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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116111

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a disease caused by a novel zoonotic germ known as SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Viral Proteins , Biomarkers , Genetic Variation
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997652

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic declared on 11 March 2020 by WHO [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics
3.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1728520

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D is a hormone regulating the immune system and playing a pivotal role in responses to microbial infections. It regulates inflammatory processes by influencing the transcription of immune-response genes in macrophages, T cells, and dendritic cells. The proven role of vitamin D in many infectious diseases of the respiratory tract indicated that vitamin D should also play a role in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vitamin D inhibits cytokine storm by switching the pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 to the anti-inflammatory Th2 and Treg response. Vitamin D is therefore expected to play a role in preventing, relieving symptoms, or treating SARS-CoV-2 infection symptoms, including severe pneumonia. There are several possible mechanisms by which vitamin D may reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection, such as induction of the transcription of cathelicidin and defensin. Also a nongenomic antiviral action of vitamin D and lumisterol, the molecule closely related to vitamin D, was reported. Despite this enormous progress, currently, there is still insufficient scientific evidence to support the claim that vitamin D supplementation may help treat COVID-19 infection. The pandemic restrictions were also shown to impact vitamin D uptake by limiting exposure to sunlight.

4.
Archives of virology ; : 1-13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1668499

ABSTRACT

The actin cytoskeleton and actin-dependent molecular and cellular events are responsible for the organization of eukaryotic cells and their functions. Viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), depend on host cell organelles and molecular components for cell entry and propagation. Thus, it is not surprising that they also interact at many levels with the actin cytoskeleton of the host. There have been many studies on how different viruses reconfigure and manipulate the actin cytoskeleton of the host during successive steps of their life cycle. However, we know relatively little about the interactions of SARS-CoV-2 with the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we describe how the actin cytoskeleton is involved in the strategies used by different viruses for entry, assembly, and egress from the host cell. We emphasize what is known and unknown about SARS-CoV-2 in this regard. This review should encourage further investigation of the interactions of SARS-CoV-2 with cellular components, which will eventually be helpful for developing novel antiviral therapies for mitigating the severity of COVID-19.

5.
Arch Virol ; 167(3): 737-749, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661699

ABSTRACT

The actin cytoskeleton and actin-dependent molecular and cellular events are responsible for the organization of eukaryotic cells and their functions. Viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), depend on host cell organelles and molecular components for cell entry and propagation. Thus, it is not surprising that they also interact at many levels with the actin cytoskeleton of the host. There have been many studies on how different viruses reconfigure and manipulate the actin cytoskeleton of the host during successive steps of their life cycle. However, we know relatively little about the interactions of SARS-CoV-2 with the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we describe how the actin cytoskeleton is involved in the strategies used by different viruses for entry, assembly, and egress from the host cell. We emphasize what is known and unknown about SARS-CoV-2 in this regard. This review should encourage further investigation of the interactions of SARS-CoV-2 with cellular components, which will eventually be helpful for developing novel antiviral therapies for mitigating the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses, Unclassified , Actin Cytoskeleton , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main source of vitamin D is skin synthesis, which depends on sunlight exposure. During the pandemic, COVID-19 children were obliged to home confinement, which potentially limiting sunlight exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether home confinement led to decreased vitamin D serum levels in children in Warsaw, Poland. METHODS: The study included 1472 children who were divided into two groups, based on the date of 25(OH)D level blood sampling: before and during the pandemic. Children under 1 year of age (infants) were analysed separately. RESULTS: A statistically significant decrease in the average level of vitamin D was observed between groups of children over 1 year of age (35 ng/mL ± 18 vs. 31 ng/mL ± 14). In infants from both groups, the mean vitamin D levels were within the normal range (Group 1 inf 54 ng/mL ± 21 vs. Group 2 inf 47 ng/mL ± 15). The characteristic seasonal variability was observed before the pandemic, with maximal vitamin D levels in summer (40 ng/mL ± 17) and minimal levels in winter (30 ng/mL ± 14). During the pandemic, no seasonal variability was observed (summer 30 ng/mL ± 11 vs. winter 30 ng/mL ± 19). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic restrictions led to a significant decrease in vitamin D serum levels in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health , Communicable Disease Control , Pandemics , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D/blood , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cities , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/etiology
7.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(2): e537-e538, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197061

ABSTRACT

Patients with hemato-oncologic diseases are particularly vulnerable to severe infections. Adult patients with blood cancers infected with SARS-CoV-2 had poorer treatment outcomes and higher mortality than patients with COVID-19 without burden. However, in pediatric patients with hemato-oncologic diseases the course of COVID-19 is milder than in adults in the same group of patients. In this report, we describe the case of our patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia infected with SARS-CoV-2 and treated with remdesivir. We also review the existing literature of pediatric patients who have been diagnosed with both hemato-oncologic diseases and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Child , Female , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/virology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/virology , Prognosis
8.
Int J Dev Biol ; 64(10-11-12): 465-469, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159910

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of a wide spectrum of diseases, as well as for the regeneration and healing of burns and wounds. MSCs have an immunomodulatory effect and influence the phenotype and functions of immune cells, including macrophages, which in turn prime and license the MSCs. We discuss the new findings on the feedback loop between MSCs and macrophages and its consequences on the outcome of MSC therapies.


