bispebjerg Hospital, Nordsjællands Hospital. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The patients are randomized to 72-hours continuous infusion of either prostacyclin (Iloprost/Ilomedin) at a dose of 1 ng/kg/min or Placebo (normal saline). MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary endpoint: Days alive without mechanical ventilation in the intensive care units within 28 days RANDOMISATION: The randomisation sequence is performed in permuted blocks of variable sizes stratified for trial site using centralised, concealed allocation. The randomisation sequence is generated 1:1 (active/placebo) using the online randomisation software 'Sealed Envelope' ( https://www.sealedenvelope.com/ ). Once generated the randomisation sequence is formatted and uploaded into Research Electronic Data Capture system (REDCap) to facilitate centralised, web-based allocation according to local written instruction. BLINDING (MASKING): The following are blinded: all clinicians, patients, investigators, and those assessing the outcomes including the statisticians. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): Forty patients are planned to be randomized to each group, with a total sample size of 80 patients. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.4 dated May 25, 2020. Recruitment is ongoing. The recruitment was started June 15, 2020 and the anticipated finish of recruitment is February 28, 2021 with 90 days follow up hereafter. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration at clinicaltrialregisters.eu; EudraCT no. 2020-001296-33 on 3 April 2020 and at ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04420741 on 9 June 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1).In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Iloprost/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Denmark , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombomodulin/metabolism
8.
Dan Med J ; 67(6)2020 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-363859

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 occurred in Denmark on 27 February 2020. On 10 March, the first case of COVID-19 pneumonia was admitted to Hvidovre Hospital. METHODS: Retrospective case review of individuals 18 years or older who were admitted consecutively to Hvidovre Hospital from 10 March through 23 April 2020. RESULTS: A total of 175 individuals were admitted with COVID-19 pneumonia. The median age was 71 years, 48.6% were male and 71% had at least one co-morbidity. The most commonly presenting symptoms were dyspnoea, dry cough, and fever. The majority of patients had lymphopenia, elevated liver function tests and C-reactive protein. Nearly two in three presented with multilobar infiltration by chest X-ray. Respiratory failure leading to invasive mechanical ventilation developed in 27 patients (15.4%). By 20 April, 23 of 175 (13.1%) patients remained hospitalised, 43 (24.6%) had died and 109 (62.3%) had been discharged. CONCLUSIONS: The manifestations of COVID-19 at presentation were similar to those seen in other reports. Our population was older, slightly overrepresented by women and had a high level of co-morbidity. COVID-19 admittance was associated with frequent need of intensive care and mechanical ventilation that was associated with a very high mortality. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Denmark , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Radiography, Thoracic , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Pancreatology ; 20(4): 665-667, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-175742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Abdominal pain is one of the known symptoms associated with coronavirus disease 2019. Little is known about the development of acute pancreatitis as a complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. This case report describes the presentation of acute pancreatitis in two of three family members with severe COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Data were collected from three family members admitted with COVID-19 to the intensive care unit in March 2020. This study was reviewed and approved by the local data and ethics committee (31-1521-253). RESULTS: Two of the three family members were diagnosed with acute pancreatitis associated with SARS-CoV-2. Other causes of acute pancreatitis were excluded for both patients (including alcohol, biliary obstruction/gall stones, drugs, trauma, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercalcemia, and hypotension). CONCLUSIONS: These cases highlight acute pancreatitis as a complication associated with COVID-19 and underlines the importance of measuring pancreas-specific plasma amylase in patients with COVID-19 and abdominal pain.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pancreatitis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Acute Disease , Aged , Amylases/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Critical Care , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatitis/blood , Pancreatitis/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiography , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography
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