Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 11 de 11
Filter
4.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 12(1): 24, 2023 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the epidemiology of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and the disease profile of patients attending the emergency department (ED). Hence, we sought to explore the changes in ED physicians' attitudes and behaviours in four EDs in Singapore. METHODS: We employed a sequential mixed-methods approach (quantitative survey followed by in-depth interviews). Principal component analysis was performed to derive latent factors, followed by multivariable logistic regression to explore the independent factors associated with high antibiotic prescribing. Interviews were analysed using the deductive-inductive-deductive framework. We derive five meta-inferences by integrating the quantitative and qualitative findings with an explanatory bidirectional framework. RESULTS: We obtained 560 (65.9%) valid responses from the survey and interviewed 50 physicians from various work experiences. ED physicians were twice as likely to report high antibiotic prescribing rates pre-COVID-19 pandemic than during the pandemic (AOR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.32 to 3.41, p = 0.002). Five meta-inferences were made by integrating the data: (1) Less pressure to prescribe antibiotics due to reduced patient demand and more patient education opportunities; (2) A higher proportion of ED physicians self-reported lower antibiotic prescribing rates during the COVID-19 pandemic but their perception of the overall outlook on antibiotic prescribing rates varied; (3) Physicians who were high antibiotic prescribers during the COVID-19 pandemic made less effort for prudent antibiotic prescribing as they were less concerned about antimicrobial resistance; (4) the COVID-19 pandemic did not change the factors that lowered the threshold for antibiotic prescribing; (5) the COVID-19 pandemic did not change the perception that the public's knowledge of antibiotics is poor. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported antibiotic prescribing rates decreased in the ED during the COVID-19 pandemic due to less pressure to prescribe antibiotics. The lessons and experiences learnt from the COVID-19 pandemic can be incorporated into public and medical education in the war against antimicrobial resistance going forward. Antibiotic use should also be monitored post-pandemic to assess if the changes are sustained.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Practice Patterns, Physicians'
5.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 33: 89-96, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263494

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Pre-COVID-19 pandemic, patients who attended the emergency department (ED) for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) were more likely to receive antibiotics if they expected them. These expectations could have changed with the change in health-seeking behaviour during the pandemic. We assessed the factors associated with antibiotics expectation and receipt for uncomplicated URTI patients in four Singapore EDs during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on adult patients with URTI from March 2021 to March 2022 in four Singapore EDs and assessed the determinants of antibiotics expectation and receipt using multivariable logistic regression models. We also assessed the reasons patients expect antibiotics during their ED visit. RESULTS: Among 681 patients, 31.0% expected antibiotics while 8.7% received antibiotics during their ED visit. Factors (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) that significantly influenced expectation for antibiotics include: 1) prior consultation for current illness with (6.56 [3.30-13.11]) or without (1.50 [1.01-2.23]) antibiotics prescribed; 2) anticipation for COVID-19 test (1.56 [1.01-2.41]); and 3) poor (2.16 [1.26-3.68]) to moderate (2.26 [1.33-3.84]) knowledge on antibiotics use and resistance. Patients expecting antibiotics were 10.6 times (10.64 [5.34-21.17]) more likely to receive antibiotics. Those with tertiary education were twice (2.20 [1.09-4.43]) as likely to receive antibiotics. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, patients with URTI who expected antibiotics to be prescribed remained more likely to receive it during the COVID-19 pandemic. This highlights the need for more public education on the non-necessity for antibiotics for URTI and COVID-19 to address the problem of antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Humans , Motivation , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Emergency Service, Hospital
6.
Journal of global antimicrobial resistance ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2263493

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES Pre-COVID-19 pandemic, patients who attended the emergency department (ED) for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) were more likely to receive antibiotics if they expected them. These expectations could have changed with the change in health-seeking behaviour during the pandemic. We assessed the factors associated with antibiotics expectation and receipt for uncomplicated URTI patients in four Singapore EDs during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study on adult patients with URTI from March 2021 to March 2022 in four Singapore EDs and assessed the determinants of antibiotics expectation and receipt using multivariable logistic regression models. We also assessed the reasons patients expect antibiotics during their ED visit. RESULTS Among 681 patients, 31.0% expected antibiotics while 8.7% received antibiotics during their ED visit. Factors [adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)] that significantly influenced expectation for antibiotics include: 1) prior consultation for current illness with [6.56 (3.30-13.11)] or without [1.50 (1.01-2.23)] antibiotics prescribed;2) anticipation for COVID-19 test [1.56 (1.01-2.41)];and 3) poor [2.16 (1.26-3.68)] to moderate [2.26 (1.33-3.84)] knowledge on antibiotics use and resistance. Patients expecting antibiotics were 10.6 times [10.64 (5.34-21.17)] more likely to receive antibiotics. Those with tertiary education were twice [2.20 (1.09-4.43)] as likely to receive antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, patients with URTI who expected antibiotics to be prescribed remained more likely to receive it during the COVID-19 pandemic. This highlights the need for more public education on the non-necessity for antibiotics for URTI and COVID-19 to address the problem of antibiotic resistance.