Subject(s)
Macrophages/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Cell Communication , Humans , Macrophages/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation
9.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158362

ABSTRACT

Human placenta formation relies on the interaction between fused trophoblast cells of the embryo with uterine endometrium. The fusion between trophoblast cells, first into cytotrophoblast and then into syncytiotrophoblast, is facilitated by the fusogenic protein syncytin. Syncytin derives from an envelope glycoprotein (ENV) of retroviral origin. In exogenous retroviruses, the envelope glycoproteins coded by env genes allow fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane and entry of the virus into a host cell. During mammalian evolution, the env genes have been repeatedly, and independently, captured by various mammalian species to facilitate the formation of the placenta. Such a shift in the function of a gene, or a trait, for a different purpose during evolution is called an exaptation (co-option). We discuss the structure and origin of the placenta, the fusogenic and non-fusogenic functions of syncytin, and the mechanism of cell fusion. We also comment on an alleged danger of the COVID-19 vaccine based on the presupposed similarity between syncytin and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

10.
Cell Immunol ; 360: 104259, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978233

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D regulates homeostasis, anti-microbial response, and inflammation. The vitamin D receptors are expressed in the macrophages and other immune cells, regulating the transcription of many different genes, including those coding the anti-microbial peptides. One of the most severe complications of the SARS-CoV-2 infection is the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by the hyperinflammatory response (commonly called cytokine storm) of the lung macrophages. Studies showed that Vitamin D deficiency increases the severity of the ARDS in COVID-19 infection. We discuss here how the vitamin D supplementation may influence macrophage and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) inflammatory response, subdue the hyperinflammatory response, and lessen the ARDS in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/pathology , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/prevention & control , Lung/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/immunology , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/metabolism , Receptors, Calcitriol/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control
11.
J Diabetes Metab Disord ; 19(2): 2045-2048, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885144

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) augments the risk of hospitalization and mortality resulting from viral, bacterial, or fungal pathogen infection. This has been also true for the past SARS and MERS, and current SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus epidemics. Clinical data indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers a severe course of COVID-19 more frequently in diabetic than non-diabetic patients. Here we overview the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with this phenomenon. We focus on alterations in the immune cells, especially monocytes and macrophages, involved in innate immune response and inflammatory processes, which differ in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We also describe the DM-related changes in the monocyte/macrophages functions, how they could lead to the severe outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and importantly, if and how they could initiate DM in DM-susceptible patients.

12.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(3): 541-547, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-805246

ABSTRACT

Clinical data suggest that during the current COVID-19 pandemic, children are less prone than adults to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our purpose was to determine the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 in children vs. adults during the 2020 pandemic in Warsaw, Poland, and to investigate whether RSV and/or influenza A/B infections were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections. We present results of RT-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 performed in Warsaw, Poland. Some of the pediatric subjects were also PCR-tested for RSV, and A and B influenza. We compared the test results from the four groups of symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects: 459 symptomatic pediatric patients (children 0-18 years old), 1774 symptomatic adults, 445 asymptomatic children, and 239 asymptomatic adults. 3.26% (15/459) of symptomatic pediatric patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2 in contrast to 5.58% (99/1774) of symptomatic adults (p = 0.0448). There were no SARS-CoV-2 positive cases in the group of asymptomatic children (0/445) and two positive cases in the group of asymptomatic adults (2/239), i.e., 0.83%. In the group of symptomatic pediatric patients, 17.14% (6/35) (p = 0.0002) were positive for RSV, 8.16% (4/49) were positive for influenza A, and 2.04% (1/49), thus 10.20% (5/49) (p = 0.0176) for influenza A/B. Children were less prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection than the adults during the COVID-19 pandemic in Warsaw. Higher percentage of symptomatic children was infected with RSV or influenza A/B than with SARS-CoV-2. This suggests a necessity for the testing for all these viruses for an early identification and isolation of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients for an ensuing 2020 autumn return of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Poland/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
13.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 181(8): 629-634, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610697

ABSTRACT

The difference between the female and male immune response to COVID-19 infection, and infections in general, is multifactorial. The well-known determiners of the immune response, such as X and Y chromosomes, sex hormones, and microbiota, are functionally interconnected and influence each other in shaping the organism's immunity. We focus our commentary on the interplay between the genetic sex and mitochondria and how this may affect a sex-dependent immune response in COVID-19 infection. Realizing the existence of these interactions may help in designing novel methods or fine-tuning the existing and routine therapies to fight COVID-19 and other infections.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Mitochondria/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Sex Chromosomes/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics
14.
Clin Immunol ; 217: 108510, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597611

ABSTRACT

Children, because of having an immature immune system, are usually more prone than the adults to the microbial infections and have more severe symptoms, which is especially true for the newborns, and very young children. However, the review of clinical data from the current COVID-19 pandemic indicates otherwise. We discuss here what are the main features and components of children's immune system, the role of maternal transmission of immunity, and what are the possible explanations for the seemingly lower infection rate and severity of COVI-19 in children.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immune System/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Resistance , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Milk, Human/immunology , Placenta/immunology , Placenta/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Immunol Lett ; 224: 28-29, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548688

ABSTRACT

Statistical surveys of COVID-19 patients indicate, against all common logic, that people who smoke are less prone to the infection and/or exhibit less severe respiratory symptoms than non-smokers. This suggests that nicotine may have some preventive or modulatory effect on the inflammatory response in the lungs. Because it is known that the response to, and resolution of the SARS-CoV-2 infection depends mainly on the lung macrophages, we discuss the recent scientific findings, which may explain why and how nicotine may modulate lung macrophage response during COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/immunology , Lung/drug effects , Nicotine/administration & dosage , Nicotinic Agonists/administration & dosage , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Smokers , Administration, Inhalation , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protective Factors , Receptors, Nicotinic/drug effects , Receptors, Nicotinic/immunology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/agonists , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/immunology
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