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Mater Sociomed ; 34(2): 107-111, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202733


Background: Nowadays, most women of reproductive age utilize various methods of contraception to avoid undesired pregnancy and regulate menstrual cycles. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate current sexual patterns, menstrual health status and use of contraceptive methods in reproductive aged females in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the period between February 21st and March 5th 2022 via an online anonymous questionnaire which was distributed using social media platforms. Results: Menstrual periods were normally regular in 269 (85.7 %) of the females, whereas 45 (14.3 %) experienced irregular menstrual cycles. Females report having either one sexual partner 149 (47.5%) or no sexual partners 76 (24.2%) and typically no 92 (29.3%) or frequent (more than 8 sexual intercourses) sexual intercourses per month. The usage of contraceptive methods was reported among the majority 212 (67.5%) and mostly by using of male condom 104 (33.1%), followed by the withdrawal method 64 (20.4%), oral contraceptive pills 35 (11.1%), emergency contraceptive pills "after 24h" 2 (0.6%) and intrauterine device 7 (2.2%). The usage of contraceptive methods was higher among younger females (X2=18.07, p<0.001) and among those who were employed (X2=10.86, p<0.001). Those who used oral contraceptive pills used mostly pills that are combination of progesterone and oestrogen 32 (91.4%) and for the purpose of regulation of menstrual cycles 26 (74.2%) and to prevent unwanted pregnancies 9 (25.8%). Females who had no sexual intercourses per month (OR+0.27, 95% CI 0.09-0.79, p=0.018) were less likely, while those who had irregular menstrual cycles (OR=2.44, 95% CI 1.04-5.71, p=0.039) were more prone to use oral contraceptive pills. Conclusion: Bosnia and Herzegovina reproductive aged female had relatively regular menstrual cycles, the majority used modern contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies or for the regulation of menstrual cycles during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Mater Sociomed ; 34(1): 8-13, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924545


Background: Mental health, substance abuse and suicidal ideation present an emerging healthcare problem during COVID-19 pandemic as a result of socio-epidemiological measures, isolations, work modifications, constant media overload with COVID-19 related news and no effective cure for the disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse substance abuse, suicidal ideation and mental health status among university students during the COVID-19 outbreak in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: This cross-sectional study, was conducted via an online anonymous questionnaire based on a Patient Health Questionnaire-4 and Impact of Event Scale-6 which was distributed to the student population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Results: In total 827 subjects, the majority of whom were female (636), had a high school degree (431), were unemployed (587), lived in an urban environment (747) and had a median age of 23.0 (21.0,32.0), completed the questionnaire. Being female [(OR=1.643, p=0.040); (OR=1.643, p=0.032)], taking sedatives [(OR=1.519, p<0.001); (OR=1.250, p=0.029)] and having high IES-6 score [(OR=2.190, p<0.001); (OR=2.013, p<0.001)] were independent predictors of developing depressive and anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak, respectively. Suicidal ideation was present in 71 subjects, with 11 attempting to commit suicide. Sedative (OR=1.381, p=0.005) or alcohol (OR=1.493, p=0.002) use, unemployment (OR=4.551, p<0.001) and depressive symptoms (OR=7.261, p<0.001) were independent predictor of developing suicidal ideation. Conclusion: Bosnia and Herzegovina students show a significant prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms, trauma- and stressor-related disorder related to the pandemic, suicidal ideation and substance abuse during the COVID-19 outbreak, especially in association with gender, occupation and abuse of a specific substance.