7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1060438, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235597

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Robust biomarkers that predict disease outcomes amongst COVID-19 patients are necessary for both patient triage and resource prioritisation. Numerous candidate biomarkers have been proposed for COVID-19. However, at present, there is no consensus on the best diagnostic approach to predict outcomes in infected patients. Moreover, it is not clear whether such tools would apply to other potentially pandemic pathogens and therefore of use as stockpile for future pandemic preparedness. Methods: We conducted a multi-cohort observational study to investigate the biology and the prognostic role of interferon alpha-inducible protein 27 (IFI27) in COVID-19 patients. Results: We show that IFI27 is expressed in the respiratory tract of COVID-19 patients and elevated IFI27 expression in the lower respiratory tract is associated with the presence of a high viral load. We further demonstrate that the systemic host response, as measured by blood IFI27 expression, is associated with COVID-19 infection. For clinical outcome prediction (e.g., respiratory failure), IFI27 expression displays a high sensitivity (0.95) and specificity (0.83), outperforming other known predictors of COVID-19 outcomes. Furthermore, IFI27 is upregulated in the blood of infected patients in response to other respiratory viruses. For example, in the pandemic H1N1/09 influenza virus infection, IFI27-like genes were highly upregulated in the blood samples of severely infected patients. Conclusion: These data suggest that prognostic biomarkers targeting the family of IFI27 genes could potentially supplement conventional diagnostic tools in future virus pandemics, independent of whether such pandemics are caused by a coronavirus, an influenza virus or another as yet-to-be discovered respiratory virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Biomarkers , Membrane Proteins/genetics
8.
COVID ; 2(3):419-432, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1753447

ABSTRACT

This study describes the implementation and utility of a standalone device designed, developed, and 3D-printed by PwC Singapore and Southeast Asia Consulting as a response to Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), in the Emergency Department (ED) of the National University Hospital in Singapore. Over a 2-week period, all staff used the devices for the duration of their shifts, with the device additionally tagged to patients who were swabbed on suspicion of or surveillance for COVID-19 in the subsequent two weeks. Additional control hardware was placed in the ED to analyze (1) time-intervals of greatest interaction, (2) clusters of close physical distance among staff, (3) areas with high traffic, and (4) potential use of a rapid contact tracing capability. Time-day trends indicated the greatest interaction time-intervals during the beginning of the day, with Monday hosting the greatest average daily interactions across the first two weeks. Social cluster trends indicated the greatest average daily interactions between nurses–nurses during Phase 1, and patients–patients during Phase 2. User-location trends revealed the greatest average daily interaction counts at the intermediate care areas, isolation outdoor tent, pantry, and isolation holding units relative to other areas. Individual-level visualization and contact tracing capabilities were not utilized as nobody contracted COVID-19 during either phase. While congregation in intermediate and resuscitation areas are unavoidable within the ED context, the findings of this study were acted upon, improving social distancing within the pantry and between healthcare groups. This real-time solution addresses multiple privacy concerns while rapidly facilitating contact tracing.

9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 889, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630723

ABSTRACT

Predicting the severity of COVID-19 remains an unmet medical need. Our objective was to develop a blood-based host-gene-expression classifier for the severity of viral infections and validate it in independent data, including COVID-19. We developed a logistic regression-based classifier for the severity of viral infections and validated it in multiple viral infection settings including COVID-19. We used training data (N = 705) from 21 retrospective transcriptomic clinical studies of influenza and other viral illnesses looking at a preselected panel of host immune response messenger RNAs. We selected 6 host RNAs and trained logistic regression classifier with a cross-validation area under curve of 0.90 for predicting 30-day mortality in viral illnesses. Next, in 1417 samples across 21 independent retrospective cohorts the locked 6-RNA classifier had an area under curve of 0.94 for discriminating patients with severe vs. non-severe infection. Next, in independent cohorts of prospectively (N = 97) and retrospectively (N = 100) enrolled patients with confirmed COVID-19, the classifier had an area under curve of 0.89 and 0.87, respectively, for identifying patients with severe respiratory failure or 30-day mortality. Finally, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal gene expression assay for the 6-messenger-RNA panel to facilitate implementation as a rapid assay. With further study, the classifier could assist in the risk assessment of COVID-19 and other acute viral infections patients to determine severity and level of care, thereby improving patient management and reducing healthcare burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gene Expression Regulation , RNA, Messenger/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Acute Disease , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e044497, 2021 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013055

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Accurate triage is an important first step to effectively manage the clinical treatment of severe cases in a pandemic outbreak. In the current COVID-19 global pandemic, there is a lack of reliable clinical tools to assist clinicians to perform accurate triage. Host response biomarkers have recently shown promise in risk stratification of disease progression; however, the role of these biomarkers in predicting disease progression in patients with COVID-19 is unknown. Here, we present a protocol outlining a prospective validation study to evaluate the biomarkers' performance in predicting clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This prospective validation study assesses patients infected with COVID-19, in whom blood samples are prospectively collected. Recruited patients include a range of infection severity from asymptomatic to critically ill patients, recruited from the community, outpatient clinics, emergency departments and hospitals. Study samples consist of peripheral blood samples collected into RNA-preserving (PAXgene/Tempus) tubes on patient presentation or immediately on study enrolment. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) will be performed on total RNA extracted from collected blood samples using primers specific to host response gene expression biomarkers that have been previously identified in studies of respiratory viral infections. The RT-PCR data will be analysed to assess the diagnostic performance of individual biomarkers in predicting COVID-19-related outcomes, such as viral pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome or bacterial pneumonia. Biomarker performance will be evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This research protocol aims to study the host response gene expression biomarkers in severe respiratory viral infections with a pandemic potential (COVID-19). It has been approved by the local ethics committee with approval number 2020/ETH00886. The results of this project will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed scientific journals.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage/methods , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Time Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL